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Effect of Adhesives and Ply Configuration on the Fire Performance of Southern Pine Cross-Laminated Timber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1682
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Connections
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Hasburgh, Laura
Bourne, Keith
Peralta, Perry
Mitchell, Phil
Schiff, Scott
Pang, Weichiang
Year of Publication
2016
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Connections
Fire
Keywords
Southern Pine
Adhesives
Ply Configuration
Fire Performance
Melamine Formaldehyde
Phenol-Resorcinol Formaldehyde
Polyurethane
Emulsion Polymer Isocyanate
Delamination
Char Rate
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 4031-4038
Summary
Thirteen Southern pine cross-laminated timber panels were tested in the intermediate scale horizontal furnace at the Forest Products Laboratory to determine the effects different adhesives and ply configuration had on fire performance. Four different adhesives were tested: melamine formaldehyde (MF), phenol resorcinol formaldehyde (PRF), polyurethane reactive (PUR), and emulsion polymer isocyanate (EPI). There were two ply configurations: Long-Cross-Long (LCL) or Long-Long-Cross (LLC) where “long” indicates the wood was parallel to the longer edge of the panel. The MF and the PRF prevented delamination and associated problems while the LLC configuration resulted in uneven charring patterns.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Encapsulated Mass Timber Construction Char Rate Analysis

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2387
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Walls

Fire Resistance of Structural Composite Lumber Products

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue790
Year of Publication
2006
Topic
Fire
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
Author
White, Robert
Organization
Forest Products Laboratory
Year of Publication
2006
Format
Report
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Char Rate
Fire Resistance
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Use of structural composite lumber products is increasing. In applications requiring a fire resistance rating, calculation procedures are used to obtain the fire resistance rating of exposed structural wood products. A critical factor in the calculation procedures is char rate for ASTM E 119 fire exposure. In this study, we tested 14 structural composite lumber products to determine char rate when subjected to the fire exposure of the standard fire resistance test. Char rate tests on 10 of the composite lumber products were also conducted in an intermediate-scale horizontal furnace. The National Design Specification/Technical Report 10 design procedure for calculating fire resistance ratings of exposed wood members can be used to predict failure times for members loaded in tension. Thirteen tests were conducted in which composite lumber products were loaded in tension as they were subjected to the standard fire exposure of ASTM E 119. Charring rates, observed failure times in tension tests, and deviations from predicted failure times of the structural composite lumber products were within expected range of results for sawn lumber and glued laminated timbers.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Fire resistance of unprotected cross-laminated timber (CLT) floor assemblies produced in the USA

