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Very Tall Wooden Buildings with Cross Laminated Timber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1190
Year of Publication
2011
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Author
Van de Kuilen, Jan-Willem
Ceccotti, Ario
Xia, Zhouyan
He, Minjuan
Publisher
ScienceDirect
Year of Publication
2011
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Concrete Core
Multi-Storey
Research Status
Complete
Series
Procedia Engineering
Summary
Cross Laminated Timber (CLT, XLAM) is a product extremely well suited for multi-storey buildings because of its versatility. With lengths up to 16 meters and the possibility of extending with mechanical joints or glued connections, widths of up to 2.5 meters depending on manufacturer and thicknesses up to 500 mm, almost any necessary shape can be found on the market today. Developments are still going on rapidly and new possibilities and new applications far from being exhausted. One such new possibility is the use of CLT elements in a combination with a concrete core and structural outriggers in very high buildings, a ´wood-concrete skyscraper. CLT has already been shown to be very efficient in multi-storey buildings up to 10 storeys. In this paper, an analysis is given of how a concrete core and CLT walls can be used to design very tall buildings in the range of up to 150 meters, but for more than 80% made of timber products. Timber can become an alternative in rapidly expanding cities, where there is a need for high apartment buildings. The building layout uses outriggers at certain intervals, integrated tension cables and CLT structural wall elements in the facades. The design makes optimal use of the advantages of light-weight building elements with comparable structural performance as traditional concrete elements. Savings during the erection stage in terms of money and time are highlighted as well as the CO2 emissions of such a building in comparison with concrete. A concept of the building has been analysed for the location of Shanghai according to the Chinese wind load specifications.
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Long-term Load—Deformation Behaviour of Timber-Concrete Joints

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2525
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Van de Kuilen, Jan-Willem
Dias, Alfredo
Organization
Delft University of Technology
Publisher
ICE Publishing
Year of Publication
2012
Format
Conference Paper
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Timber Joints
Dowel Type Fastener
Timber-to-Timber
Timber-to-Concrete
Creep
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Series
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Structures and Buildings
Summary
This paper discusses the long-term mechanical behaviour of timber-to-concrete joints made with dowel-type fasteners. Despite the influence that the long-term behaviour of joints has on the mechanical behaviour of a timber–concrete structure and consequently on its design, there is still a lack of research in this area. This paper presents experimental research, carried out at the University of Coimbra and Delft University of Technology, on seven joint configurations using different types of fasteners and different materials. For each joint configuration, either four or ten tests were performed resulting in a total of forty tests. A comprehensive description of the test specimens and test setup is given. The experimental creep–time curves were fitted to a creep–time model and used to predict joint creep values over longer timeframes (10 and 50 years). The values obtained were compared with values available in the literature for timber-to-concrete joints with other types of fasteners and timber-to-timber joints with dowel-type fasteners. The approach for timber-to-timber joints suggested by Eurocode 5 was used to determine creep values for timber-to-concrete joints. The results obtained were compared with test results to assess the accuracy of predicting creep values of timber-to-concrete joints with dowel-type fasteners. It was concluded that creep values measured in long-term experimental tests are usually higher than those obtained from the model indicated in Eurocode 5, particularly for environmental conditions corresponding the service class 2.
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A Comparative Cradle-To-Gate Life Cycle Assessment of Mid-Rise Office Building Construction Alternatives: Laminated Timber or Reinforced Concrete

