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Circular economy in wood construction – Additive manufacturing of fully recyclable walls made from renewables: Proof of concept and preliminary data

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3129
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Environmental Impact
Application
Walls
Author
Kromoser, B.
Reichenbach, S.
Hellmayr, R.
Myna, R.
Wimmer, R.
Organization
University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Application
Walls
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Circular Economy
Wood Construction
Additive Manufacturing
3D printing
Recycling
Life Cycle Assessment
Research Status
Complete
Series
Construction and Building Materials
Summary
Additive manufacturing of fully recyclable walls, made of a composite of renewable secondary resources, offers the wood construction industry the possibility to manufacture structures within a circular economy. The newly developed composite material is extruded in a dry state before using water and heat to ensure proper bonding. Following a summary of the state of the art, concepts for material, manufacturing, application and recycling are presented. First preliminary experiments and an evaluation of the environmental impact show the potential of the innovative strategy. Considering the obtained results, current issues and future research demand are presented.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Circular Economy & the Built Environment Sector in Canada

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2805
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Environmental Impact
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Other Materials
Application
Wood Building Systems
Hybrid Building Systems
Organization
Delphi Group
SCIUS Advisory
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Other Materials
Application
Wood Building Systems
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Environmental Impact
Design and Systems
Keywords
Circular Economy
Greenhouse gas emissions
Waste
Demolition
Design for Disassembly and Adaptibility
Design for Durability
Deconstruction
Material Recovery
Reverse Logistics
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This study on Circular Economy & the Built Environment Sector in Canada was carried out by The Delphi Group in collaboration with Scius Advisory and completed in March 2021 on behalf of Forestry Innovation Investment Ltd. (FII) in British Columbia and Natural Resources Canada (NRCan) as the co-sponsors for the research. The work identifies a broad range of current efforts across Canada and undertakes a deeper dive on design for disassembly and adaptability (DfD/A) best practices, including an analysis of the ISO Standard 20887:2020 (i.e., design for disassembly and adaptability) in line with current Canadian industry practice and market readiness.
Online Access
Free
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Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) manufactured with European oak recovered from demolition: Structural properties and non-destructive evaluation

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3008
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Llana, Daniel
González-Alegre, Violeta
Portela, María
Íñiguez-González, Guillermo
Organization
Universidad Politécnica de Madrid
Universidad de Santiago de Compostela
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Cascading
Circular Economy
Non-Destructive Testing
Reclaimed
Recycling
Reuse
Salvaged
Secondary Timber
Research Status
Complete
Series
Construction and Building Materials
Summary
The demolition sector generates a large amount of timber waste that could be directly reused or recycled in other products for structural purposes. Timber should be graded before it is used for structural purposes, and visual strength grading standards designed for new timber do not properly grade recovered timber. Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) is now one of the most common wood products used in construction. CLT would therefore be a good option for recycling timber due to the high quantity of material used in CLT manufacturing. This paper investigates the possibilities of using recovered timber from demolition to manufacture CLT. Twelve CLT panels from recovered and new timber were manufactured and tested. The static modulus of elasticity was found to be the same between recovered and new timber, while the bending strength of CLT from recovered timber was lower than it was for CLT from new timber. Non-destructive testing for the estimation of mechanical properties of boards and CLT panels was successfully developed.
Online Access
Free
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Prolonging life cycles of construction materials and combating climate change by cascading: The case of reusing timber in Finland

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3139
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Environmental Impact
Author
Niu, Yishu
Rasi, Kaarle
Hughes, Mark
Halme, Minna
Fink, Gerhard
Organization
Aalto University
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Reuse
Cascading
Environmental Impact
Carbon Footprint
Circular Economy
Research Status
Complete
Series
Resource, Conservation and Recycling
Summary
The aim of this study is to investigate the economic, environmental and technological challenges, as well as the environmental potential, of prolonging the life cycle of construction materials with focus on structural timber in Finland. To achieve this, a literature review was conducted along with interviews with actors pertinent to timber construction. Moreover, a case study of life cycle environmental impact assessment was conducted to quantify the potential of reusing timber to abate global warming and other environmental burden. The literature review highlighted the possibility of reusing structural timber, but pointed to the need for efficient and standardized assessment criteria. The interviews indicated interest towards the concept of circular economy applied to construction and demolition wood material, although this appears to be driven more by policy and regulation rather than for business reasons. Therefore, a reconfigured conceptual framework to achieve circularity for wood is proposed, where material brokers would be used to connect different actors along the value chain. The paper concludes with a case study showing that reusing structural timber components can result in a significant reduction of the environmental burden.
Online Access
Free
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Recyclability assessment at the building design stage based on statistical entropy: A case study on timber and concrete building

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3043
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Environmental Impact
Author
Roithner, Caroline
Cencic, Oliver
Honic, Meliha
Rechberger, Helmut
Organization
TU Wien
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Buildings
Recyclability
Product Design
Relative Product-inherent Recyclability
Statistical Entropy
Circular Economy
Research Status
Complete
Series
Resources, Conservation and Recycling
Summary
The construction sector consumes high amounts of resources and energy while generating significant amounts of waste. This development is contrary to Circular Economy principles, which require buildings that are resource and energy efficient and enable material recycling to the greatest possible extent. To effectively tackle this problem, the EU places a strong focus on sustainable building design. However, to assess this development, indicators that measure the potential recyclability of buildings already at the design stage are necessary. In this study, the “Relative product-inherent recyclability” (RPR) assessment method is applied to evaluate the recyclability of buildings. The RPR method considers buildings’ material composition and structure (assembly) to measure recyclability, thereby describing recycling-relevant factors. The method is based on the statistical entropy approach, which aims to describe material distributions. The RPR increases the more building parts can be disassembled, allowing recovery of concentrated materials. A case study on a timber and concrete building is used to demonstrate the applicability of the RPR metric. The results show that the RPR metric is a suitable indicator for expressing buildings’ inherent recyclability, thus identifying significant differences between building variants. Relevant design optimizations can be deduced from the RPR results. In our case, the timber building achieves higher recyclability than the concrete building. Applying the RPR indicator on the EU level can be recommended and offers significant insights into the design and recyclability of buildings. Architects and constructors could use the metric as a planning and evaluation tool, thereby promoting circular building design concepts.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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