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2063
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Fire
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Author
Muszynski, Lech
Gupta, Rakesh
Hong, Seung Hyun
Osborn, Neil
Pickett, Brent
Organization
Oregon State University
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2019
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Topic
Fire
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Fire Resistance
Char Rate
PUR
MF
Deflection
Half-lap Joints
Research Status
Complete
Series
Fire Safety Journal
Summary
Fire concerns are one reason for building code restrictions against tall wood buildings in US. Despite growing body of empirical data on fire performance of cross-laminated timber (CLT) generated in Europe and Canada, lack of full-scale tests performed on structural CLT “made in the USA” is often quoted as a barrier for approval of massive timber in tall buildings in the US. The goal of this project was to contribute towards removing this barrier by testing the fire resistance of three full-scale unprotected CLT floor assemblies fabricated by two US-based manufacturers. The assemblies represented two species groups (SPF and DF-L), and two adhesive systems (PUR and MF). All assemblies met ASTM E119 standard qualifying criteria for 2-h fire rating in loaded condition. While char fall-off was observed in assemblies bonded with PUR, the differences in mean char rates in the first two layers between assemblies bonded with PUR and MF were smaller than the variability of char rates within individual assemblies. Statistical significant difference was observed only for cumulative char rate for the entire time of exposure. The effect of softening of the PUR bonds was most apparent as an accelerated rate of assembly deflection in the late stage of the tests. The unprotected half-lap joints provided adequate barrier against transmission of hot gases and flames through the assemblies.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
https://pdf.sciencedirectassets.com/271100/1-s2.0-S0379711219X00053/1-s2.0-S0379711218305885/am.pdf?X-Amz-Security-Token=IQoJb3JpZ2luX2VjEEMaCXVzLWVhc3QtMSJGMEQCIDPx6%2F0r%2FHVTQJ4dIafRmA3HwlGbcfNxmDLq4jjyvK3PAiAvLftbzlZ61shIRB1efaHazFSh9c7RiPv1sgh7xLTUkCrSBAg8EAQaDDA1OTAwMzU0Njg2NSIME%2FogFVutVaM1DKzrKq8E3uKFIQ9lxfiR4tIQ5oR4oSiJ%2FTsQyw%2FTFJstsBD%2B2w5XLorMtiaW6mqXhnzwAcbKDtFkNRarELjS6mmRBo1HiDi68YSGh1Pn2D5URF0NgNLbDFsnpeuc3FM4tHTubHCD4VJFhPlfixAF21w%2FWNhTlT0Izd4oFwm%2BMN9zcWsclrG6GccTlU4yqtflLe1R%2B7iQRWM1t9KXtZpld8Sb9sMvX9skbqmoehxyUGqqOPdY4%2FGr%2FUckZJafosr9rlSGdGAqsdNPWRxz9WuzgCjNCjFwccnbr%2FzfvCm4qLMyRK1LmjdqgsqbGYEXnXZSVZitVFDpygxH%2F7rF3lRO65TXT7U27p2RAbvq%2FUb6JBW%2BTRkICDC7T6DksT%2BGgmVjPcTxyWahOcFjA5wem5RnvPrO%2FvPZqt3TMiN9MrwGyN5aiXL5cFt8hLco2wLso0c9wrm6pGsF4r1wfcREPuGuGOky8O1xyxyJh07smHCXImM5BaUS%2FHoy0GSOyEyP8HgDiAeD3LCLFFl6jLGpW9REj3tUkQaN2dBKPhPyitcSCmStXGyw3HisA%2F1aC9joR8lCSuuSM7gXNF18d97w2b1RGPU5dKvY%2FXvWP%2FY%2BGexTVmo9%2FxU5ii1dgtJzEViCXtg7%2FRnMuWq8NJrl84Y9WzG5W8mGMwZeMqw4GH236S%2BPpusTJ6TBZCdmm1qc4yOlAbXpy3kLHqD10zTkEHHbY44tfXr%2FleDRvuft0NUZiQFai0zUjckCwDDXrNuUBjqqATje7b1UchMlqDY%2F0x32ozrkox7WAFjOK%2BnH4oFQzaQKm%2FAZpIPh3GLpHYv5Ar6y0vJnUl%2FpoD3T5ZeNWZLivqXvPR5YJc9v9FLDE4oJn5gIaXqdoLyijUrJjDHLK99ok3QMkZxnvWNRHY0kXMaqOiuz2oDax5bRtxV9GIDvoN3BRn48vEclfQtJCJSFwOUy7S5eICMvO5F%2Bk%2F1QNd3GzIBV%2FO79ewELWEwS&X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20220601T040307Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=300&X-Amz-Credential=ASIAQ3PHCVTYSIV3POZV%2F20220601%2Fus-east-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=cc99b0b1ab9587019cd039987a2619c82e0f19e5f58e3533b299b76cad3e29e3&hash=8aee703f3fc30b828ed3bc96daec8c857192c5cd8483a68ea7c0e1cb7eeb9cac&host=68042c943591013ac2b2430a89b270f6af2c76d8dfd086a07176afe7c76c2c61&pii=S0379711218305885&tid=pdf-b0978c1f-5546-4c90-8925-a0dfc682b29c&sid=452576e25704d342c82a45827aafe4c69ff8gxrqa&type=client
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