The use of timber–concrete composite (TCC) bridges in the United States dates back to approximately 1924 when the first bridge was constructed. Since then a large number of bridges have been built, of which more than 1,400 remain in service. The oldest bridges still in service are now more than 84 years old and predominately consist of two different TCC systems. The first system is a slab-type system that includes a longitudinal nail-laminated deck composite with a concrete deck top layer. The second system is a stringer system that includes either sawn timber or glulam stringers supporting a concrete deck top layer. The records indicate that most of the TCC highway bridges were constructed during the period of 1930–1960. The study presented in this paper discusses the experience and per-formance of these bridge systems in the US. The analysis is based on a review of the relevant literature and databases complemented with field inspections conducted within various research projects. Along with this review, a historical overview of the codes and guidelines available for the design of TCC bridges in the US is also included. The analysis undertaken showed that TCC bridges are an effective and durable design alternative for highway bridges once they have shown a high performance level, in some situations after more than 80 years in service with a low maintenance level.
Comprehensive guide to engineered wood construction systems for both residential and commercial/industrial buildings. Includes information on plywood and oriented strand board (wood structural panels), glulam, I-joists, structural composite lumber, typical specifications and design recommendations for floor, wall and roof systems, diaphragms, shear walls, fire-rated systems and methods of finishing.
New possibilities offered by recent modelling software allow the design of organic shapes that are appealing to architects and engineers but may encompass serious issues such as an overconsumption of materials. In this context, there is a renewed interest in systems allowing the materialization of curved surfaces such as timber gridshells, which can be defined as shells with their structures concentrated in strips. However, gridshell design becomes highly challenging if complex grid configurations and new material possibilities are combinedly explored with form generations. These upheavals highlight the need for a classification system to seize the potential and the limitations of timber gridshells to address complex geometries. The classification of 60 timber gridshells enables a critical examination in the course of the ceaseless quest for complexity in architecture by evaluating current building possibilities and predict future building opportunities in terms of form, structure, and materiality.
The aim of the Bachelor’s thesis was to describe and evaluate the most common connection details between steel-concrete composite (SCC) beam DELTABEAM® and Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) slab in two variations: with and without concrete topping. The purpose of the thesis was to provide a basis for future studies that are to expand the CLT range of appliance in Finland. The thesis was based on a theoretical description of the four different connectors that utilize the same working principles as the connections used for joining concrete floor slabs and the beam using the German standard details. The calculations were done according to the Eurocode 1995 and German timber design code DIN1052. The result of the thesis was the connection details library. The result of the study allows to conclude that by using described connection details, the CLT slabs and DELTABEAM® form a reliable flooring system.
This project proposes a timber-based composite floor that can span 12 m and be used in the construction of 40+ story office buildings. This floor system integrates timber panels and timber beams to form a continuous box girder structure. The timber panels function as the flanges and the timber beams as the web. The beams are spaced and connected to the flange panels so that sufficient bending stiffness of a 12 m span can be achieved via the development of composite action.
The current phase of this project studied the performance of the connections between timber elements in the proposed composite member. Six types of connections using different flange material and connection techniques were tested: Cross Laminated Timber (CLT), Laminated Strand Lumber (LSL), Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL), and Post Laminated Veneer Lumber (PLVL). Glulam was used as the web. The majority of the connections used self-tapping wood screws except one had notches. The load-carrying capacity, stiffness, and ductility of the connections were measured. The stiffness of CLT, LSL, and PLVL connections was in the same range, 19-20 kN/mm per screw. Amongst the three, LSL had the highest peak load and PLVL had the highest proportional limit. The stiffness of the two LVL screw connections was around 13 kN/mm. The notched LVL connection had significantly higher stiffness than the rest, and its peak load was in the same range as LSL, but the failure was brittle.
LVL was used to manufacture the full scale timber composite floor element. With a spacing of 400 mm, the overall stiffness reached 33689 N
mm2×109, which was 2.5 times the combined stiffness of two Glulam beams. The predicted overall stiffness based on Gamma method was within 5% of the tested value, and the estimated degree of composite action was 68%. From both the test results and analytical modeling, the number of screws may be further reduced to 50% or less of the current amount, while maintaining a high level of stiffness.
Future work includes testing the composite floor under different screw spacings,
investigating the effect of concrete topping, and the connections between floor members
and other structural elements.
