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Assessing Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) as an Alternative Material for Mid-Rise Residential Buildings in Cold Regions in China—A Life-Cycle Assessment Approach

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1209
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Energy Performance
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Liu, Ying
Guo, Haibo
Sun, Cheng
Chang, Wen-Shao
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Switzerland
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Energy Performance
Keywords
Life-Cycle Assessment
Cradle-to-Grave
China
Cold Regions
Severe Cold Regions
Energy Consumption
Mid-Rise
Residential
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Sustainability
Summary
Timber building has gained more and more attention worldwide due to it being a generic renewable material and having low environmental impact. It is widely accepted that the use of timber may be able to reduce the embodied energy of a building. However, the development of timber buildings in China is not as rapid as in some other countries. This may be because of the limitations of building regulations and technological development. Several new policies have been or are being implemented in China in order to encourage the use of timber in building construction and this could lead to a revolutionary change in the building industry in China. This paper is the first one to examine the feasibility of using Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) as an alternative solution to concrete by means of a cradle-to-grave life-cycle assessment in China. A seven-storey reference concrete building in Xi’an was selected as a case study in comparison with a redesigned CLT building. Two cities in China, in cold and severe cold regions (Xi’an and Harbin), were selected for this research. The assessment includes three different stages of the life span of a building: materialisation, operation, and end-of-life. The inventory data used in the materialisation stage was mostly local, in order to ensure that the assessment appropriately reflects the situation in China. Energy consumption in the operation stage was obtained from simulation by commercialised software IESTM, and different scenarios for recycling of timber material in the end-of-life are discussed in this paper. The results from this paper show that using CLT to replace conventional carbon intensive material would reduce energy consumption by more than 30% and reduce CO2 emission by more than 40% in both cities. This paper supports, and has shown the potential of, CLT being used in cold regions with proper detailing to minimise environmental impact.
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Assessment of Energy Saving Potential by Replacing Conventional Materials by Cross Laminated Timber (CLT)—A Case Study of Office Buildings in China

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2010
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Energy Performance
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Dong, Yu
Cui, Xue
Yin, Xunzhi
Chen, Yang
Guo, Haibo
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2019
Country of Publication
Switzerland
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Energy Performance
Keywords
China
Energy Consumption
Office Buildings
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Applied Sciences
ISSN
2076-3417
Online Access
Free
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Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) in China: A State-of-the-Art

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2108
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Li, Hao
Wang, Brad
Wei, Peixing
Wang, Libin
Publisher
Nanjing Forestry University
University of New Brunswick
Cellulose and Renewable Materials Division of Chinese Chemical Society
Year of Publication
2019
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
China
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts
ISSN
2369-9698
Online Access
Free
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Energy Saving and Carbon Reduction in the Operation Stage of Cross Laminated Timber Residential Buildings in China

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1208
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Energy Performance
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Guo, Haibo
Liu, Ying
Chang, Wen-Shao
Shao, Yu
Sun, Cheng
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2017
Country of Publication
Switzerland
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Energy Performance
Keywords
Energy Consumption
Carbon Emissions
Reinforced Concrete
China
Climate Zones
Simulation
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Sustainability
ISSN
2071-1050
Summary
This paper focused on energy consumption and carbon emission for heating and cooling during a building’s operation stage, and examined the energy effects of using Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) as an alternative building material to reinforced concrete (RC) in China’s 31 key cities located in different climate zones. The authors designed two seven-story residential buildings, which were constructed with RC framed and CLT systems, separately. This was followed by simulating the energy consumption using commercialized software IESTM under the different climate zones and calculating the carbon emissions. Comparisons were made between RC and CLT systems buildings on the basis of simulation data. The results show that the estimated energy consumption and carbon emission in CLT buildings are much lower than that of RC buildings in all studied cities, which indicates that CLT systems have good potential in reducing carbon emission and saving energy consumption compared to RC. The energy consumptions and carbon emissions in both concrete and CLT buildings are closely related to the climate zones. Buildings in Severe Cold and Cold Regions consumed the most energy and released more carbon. At the national level, the estimated energy consumption at the operation stage, in the studied building with RC frames and CLT system was approximately 465.1 MJ/m2 and 332.6 MJ/m2 per annum, respectively. Despite vast differences in China’s climate zones, the effects of energy saving and carbon reduction potentials of CLT buildings show little relationship to the climate zone. CLT buildings may result in a weighted 29.4% energy saving, which equals 24.6% carbon reductions, compared with RC buildings at the operation stage at national level, although it may vary in different climate zones.
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Factors that Affect Bolted Joints in Japanese Larch Glulam

