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35 records – page 1 of 4.

Analysis of Cross-Laminated Timber Charring Rates Upon Exposure to Non-Standard Heating Conditions

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue136
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Bartlett, Alastair
Hadden, Rory
Bisby, Luke
Law, Angus
Organization
Fire and Materials
Year of Publication
2015
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Charring Rate
Heat Release Rate
Fire Resistance
Language
English
Conference
Fire and Materials 2015
Research Status
Complete
Notes
February 2-4, 2015, San Francisco, United States
Summary
The use of engineered timber products such as cross-laminated timber (CLT) is of increasing interest to architects and designers due to their desirable aesthetic, environmental, and structural properties. A key factor preventing widespread uptake of these materials is the uncertainty regarding their performance in fire. Currently, the predominant approach to quantifying the structural fire resistance of timber elements is the charring rate, which allows estimation of residual cross-section and hence strength. The charring rate is usually determined by testing timber specimens in a furnace by exposure to a ‘standard fire’. However, it is recognized that the resulting charring rates are not necessarily appropriate for non-standard fire exposures or for characterizing the structural response in a real timber building. The effect of heating rate on the charring rate of CLT samples is investigated. The charring rate resulting from three heating scenarios (constant, simulated ‘standard fire’ and quadratically increasing) was calculated using interpolation of in-depth temperature measurements during exposure to heating from a mobile array of radiant panels, or in a Fire Propagation Apparatus (FPA). Charring rate is shown to vary both spatially and temporally, and as a function of heating rate within the range 0.36–0.79 mm/min. The charring rate for tests carried out under simulated ‘standard fire’ exposures were shown to agree with the available literature, thus partially verifying the new testing approach; however under other heating scenarios the Eurocode charring rate guidance was found to be unconservative for some of the heat flux exposures in this study. A novel charring rate model is presented based on the experimental results. The potential implications of this study for structural fire resistance analysis and design of timber structures are discussed. The analysis demonstrates that heating rate, sample size and orientation, and test setup have significant effects on charring rate and the overall pyrolysis, and thus need to be further evaluated to further facilitate the use of structural timber in design.
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Behaviours of Larch Glued Laminated Timber Beams Exposed to Standard Fire Heating During the Cooling Phase Study on Fire Performance of Structural Glued Laminated Timber Beams Part 1

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1112
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Fire
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Author
Kanjo, Hinjin
Hidemasa, Yusa
Horio, Takehito
Hirashima, Takeo
Takumi, Matsumoto
Saito, Kiyoshi
Publisher
J-STAGE
Year of Publication
2015
Country of Publication
Japan
Format
Journal Article
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Larch
Load Bearing Capacity
Charring Rate
Cooling
Language
Japanese
Research Status
Complete
Series
Architectural Institute of Japan Structural System
ISSN
1881-8153
Summary
Timber elements, which are different from other structural elements, have a characteristic problem in that the load bearing capacity decreases due to self-burning in the case of a fire, and this self-burning may continue after other fuel in the room has been exhausted. Therefore, the structural fire performance of timber elements should be clarified during not only the heating phase, but also the cooling phase. However, in examining the load bearing capacity of timber elements in a fire, few studies have considered the cooling phase. In the present paper, the fire performance of glued, laminated timber beams is discussed based on load-bearing fire tests that take the cooling phase into consideration.
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Calculating the Fire Resistance of Exposed Wood Members

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue220
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Organization
American Wood Council
Year of Publication
2015
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Charring
Codes
Standards
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The superior fire performance of timber can be attributed to the charring effect of wood. As wood members are exposed to fire, an insulating char layer is formed that protects the core of the section. Thus, beams and columns can be designed so that a sufficient cross section of wood remains to sustain the design loads for the required duration of fire exposure. A standard fire exposure is used for design purposes. In North America, this exposure is described in the standard fire resistance test ASTM E 119 [2]. Many other countries use a comparable test exposure found in ISO 834 [3]. In spite of the difference between standard dire resistance tests, experimental charring rates measured in various parts of the world appear to be consistent. This justifies the use of such data for design, regardless of origin.
Copyright
Courtesy, American Wood Council, Leesburg, VA
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Chapter 6: Fire Damage of Wood Structures

