The latest developments in seismic design philosophy have been geared towards developing of so called "resilient" or "low damage" innovative structural systems that can reduce damage to the structure while offering the same or higher levels of safety to occupants. One such innovative structural system is the Pres-Lam system that is a wood-hybrid system that utilizes post-tensioned (PT) mass timber components in both rigid-frame and wall-based buildings along with various types of energy disspators. To help implement the Pres-Lam system in Canada and the US, information about the system performance made with North American engineered wood products is needed. That information can later be used to develop design guidelines for the designers for wider acceptance of the system by the design community.Several components influence the performance of the Pres-Lam systems: the load-deformation properties of the engineered wood products under compression, load-deformation and energy dissipation properties of the dissipators used, placement of the dissipators in the system, and the level of post-tensioning force. The influence of all these components on the performance of Pres-Lam wall systems under gravity and lateral loads was investigated in this research project. The research project consisted of two main parts: material tests and system tests.
Glued-in rods (GiR) are an effective way to connect timber elements from both load bearing capacity/stiffness and aesthetic point of view. This method is also widely accepted as a method for reinforcement of the new and existing timber structures. Although GiR are widely used in timber structures, there is still no unified European test standards, product standards or design equations for such connections. At present, there are several test methods and procedures applied in research and development. In this paper two different methods for obtaining pull-out strength are presented. Furthermore, experimental investigation was conducted and results obtained from both methods are mutually compared. Pull – compression test procedure is the most common setup for experimental investigation, however this setup is sometimes not representative and it is often characterized as unreliable because it does not quite good correspond to practical applications. The second examined test procedure was pull-pull. Within the experimental investigation, total number of 36 specimens were tested and results obtained from both methods are shown, discussed and compared in this paper.
This book contains experiences and results of computer simulations in the field of research on glued laminated timber. Literature and references to the corresponding methodical approach are given to facilitate the access to the elementary basics. It also contains constructive explanations and critical annotations on modelling glued laminated timber for bending, tension and compression tests. Finally, the relevance of the simulation results for practical issues is discussed.
Rocking of narrow wall panels/columns causes embedding forces on the floor panels during earthquakes. In plain/out of plain compression tests and out of plain embedding tests of CLT panels were conducted. Compression and embedding strengths of in plain/out of plain strengths of Sugi CLT panels were obtained. These strengths of CLT panels with /without edge-glues were compared. Out of plain embedding strength loaded at the corner of CLT panels was fairly less than the normal embedding strength, and it was around the middle of the normal embedding and compression strengths.
Seismic design is required to CLT buildings in Japan. Embedding performance of joints is significant to maintain ductility of timber structures during earthquakes. CLT wall panels are installed on the CLT floor panels, and narrow wall panels and columns make rocking on the floor panels during earthquakes. Both edges of the wall panels apply embedding forces on the floor panels. Tension behaviour of the joints between wall and floor panels is dominated by those of connecters, etc. Compression behaviour of the joints depends on the embedding behaviour of in plain/out of plain CLT panels of walls and floors. In plain/out of plain compressions, out of plain embedding and rotational embedding performance of CLT panes are required to be clarified. In plain/out of plain compression tests and out of plain embedding tests of CLT panels are conducted. Effects of edge-glue of CLT panels are also analysed.
This study presents the experimental evaluation of the behaviour of beams and columns made of Glued Laminated Guadua (GLG) bamboo. Flexural tests were conducted on structural size beams of various span lengths and two lamination orientations (horizontal and vertical) in order to evaluate the different capacities achieved according to the predominant induced stresses, bending or shear. Experimental results indicated a reduction of bending strength as the member’s size increased whereas lamination in the vertical direction presented 12% higher values of modulus of rupture (MOR), and 9% higher values of modulus of elasticity (MOE) compared to equivalent results for lamination in the horizontal direction. Additionally, compression tests were performed on structural size columns with various slenderness ratios and two lamination orientations. Although minor differences were found for lamination orientation, lower capacities were observed as the slenderness ratio increased. This experimental data is expected to be used in order to propose adjustment factors for structural size beams as well as the determination of the column stability factor.
Compression tests were conducted on the glulam members under different eccentricities, including three cases of 0mm,50mm and 100mm respectively, to study the mechanical performance of the new assemblage joints in reticulated timber shells. The bending stiffness and bending capacity of joints were evaluated, at the same time, the influence of failure mode and the changes...
Timber-concrete composite structures were originally developed for upgrading existing timber oors, but during last decades, they have new applications in multistorey buildings. Most of the research performed on these structures has focused on systems in which wet concrete is cast on top of timber beams with mounted connectors. Recently investigations on composite systems were performed at Luleå University of Technology in Sweden, in which the concrete slab is prefabricated off-site with the connectors already embedded and then connected on-site to the timber joists. Similar studies have been carried out also on timber-concrete composite structures with prefabricated FRC slabs at Lund University in Sweden. Two kinds of shear connectors were incorporated in the prefabricated FRC concrete slabs. These last systems can be considered globally as partially prefabricated structures because only the slabs were cast off-site with already inserted shear connectors and then the connection with the timber beams is done on the building site. An innovative composite system for floor applications is presented in this thesis. The entire structure is prefabricated off-side, transported and direct mounted to the building on site, that can be seen as full prefabricated structures. Noticeable benefits of a full prefabricated structure are that the moving work from the building site to the workshop reduces construction costs, is more simple and fast of manufacture and erect, and of sure, has better quality, that means more durability. Self-tapping full-threaded screws to connect concrete slabs to timber beam were used. Dimensions of the composite beams and the spacing between the screws has been chosen by discussing different FE model in order to reach the optimal solution. The experimental campaign included:
(i) two short-time bending tests carried out on two dierent full-scale specimens,
(ii) dynamic tests conducted on one full-scale specimen,
(iii) long-time bending test carried out on one full-scale specimen,
(iv) compression tests on three cubes of concrete,
(v) nine withdrawal tests of the screws with different depth in the concrete.
The results of the experimental tests show that the composite beams have a very high level of resistance and stiffness and also allow to reach a high degree of efficiency. Last, comparisons between FE results, analytical calculations and experimental values have been performed and from them it can be concluded that FE model and theoretical calculations well interpret the behavior of the composite structure and provide reliable results.
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) panels are broadly utilized as structural members in modern timber structures. Variation in the residual resistance of CLT walls after fire exposure may lead to disruption of vertical force transmission and, in turn, structural collapse. To investigate the residual compressive load-carrying capacity of CLT walls after exposed to one-side fire, a series of tests were conducted on 3-ply and 5-ply members: axial compression tests, fire tests, and residual compressive load-carrying capacity tests. Combining the initial geometric defects obtained from the test results and the effect of shear deformation, theoretical formulae describing the compressive load-carrying capacity were deduced. Further considering the different mechanical properties over the residual cross-section model after fire, and the relative position between Region A and CLT orthogonal configuration, the calculation method of the residual compressive load-carrying capacity after fire were derived. The results of the residual compressive load-carrying capacity tests showed that the failure mode of the CLT walls after one-side fire was the eccentric compression, and the nonlinear segments of the load-axial and load-lateral displacement curves after fire accounted for larger proportion than those of axial compression tests. For the same total section thickness, the reduction in residual capacity of the 5-ply walls after fire was less than that of the 3-ply walls. The calculation results of the eccentric compression formulae considering shear deformation and initial geometric defect showed good agreement with the test values of axial compression tests. The residual compressive load-carrying capacity after one-side fire was predicted appropriately, which could be used as reference for assessing the residual load-carrying behavior of CLT elements after fire.