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue52
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Author
Robertson, Adam
Lam, Frank
Cole, Raymond
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2012
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Concrete
Embodied Carbon
Life-Cycle Assessment
Mid-Rise
National Building Code of Canada
NBCC
North America
Office Buildings
Research Status
Complete
Series
Buildings
Summary
The objective of this project was to quantify and compare the environmental impacts associated with alternative designs for a typical North American mid-rise office building. Two scenarios were considered; a traditional cast-in-place, reinforced concrete frame and a laminated timber hybrid design, which utilized engineered wood products (cross-laminated timber (CLT) and glulam). The boundary of the quantitative analysis was cradle-to-construction site gate and encompassed the structural support system and the building enclosure. Floor plans, elevations, material quantities, and structural loads associated with a five-storey concrete-framed building design were obtained from issued-for-construction drawings. A functionally equivalent, laminated timber hybrid design was conceived, based on Canadian Building Code requirements. Design values for locally produced CLT panels were established from in-house material testing. Primary data collected from a pilot-scale manufacturing facility was used to develop the life cycle inventory for CLT, whereas secondary sources were referenced for other construction materials. The TRACI characterization methodology was employed to translate inventory flows into impact indicators. The results indicated that the laminated timber building design offered a lower environmental impact in 10 of 11 assessment categories. The cradle-to-gate process energy was found to be nearly identical in both design scenarios (3.5 GJ/m2), whereas the cumulative embodied energy (feedstock plus process) of construction materials was estimated to be 8.2 and 4.6 GJ/m2 for the timber and concrete designs, respectively; which indicated an increased availability of readily accessible potential energy stored within the building materials of the timber alternative.
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Comparison of Environmental Performance of a Five-Storey Building Built with Cross-Laminated Timber and Concrete

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue65
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Chen, Yue
Organization
University of British Columbia
Year of Publication
2012
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Canada
Concrete
Energy Consumption
Environmental
Mid-Rise
North America
Office Buildings
Passive Buildings
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Cross Laminated Timber (CLT), which is made by laminating dimension lumber at right angles, is an innovative high-performance building material that offers many positive attributes including renewability, high structural stability, storage of carbon during the building life, good fire resistance, possibility of material recycling and reuse. It is conceptually a sustainable and cost effective structural timber solution that can compete with concrete in non-residential and multi-family mid-rise building market. Therefore, there is a need to understand and quantify the environmental attribute of this building system in the context of North American resources, manufacturing technology, energy constraints, building types, and construction practice. This study is to compare energy consumption of two building designs using different materials, i.e. CLT and concrete. The designs were based on a five-storey office building, Discovery Place-Building 12, which is located in Burnaby, British Columbia, at 4200 Canada Way. The existing building was built with reinforced concrete. Embodied energy was calculated based on the total amount of material required for each of the building systems. Operational energy was calculated using eQUEST, an energy usage modeling software tool. The environmental impacts of the buildings were evaluated by comparing the total energy consumption through the building life. CLT has lower non-renewable energy consumption compared to concrete in terms of material acquisition, manufacturing and transportation. Previous studies shew that operational energy accounts for the main amount of total energy use in buildings during their service life. Hence, the importance of embodied energy increases by reducing operational energy consumption. CLT has lower embodied energy compared to concrete. Therefore, the advantage of using CLT as a construction material is becoming greater by designing low energy or passive buildings.
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Development of a Slab-on-Girder Wood-Concrete Composite Highway Bridge

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1421
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Bridges and Spans
Author
Lehan, Andrew
Organization
University of Toronto
Year of Publication
2012
Format
Thesis
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Bridges and Spans
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Ultra-High-Performance Fibre-Reinforced Concrete
Girder
Post-Tensioning
Prefabrication
Durability
Span-to-Depth Ratio
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This thesis examines the development of a superstructure for a slab-on-girder wood-concrete composite highway bridge. Wood-concrete composite bridges have existed since the 1930's. Historically, they have been limited to spans of less than 10 m. Renewed research interest over the past two decades has shown great potential for longer span capabilities. Through composite action and suitable detailing, improvements in strength, stiffness, and durability can be achieved versus conventional wood bridges. The bridge makes use of a slender ultra-high performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) deck made partially-composite in longitudinal bending with glued-laminated wood girders. Longitudinal external unbonded post-tensioning is utilized to increase span capabilities. Prefabrication using double-T modules minimizes the need for cast-in-place concrete on-site. Durability is realized through the highly impermeable deck slab that protects the girders from moisture. Results show that the system can span up to 30 m while achieving span-to-depth ratios equivalent or better than competing slab-on-girder bridges.
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Assessment of Carbon Footprint of Laminated Veneer Lumber Elements in a Six Story Housing - Comparison to a Steel and Concrete Solution

