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11 records – page 1 of 2.

Assessment of Carbon Footprint of Laminated Veneer Lumber Elements in a Six Story Housing - Comparison to a Steel and Concrete Solution

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2135
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Environmental Impact
Design and Systems
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems

Carbon Footprint Benchmarking of BC Multi-Unit Residential Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2159
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
Application
Hybrid Building Systems

Catalyst – Five Stories of Mass Timber in Spokane

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3040
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
General Information
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Publisher
WoodWorks
Year of Publication
2020
Format
Document
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
General Information
Keywords
Case Study
Carbon Footprint
End-to-end Design
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Aptly named for its goal of inspiring new ways to build, Catalyst is the first cross-laminated timber (CLT) office building constructed in Washington state. It is also designed to Passive House principles and to achieve zero-carbon and zero-energy certification from the International Living Future Institute (ILFI), making it a leading example of sustainable building design.
Online Access
Free
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Comparison of Carbon Footprints: Mass Timber Buildings vs Steels – A Literature Review

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2380
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Cooney, Emily
Publisher
Lakehead University
Year of Publication
2020
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Sustainability
Carbon Footprint
Mass Timber
Steel
Greenhouse Gases
Climate Change
Engineered Wood Product (EWP)
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Sustainability and innovation are key components in the fight against climate change. Mass timber buildings have been gaining popularity due to the renewable nature of timber. Although research comparing mass timber buildings to more mainstream buildings such as steel is still in the early stages and therefore, limited. We are looking to determine the difference between carbon footprints of mass timber and traditional steel and concrete buildings. This is done with the intention of determining the sustainability and practicality of mass timber buildings.
Online Access
Free
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Cradle-to-Gate Life-Cycle Assessment of a Glued-Laminated Wood Product from Quebec's Boreal Forest

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2555
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Author
Laurent, Achille
Gaboury, Simon
Wells, Jean-Robert
Bonfils, Sibi
Boucher, Jean-François
Sylvie, Bouchard
D'Amours, Sophie
Villeneuve, Claude
Publisher
Forest Products Society
Year of Publication
2013
Format
Journal Article
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
LCA
Cradle-to-Gate
Sustainability
Greenhouse gas emissions
Carbon Footprint
Research Status
Complete
Series
Forest Products Journal
Summary
The building sector is increasingly identified as being energy and carbon intensive. Although the majority of emissions are linked to energy usage during the operation part of a building's life cycle, choice of construction materials could play a significant role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and other environmental end-point damages. Increasing the use of wood products in buildings may contribute to the solution, but their environmental impacts are difficult to assess and quantify because they depend on a variety of uncertain parameters. The present cradle-to-gate life-cycle analysis (LCA) focuses exclusively on a glued-laminated wood product (glulam) produced from North American boreal forests located in the province of Quebec, Canada. This study uses primary data to quantify the environmental impacts of all necessary stages of products' life cycle, from harvesting the primary resources, to manufacturing the transformed product into glulam. The functional unit is 1 m3 of glulam. This is the first study based on primary data pertaining to Quebec's boreal forest. Quebec's boreal glulam manufacturing was compared with two other LCAs on glulam in Europe and the United States. Our results show that Quebec's glulam has a significantly smaller environmental footprint than what is reported in the literature. From an LCA perspective, there is a significant advantage to producing glulam in Quebec, compared with the European and American contexts. The same holds true in regard to the four end-point damage categories.
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Free
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Cross-Laminated Timber Constructions in a Sustainable Future – Transition to Fossil Free and Carbon Capture Technologies

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2696
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Tellnes, Lars
Saxegård, Simon
Johnsen, Fredrik Moltu
Publisher
IOP Publishing Ltd
Year of Publication
2020
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Environmental Product Declaration
Carbon Capture and Storage
Climate Change
Life Cycle
Carbon Footprint
End of Life
Research Status
Complete
Series
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science
Summary
Cross laminated timber (CLT) has recently increased in use as a building material for low carbon design and is often applied in small and multi-story buildings. Several studies have shown lower fossil related greenhouse gas emission than alternatives, but the life cycle emissions vary substantially between different CLT producers. These emissions are mainly indirect and thus climate change mitigation could reduce these emissions. Previous research shows that that biofuels and carbon capture and storage (CCS) are technologies that have the potential to reduce the climate impacts of the CLT life cycle. This study assesses the impacts on climate change from CLT with these technologies within the framework of environmental product declarations (EPD). In the short run, switching to fossil free fuels provides a reduction in the carbon footprint of CLT. In the long run, CCS at the end-of-life of CLT buildings can provide a net negative carbon footprint over the life cycle. This assessment on the use of CLT is mainly related to the Sustainable Development Goal SDG9 Industries, innovation and infrastructure and the indicator for CO2 emissions per value added, so the assessment in this paper is mainly focused on this goal. SDG7 on affordable and clean energy and SDG15 Life on land are also relevant.
Online Access
Free
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Cross-laminated timber for building construction: A life-cycle-assessment overview