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1560
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Connections
Mechanical Properties
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Author
Zhao, Rongjun
Wang, Zi
Ren, Haiqing
Zhou, Haibin
Xing, Xinting
Zhong, Yong
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Connections
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Japanese Larch
Bolted Joints
Loading Test
China
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 1458-1463
Summary
Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi) is an important species in China. The extensive use of Japanese larch can alleviate lumber shortage in China. Various grades of Japanese larch (Larix kaempferi) laminas were chosen to study the factors that affect the bolted joint performance. By comparing the loading test results with the required design values,it revealed that: (1) Bolt diameter affected the loading performance, then, bolt class, and the lamina grade was the least influential factor. (2) Japanese larch glulam can achieve the required designed value to be used as structural materials.
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Fire Code Development - A Literature Review of North American and Chinese Fire Regulations Related to Wood Frame Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue358
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Fire
Market and Adoption
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Dagenais, Christian
Peng, Lei
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2014
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Multi-Storey
North America
China
Fire Safety
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
It can be observed from this review that most fire safety provisions are similar in nature, whether the Chinese, Canadian or American provisions are applied. However, the Chinese code seems to be slightly more restrictive than the North American building codes with respect to wood-use allowances.
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Investigation into the Hysteretic Performance of Self-Centering Timber Beam-to-Column Joints

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1562
Year of Publication
2016
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Author
Wang, Kangli
Li, Zheng
He, Minjuan
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Keywords
China
Post-Tensioned
Self-Centering
Energy Dissipation
Joint
Cyclic Loading Tests
Hysteretic Behaviour
Moment-Resisting Capacity
Failure Mechanism
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 1540-1547
Summary
The seismic performance of a post-tensioned (PT) energy dissipating beam-to-column joint for glulam heavy timber structure is investigated in this paper. Such connection incorporates post-tensioned high-strength strand to provide self-centering capacity along with energy dissipating produced by a special steel cap, which is attached with the timber beam and also to prevent the end bearing failure of wood. The moment-rotation behaviour of the proposed posttensioned timber joint was investigated through a series of cyclic loading tests. The timber joint was loaded at the end of the beams to produce a moment at the joint, and the tests were conducted with three different post-tension forces in the steel strand. The hysteretic behaviour and self-centering capacity of the joint are evaluated based on the results from cyclic loading tests. The failure mechanism of the joint was illustrated through test observations, and the momentresisting capacity and energy dissipation of the joint were analysed with regard to various drift level. This research aims to provide possible solutions to minimize the residual deformation of heavy timber structure made of glulam in China.
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Life Cycle Carbon Emission Assessment for Wood Frame Buildings in China

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2273
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Environmental Impact
Application
Wood Building Systems
Organization
China Academy of Building Research
Year of Publication
2019
Country of Publication
China
Format
Report
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Life-Cycle Assessment
China Standard for Building Carbon Emission Calculation
Carbon Emissions
Language
Chinese
English
Research Status
Complete
Notes
English summary of the report is on pages 80-102
Summary
Relying on China’s national standard “Standard for Building Carbon Emission Calculation” and related reports published by the Athena Institute, this report calculates the life cycle carbon emissions of wood buildings in China. The study collects basic information of all the projects, such as quantity of building materials, building envelope, energy system and so on. Calculations are conducted for 7 projects from the aspects of product stage, transportation stage, construction stage, operational energy and demolition stage
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Numerical Analysis of the Bending Properties of Cathay Poplar Glulam

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1222
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Author
Gao, Ying
Wu, Yuxuan
Zhu, Xudong
Zhu, Lei
Yu, Zhiming
Wu, Yong
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2015
Country of Publication
Switzerland
Format
Journal Article
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Finite Element Analysis
Modulus of Rupture
Modulus of Elasticity
Poplar
Cathay
China
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Materials
ISSN
1996-1944
Summary
This paper presents the formulae and finite element analysis models for predicting the Modulus of Elastic (MOE) and Modulus of Rupture (MOR) of Cathay poplar finger-jointed glulam. The formula of the MOE predicts the MOE of Cathay poplar glulam glued with one-component polyurethane precisely. Three formulae are used to predict the MOR, and Equation (12) predicts the MOR of Cathay poplar glulam precisely. The finite element analysis simulation results of both the MOE and MOR are similar to the experimental results. The predicted results of the finite element analysis are shown to be more accurate than those of the formulae, because the finite element analysis considers the glue layers, but the formulae do not. Three types of typical failure modes due to bending were summarized. The bending properties of Cathay poplar glulam were compared to those of Douglas fir glulam. The results show that Cathay poplar glulam has a lower stiffness, but a marginally higher strength. One-component polyurethane adhesive is shown to be more effective than resorcinol formaldehyde resin adhesive for Cathay poplar glulam. This study shows that Cathay poplar has the potential to be a glulam material in China.
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Study on Mechanical Property of Bolt Connector for Timber-Concrete Composite Structure with Interlamination Slips

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1768
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Connections
Mechanical Properties
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Author
He, Guojing
Xie, Lan
Wang, Alice
Yi, Jin
Li, Yuanyuan
Xiang, Lvlin
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Topic
Connections
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Finite Element Analysis
China
Push-Out Tests
Bolts
Failure Mode
Shear Strength
Shear Capacity
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 5250-5256
Summary
A timber-concrete composite structure (TCC) is a high strength and low energy-consumption structure, which is developed widely in Europe and America. The objective of this paper is to predict structural response with finite element (FE) analysis and provide shear property of TCC structures with Chinese materials. In this paper, some...
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10 records – page 1 of 1.