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2135
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Environmental Impact
Design and Systems
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Tellnes, Lars
Eide, S.
Kristjansdottir, Torhildur
Kron, M.
Year of Publication
2013
Format
Conference Paper
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Environmental Impact
Design and Systems
Keywords
GHG
Carbon Footprint
Life-Cycle Assessment
Concrete
Conference
Sustainable Built Environment Portugal
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Many actions have been taken to decrease the operational energy use in buildings. However, with higher energy efficiency standards, the focus is increasingly shifting to energy demand for the production of building materials and the related greenhouse gas emissions. When moving towards zero emission buildings, the developments of more sustainable bearing structure are of interest. A six story housing complex was constructed in Gothenburg, Sweden in 2012 with a structure made of laminated veneer lumber floor elements and glue laminated beams and columns. The use of laminated veneer lumber has the advantage of being a light weight solution. Building with wood in Norway is generally regarded as a carbon efficient solution, but the impact of additional materials such as glue and insulation can influence the overall results is of interest. Life cycle assessment is used as a tool to calculate the carbon footprint in the production of the main building materials of the structure. The goal of the assessment is to compare the wood structure as built with an equivalent steel and concrete structure and to optimise the use of materials. The scope of the assessment includes the foundation and elevator shaft, structural beams and columns and the floor elements. The results indicate that the steel and concrete alternative have about 35% higher greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than the as built wood solution, but that almost half of the total emissions are related to the foundation and elevator shaft.
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Report Summary: A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Two Multistory Residential Buildings: Cross-Laminated Timber vs. Concrete Slab and Column with Light Gauge Steel Walls

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2612
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Environmental Impact
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Grann, Blane
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2013
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Environmental Impact
Design and Systems
Keywords
Life-Cycle Assessment
LCA
Concrete
Multi-Family
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This short report summarizes a life cycle assessment (LCA) study comparing a cross-laminated timber mid-rise building to the same building in concrete1. For more detail, refer to the original report which was the product of a rigorous, comparative LCA research project that complied with the international LCA standard ISO 14040:2006. In that study an apartment building in Quebec City, Canada was analyzed using two different building systems in order to understand the environmental footprint of each relative to the other. A LCA model was developed for a real, 4060 m2, 4-storey, cross-laminated timber (CLT) apartment building. The same building was then designed using reinforced concrete slabs and columns with light gauge steel stud walls. That design was intended as a building system that CLT would likely be compared with in the midrise construction market where CLT is likely to compete.
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Fire Performance Requirements of Non-Load-Bearing Wood-Frame In-Fill Walls in Concrete/Steel Hybrid Buildings. Part 1 - Literature Review of International Building Code

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2621
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Fire
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Walls
Hybrid Building Systems
Author
Lu, Ling
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2013
Format
Report
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Walls
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Fire-Retardant-Treatment (FRT)
Fire Resistance Rating
Building Code
Construction
Exterior Wall
Non-Loadbearing
Concrete
Steel
Mid-Rise
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Related sections in the International Building Code (IBC) were reviewed regarding use of wood components in non-combustible buildings, and light-frame wood buildings or heavy timber buildings greater than 4-storeys in height. The highlights of this review are: a) Fire-retardant-treated (FRT) wood can be used in partitions when the required fire-resistance rating is not more than 2 hours. This includes all types and occupancy groups of Types I and II construction; b) FRT wood can be used in non-bearing exterior walls in Type I, II, III and IV construction; c) Wood components can be used in interior walls for Type III and IV construction; d) Wood components can be used in both interior and exterior walls for Type V construction. When a sprinkler system is installed according to NFPA 13 [1], it is possible to build a light-frame wood building or heavy timber building over 4-storeys according to the following provisions: a) Type IIIA 6-storey light-frame wood buildings using FRT wood for exterior walls for Occupancy group B (Business), H-4, and 5-storey light-frame wood buildings for Occupancy group F-2, H-3, I-1(Institutional), R (Residential), S-2; b) Type IIIB 5-storey light-frame wood buildings using FRT wood for exterior walls for Occupancy group R; c) Type IV (HT) 6-storeys timber buildings for Occupancy group B, F-2, H-4 and S-2; d) Type IV (HT) 5-storeys timber buildings for Occupancy group F-1, H-3, I-1, R, S-1 and U.
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Fire Performance Requirements of Non-Load-Bearing Wood-Frame In-Fill Walls in Concrete/Steel Hybrid Buildings. Part 2 - Review of the National Building Code of Canada