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue897
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Fire
Mechanical Properties
Material
Solid-sawn Heavy Timber
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Author
Kukay, Brian
White, Robert
Woeste, Frank
Publisher
International Code Council
Year of Publication
2012
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Book/Guide
Material
Solid-sawn Heavy Timber
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Topic
Fire
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Bending Tests
Withdrawal Tests
Load Bearing Capacity
Charring
Reduced Cross Section Method
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Inspection, Testing, and Monitoring of Buildings and Bridges
Summary
Depending on the severity, fire damage can compromise the structural integrity of wood structures such as buildings or residences. Fire damage of wood structures can incorporate several models that address (1) the type, cause, and spread of the fire, (2) the thermal gradients and fire-resistance ratings, and (3) the residual load capacity. The investigator should employ engineering judgment to identify those in-service members that are to be replaced, repaired, or can remain in-service as they are. Suchjudgment will likely be based on the visual inspection of damaged members, connections, and any protective membranes.
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Charring Behavior of Structural Timber Elements in Full-Scale Fire Tests of Three Story Timber School Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1706
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Fire
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Suzuki, Jun-ichi
Kaku, Chihiro
Naruse, Tomohiro
Kagiya, Koji
Noboru, Yasui
Itagaki, Naoyuki
Izumi, Jun-ichi
Seki, Mariko
Kaku, Teruhiko
Hasemi, Yuji
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Charring Rate
Delamination
Full Scale
Fire Test
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 4437-4446
Summary
The charring behavior of timber structural elements, such as the charring rate of timber elements and delamination of glue-laminated timber, affects the structural stability of timber buildings. The charring rate of timber elements varies depending on the severity of fire exposure. However, charring rates have been ordinarily investigated in...
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The Charring Rate of Glulam Beams of Brazilian Wood Species

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1771
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Fire
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Author
Martins, Gisele
Munaiar Neto, Jorge
Calil Junior, Carlito
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Charring Rate
Brazil
Density
Fire Test
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 5302-5309
Summary
The combustibility of timber is one of the factors that restrict the use of structural elements of wood in buildings in Brazil. This paper describes an experimental investigation of the charring rate of wood species. The charring rate is one of the key parameters for the design of load bearing timber structures. The purpose of this study is...
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Contribution of Cross Laminated Timber Panels to Room Fires

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue306
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems

Correct Temperature Measurements in Fire Exposed Wood

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2025
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)

Cross-Laminated Timber Failure Modes for Fire Conditions

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue188
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Emberley, Richard
Torero, José
Year of Publication
2015
Country of Publication
Australia
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Adhesives
Charring Rate
Delamination
Codes
Failure Modes
Language
English
Conference
International Conference on Performance-based and Life-cycle Structural Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
December 9-11, 2015, Brisbane, Australia
Summary
Tall timber building designs have utilized cross-laminated timber (CLT) significantly over the past decade due the sustainable nature of timber and the many advantages of using an engineered mass timber product. Several design methods have been established to account for the composite action between the orthogonally adhered timber plies. These methods assume perfect bonding of the adjacent plies by the adhesive. CLT designs methods for timber in fire have also been formulated. These methods rely on the relatively constant charring rate of timber to calculate a sacrificial layer to be added onto the cross-sectional area. While these methods focus on the timber failure mode of reduced cross section by charring, the failure mode of ply delamination is often overlooked and understudied. Due to the reduction of shear and normal strength in the adhesive, the perfect bond assumption can be questioned and a deeper look into the mechanics of CLT composite action and interfacial stress needs be conducted. This paper seeks to highlight the various design methods for CLT design and identify the failure mode of delamination not present in the current design codes.
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Delamination Occurrence in Engineered Mass Timber Products at Elevated Temperatures

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1770
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Emberley, Richard
Yu, Zeyu
Fernando, Dilum
Torero, José
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Thermal Penetration Depths
Heat Flux
Shear Tests
Temperature
Delamination
Failure Modes
Charring
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 5294-5301
Summary
An experimental study was conducted to elucidate the effects of thermal penetration on delamination and the potential changes in failure mode of CLT. The first test series studied thermal penetration depths at various heat fluxes. The second test series consisted of single lap shear tests at homogeneous elevated temperatures followed by a...
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35 records – page 1 of 4.