The work presented in this thesis deals with the investigation of the dynamic performance of timber only and TCC flooring systems, which is one of the sub-objectives of the research focus at UTS. In particular, the presented research assesses the dynamic performance of long-span timber and TCC flooring systems using different experimental und numerical test structures. For the experimental investigations, experimental modal testing and analysis is executed to determine the modal parameters (natural frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes) of various flooring systems. For the numerical investigations, finite element models are calibrated against experimental results, and are utilised for parametric studies for flooring systems of different sizes. Span tables are generated for both timber and TCC flooring systems that can be used in the design of long-span flooring systems to satisfy the serviceability fundamental frequency requirement of 8 Hz or above.
To predict the fundamental frequency of various TCC beams and timber floor modules (beams), five different analytical models are utilised and investigated. To predict the cross-sectional characteristics of TCC systems and to identify the effective flexural stiffness of partially composite beams, the “Gamma method” is utilised.
[...] two novel methods are developed in this thesis that determines the degree of composite action of timber composite flooring systems using only measurements from non-destructive dynamic testing. The core of both methods is the use of an existing mode-shape-based damage detection technique, namely, the Damage Index (DI) method to derive the loss of composite action indices (LCAIs) named as LCAI1 and LCAI2. The DI method utilises modal strain energies derived from mode shape measurements of a flooring system before and after failure of shear connectors. The proposed methods are tested and validated on a numerical and experimental timber composite beam structure consisting of two LVL components (flange and web). To create different degrees of composite action, the beam is tested with different numbers of shear connectors to simulate the failure of connection screws. The results acquired from the proposed dynamic-based method are calibrated to make them comparable to traditional static-based composite action results. It is shown that the two proposed methods can successfully be used for timber composite structures to determine the composite action using only mode shapes measurements from dynamic testing.
The report has segmented the European CLT market on the basis of application. Some of the key application areas of CLT include educational institutes, residential, commercial spaces, and government and public buildings. On a regional basis, the report has segmented the market into Austria, Germany, Italy, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Spain, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom and Others. Amongst these, Austria represents the largest producer accounting for the majority of the total production. Apart from the application sector and region, the European CLT market has also been segment on the basis of product type, element type, raw material type, bonding method, panel layers, adhesive type, press type, storey class and application type. The report provides historical as well as forecast trends for each of the above market segmentations. The report has also analysed the competitive landscape of the market with some of the key players being Binderholz, Stora Enso, KLH Massivholz, Mayr Melnhof and Hasslacher. ...
The state of the art requires a closed waiting time of about one hour for the beech glulam production. This has a negative influence on the production costs. Micro structured surfaces showed good performance in combination with coatings. The authors have performed tension-shear and delaminating test in order to investigate the influence of micro structured surfaces on the bond quality of hardwoods. The results are very promising and show clearly improved delaminating resistance for all tested adhesive. No closed waiting time was needed to achieve satisfying results using MUF in combination with beech.
Consuming over 40% of total primary energy, the built environment is in the centre of worldwide strategies and measures towards a more sustainable future. To provide resilient solutions, a simple optimisation of individual technologies will not be sufficient. In contrast, whole system thinking reveals and exploits connections between parts. Each system interacts with others on different scales (materials, components, buildings, cities) and domains (ecology, economy and social). Whole-system designers optimize the performance of such systems by understanding interconnections and identifying synergies. The more complete the design integration, the better the result.
In this book, the reader will find the proceedings of the 2016 Sustainable Built Environment (SBE) Regional Conference in Zurich. Papers have been written by academics and practitioners from all continents to bring forth the latest understanding on systems thinking in the built environment.
The report has segmented the market on the basis of application. Some of the key application areas of CLT include residential, educational institutes, government and public buildings, and commercial spaces. On a regional basis, the report has segmented the market into the US and Canada. The report has also analysed the competitive landscape of the market with some of the key players being Structurlam, Nordic Engineered Wood, SmartLam and Sterling Lumber. ...
In this project, Stora Enso’s newly developed building system has been further developed to allow building to the Swedish passive house standard for the Swedish climate. The building system is based on a building framework of CLT (Cross laminated timber) boards. The concept has been tested on a small test building. The experience gained from this test building has also been used for planning a larger building (two storeys with the option of a third storey) with passive house standard with this building system.
The primary outcome of this work is to provide integrated analysis of the environmental, financial, and social benefits and costs of using CLT in tall wood buildings. Secondary outcomes will be (1) information, including a design team checkoff that can be used to inform the building community as they make decisions on specific, new building projects, and (2) an informational foundation for these stakeholders and others to begin to evaluate the complex tradeoffs between, and optimization of, environmental, financial, and social benefits and costs.
The risk posed to a structure from an earthquake may be minimized by changing the design characteristics of the structure to determine the optimal design. A risk measure, the mean value of the cost functions in this thesis, can be determined using reliability methods to construct a loss curve. This formulation includes the effect of uncertainty in all aspects of the cost, including construction and repair given an event. This risk model also requires no prior information to determine the mean cost and does not define a discrete “failure,” instead using a continuum of possible outcomes in determining the mean of the cost functions. The optimization model allows for different search directions and step sizes in the search for the minimum cost, with steepest descent and BFGS search directions currently implemented. These analyses are performed using the Rts software, which has the capability of performing the optimization, risk, and reliability analyses on input structural models.