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2622
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Fire
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Walls
Hybrid Building Systems
Author
Lu, Ling
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2013
Format
Report
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Walls
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Non-Loadbearing
Fire Resistance
Concrete
Steel
Building Code
Fire Performance
Exterior Wall
Sprinklers
Mid-Rise
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This project evaluates the National Building Codes of Canada (NBCC) clauses relevant to fire performance and performance requirements of non-load-bearing wood-frame in-fill walls in concrete/steel hybrid buildings. Related clauses in NBCC are reviewed regarding the use of wood components and non-load bearing wall systems in non-combustible buildings. The highlights of this review are: § An exterior non-loadbearing wall assembly with combustible components is allowed in non-combustible construction if: a) Building height is not more than 3 storeys or has a sprinkler system throughout ; b) The interior surfaces of the wall assembly are protected by a thermal barrier ; and c) The wall assembly satisfied the testing criteria for CAN/ULC S134 ; § Combustible interior wall finishes, other than foamed plastics, are allowed in non-combustible construction if the thickness is not greater than 25 mm and their flame spread rating (FSR) is not more than 150 ; § Combustible insulation, other than foamed plastics, is allowed in non-combustible construction if the flame-spread rating not more than 25 ; § Combustible insulation with a FSR not less than 25 and not more than 500 is allowed in exterior and interior walls of non-combustible construction if the building is non-sprinklered and not more than 18 m or sprinklered and protected by a thermal barrier ; § There are no obstacles for using wood-frame in-fill wall systems for interior partition walls in hybrid buildings: a) For non-sprinklered buildings not greater than 3 storeys or a floor area not greater than 600 m2 ; b) For sprinklered buildings. § Non-combustible construction allows combustible elements in partition walls in the following instances: a) Solid lumber partitions located in a fire compartment area are permitted in a non-sprinklered floor area not greater than 600 m2 with restrictions ; b) Solid lumber partitions not less than 38 mm thick and partitions that contain wood framing are permitted with restrictions. § Combustible cladding can be used under the following circumstances: a) When a wall assembly with exposing building face is between 10 to 25% tested by CAN/ULC-S134 and complies with Article 3.1.5.5 ; b) When a wall assembly with exposing building face is between 25 to 50%, is sprinklered throughout, installed on a gypsum board sheathing, and has a FSR not more than 25 (with restrictions) ; c) When a wall assembly with exposing building face is between 50 to 100%, cladding can be combustible for group A, B, C, D, E, F. § When a building is required to be of non-combustible construction, combustible elements are limited to the requirements in Subsection 3.1.5 on non-combustible construction ; § When comparing the NBCC with the International Building Code (IBC), the IBC is more in favour of using FRT wood frame in-fill walls with one more storey.
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Report Summary: A Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Two Multistory Residential Buildings: Cross-Laminated Timber vs. Concrete Slab and Column with Light Gauge Steel Walls

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2643
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Grann, Blane
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2013
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Life-Cycle Assessment
Life Cycle Analysis
LCA
Mid-Rise
Multi-Family
Residential Buildings
Concrete
Steel
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This short report summarizes a life cycle assessment (LCA) study comparing a cross-laminated timber mid-rise building to the same building in concrete1. For more detail, refer to the original report which was the product of a rigorous, comparative LCA research project that complied with the international LCA standard ISO 14040:2006. In that study an apartment building in Quebec City, Canada was analyzed using two different building systems in order to understand the environmental footprint of each relative to the other. A LCA model was developed for a real, 4060 m2, 4-storey, cross-laminated timber (CLT) apartment building. The same building was then designed using reinforced concrete slabs and columns with light gauge steel stud walls. That design was intended as a building system that CLT would likely be compared with in the midrise construction market where CLT is likely to compete.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

97 records – page 1 of 10.