The work presented in this thesis deals with the investigation of the dynamic performance of timber only and TCC flooring systems, which is one of the sub-objectives of the research focus at UTS. In particular, the presented research assesses the dynamic performance of long-span timber and TCC flooring systems using different experimental und numerical test structures. For the experimental investigations, experimental modal testing and analysis is executed to determine the modal parameters (natural frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes) of various flooring systems. For the numerical investigations, finite element models are calibrated against experimental results, and are utilised for parametric studies for flooring systems of different sizes. Span tables are generated for both timber and TCC flooring systems that can be used in the design of long-span flooring systems to satisfy the serviceability fundamental frequency requirement of 8 Hz or above.
To predict the fundamental frequency of various TCC beams and timber floor modules (beams), five different analytical models are utilised and investigated. To predict the cross-sectional characteristics of TCC systems and to identify the effective flexural stiffness of partially composite beams, the “Gamma method” is utilised.
[...] two novel methods are developed in this thesis that determines the degree of composite action of timber composite flooring systems using only measurements from non-destructive dynamic testing. The core of both methods is the use of an existing mode-shape-based damage detection technique, namely, the Damage Index (DI) method to derive the loss of composite action indices (LCAIs) named as LCAI1 and LCAI2. The DI method utilises modal strain energies derived from mode shape measurements of a flooring system before and after failure of shear connectors. The proposed methods are tested and validated on a numerical and experimental timber composite beam structure consisting of two LVL components (flange and web). To create different degrees of composite action, the beam is tested with different numbers of shear connectors to simulate the failure of connection screws. The results acquired from the proposed dynamic-based method are calibrated to make them comparable to traditional static-based composite action results. It is shown that the two proposed methods can successfully be used for timber composite structures to determine the composite action using only mode shapes measurements from dynamic testing.
The results of an experimental programme on the structural behaviour, fire behaviour, and fire resistance of CLT rib panels are presented. The floor system consists of cross-laminated timber (CLT) plates rigidly bonded to glued-laminated timber ribs by means of screw-press gluing.
The experimental programme comprised ultimate-load tests at normal temperature as reference tests and full-scale fire resistance tests on four cross-sections. In addition to the reference tests, shear tests of the glue line between CLT plate and glued-laminated timber rib were performed for analysis of the cross-sections’ composite action.
The results of the reference tests show good agreement with results based on the simplified method according to EN 1995-1-1  and its final draft of CLT design . The importance of the glue line’s quality was confirmed. The fire resistance tests show results on the safe side compared to predictions of the fire behaviour according to EN 1995-1-2  and its actual draft . However, the fire resistance was underestimated due to conservative assumptions about the composite cross-section’s structural behaviour.
The experimental programme addressed the fire behaviour and fire resistance of CLT rib panels currently not covered in standards. The project’s overall aim is the development of design rules in fire for EN 1995-1-2.
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is one of the most widely utilized mass timber products for floor construction given its sustainability, widespread availability, ease of fabrication and installation. Composite CLT-based assemblies are emerging alternatives to provide flooring systems with efficient design and optimal structural performance. In this paper, a novel prefabricated CLT-steel composite floor module is investigated. Its structural response to out-of-plane static loads is assessed via 6-point bending tests and 3D finite-element computational analysis. For simply supported conditions, the results of the investigation demonstrate that the floor attains a high level of composite efficiency (98%), and its bending stiffness is about 2.5 times those of its components combined. Within the design load range, the strain diagrams are linear and not affected by the discontinuous arrangement and variable spacing of the shear connectors. The composite floor module can reach large deflection without premature failure in the elements or shear connectors, with plasticity developed in the cold-formed steel beams and a maximum attained load 3.8 times its ultimate limit state design load. The gravity design of the composite module is shown to be governed by its serviceability deflection requirements. However, knowledge gaps still exist on the vibration, fire, and long-term behaviour of this composite CLT-steel floor system.
A timber–lightweight-concrete (TLC) composite beam connected with a ductile connector in which the ductile connector is made of a stainless-steel bolt anchored with nuts at both ends was proposed. The push-out results and bending performance of the TLC composite specimens were investigated by experimental testing. The push-out results of the shear specimens show that shear–slip curves exhibit good ductility and that their failure can be attributed to bolt buckling accompanied by lightweight concrete cracking. Through the bending tests of ten TLC composite beams and two contrast (pure timber) beams, the effects of different bolt diameters on the strengthening effect of the TLC composite beams were studied. The results show that the TLC composite beams and contrast timber beams break on the timber fiber at the lowest edge of the TLC composite beam, and the failure mode is attributed to bending failure, whereas the bolt connectors and lightweight concrete have no obvious breakage; moreover, the ductile bolt connectors show a good connection performance until the TLC composite beams fail. The ultimate bearing capacities of the TLC composite beams increase 2.03–3.5 times compared to those of the contrast beams, while the mid-span maximum deformation decrease nearly doubled.