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3002
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Younis, Adel
Dodoo, Ambrose
Organization
Linnaeus University
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Carbon Footprint
Life Cycle Assessment
Climate Change
Sustainable Multi-story Construction
Research Status
Complete
Series
Journal of Building Engineering
Summary
The building industry is a large contributor to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and a vast consumer of natural resources. It is estimated that, in the next 40 years, around 415 Gt of CO2 will be released as a result of global construction activities. Therefore, improvements in construction technologies are essential to reduce GHG emissions and thereby attain national and international goals to mitigate climate change. Cross-laminated timber (CLT) has emerged as an innovative alternative material to steel/concrete in building construction, given its relatively low carbon footprint, not to mention its high strength-to-weight ratio, simple installation, and aesthetic features. CLT is a structural composite panel product developed in the early 1990s, and the contemporary generation of CLT buildings are yet to reach the end of their service life. Accordingly, there has been growing interest to understand and optimize the performance of CLT in building construction. In view of that, this paper presents an overview on the feasibility of using CLT in buildings from a life-cycle assessment (LCA) standpoint. The authors performed a brief review on LCA studies conducted in the past decade pertaining to the carbon footprint of CLT buildings. On average, the findings of these studies revealed about 40% reduction in carbon footprint when using CLT in lieu of conventional construction materials (steel/concrete) for multi-story buildings. Furthermore, the paper explores the challenges associated with conducting LCA on CLT buildings, identifies the gaps in knowledge, and outlines directions for future research.
Online Access
Free
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Environmental Performances of a Timber-Concrete Prefabricated Composite Wall System

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1343
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Walls
Author
Fortuna, Stefano
Dalla Mora, Tiziano
Peron, Fabio
Romagnoni, Piercarlo
Publisher
ScienceDirect
Year of Publication
2017
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Walls
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Concrete Glulam Framed Panel
Embodied Energy
Carbon Footprint
Cradle-to-Gate
Prefabrication
Reinforced Concrete
Research Status
Complete
Series
Energy Procedia
Summary
The improvement of environmental performance in building construction could be achieved by prefabrication. This study quantifies and compares the environmental impacts of a Concrete Glulam Framed Panel (CGFP): the basic configuration of this precast component consists in a Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) frame structure supporting a thin reinforced concrete slab with an interior insulation panel and covered by finishing layers. The research investigates also alternative design of configuration with the substitution of different insulation materials in order to minimize the Embodied Energy and Carbon Footprint values. The boundary of the quantitative analysis is “cradle to gate” including the structural support system; an IMPACT 2002+ characterization methodology is employed to translate inventory flows into impacts indicators. Results present very low values for carbon footprint (60.63 kg CO2eq m-2) and the embodied energy values (919.44 MJ m-2) indicate this hybrid precast structure as a valid alternative building constructions and processes. A detailed discussion of the outputs is presented, including the comparison of the environmental performances depending on different insulation materials.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Environmental Product Declarations of Structural Wood: A Review of Impacts and Potential Pitfalls for Practice

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3060
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
General Information
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Author
Rasmussen, Freja Nygaard
Andersen, Camilla Ernst
Wittchen, Alexandra
Hansen, Rasmus Nøddegaard
Birgisdóttir, Harpa
Organization
Aalborg University
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Topic
General Information
Keywords
Life Cycle Assessment
Structural Wood
EN 15804
Environmental Product Declaration
Biogenic CO2
Carbon Footprint
Building Design
Material Choice
Research Status
Complete
Series
Buildings
Summary
The use of wood and timber products in the construction of buildings is repeatedly pointed towards as a mean for lowering the environmental footprint. With several countries preparing regulation for life cycle assessment of buildings, practitioners from industry will presumably look to the pool of data on wood products found in environmental product declarations (EPDs). However, the EPDs may vary broadly in terms of reporting and results. This study provides a comprehensive review of 81 third-party verified EN 15804 EPDs of cross laminated timber (CLT), glulam, laminated veneer lumber (LVL) and timber. The 81 EPDs represent 86 different products and 152 different product scenarios. The EPDs mainly represent European production, but also North America and Australia/New Zealand productions are represented. Reported global warming potential (GWP) from the EPDs vary within each of the investigated product categories, due to density of the products and the end-of-life scenarios applied. Median results per kg of product, excluding the biogenic CO2, are found at 0.26, 0.24, and 0.17 kg CO2e for CLT, glulam, and timber, respectively. Results further showed that the correlation between GWP and other impact categories is limited. Analysis of the inherent data uncertainty showed to add up to ±41% to reported impacts when assessed with an uncertainty method from the literature. However, in some of the average EPDs, even larger uncertainties of up to 90% for GWP are reported. Life cycle assessment practitioners can use the median values from this study as generic data in their assessments of buildings. To make the EPDs easier to use for practitioners, a more detailed coordination between EPD programs and their product category rules is recommended, as well as digitalization of EPD data.
Online Access
Free
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A New Concrete-Glulam Prefabricated Composite Wall System: Thermal Behavior, Life Cycle Assessment and Structural Response

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1296
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Environmental Impact
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Author
Boscato, Giosuè
Dalla Mora, Tiziano
Peron, Fabio
Russo, Salvatore
Romagnoni, Piercarlo
Publisher
ScienceDirect
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Journal Article
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Strength
Stiffness
Concrete Glulam Framed Panel
Thermal Behaviour
Carbon Footprint
Embodied Energy
Life-Cycle Assessment
Research Status
Complete
Series
Journal of Building Engineering
Summary
In a former paper by the authors [1], the elastic behavior of Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) and timber panels having periodic gaps between lateral lamellae has been analyzed. A thick plate homogenization scheme based on Finite Elements computations has been applied. The predicted behavior was in agreement with experimental results. In this paper, simplified closed-form solutions are derived in order to avoid FE modeling. Both cases of narrow gaps of CLT panels and wide gaps of innovative lightweight panels are investigated. CLT and timber panels with gaps are modeled as a space frame of beams connected with wooden blocks. The contribution of both beams and blocks to the panel’s mechanical response is taken into account, leading to closed-form expressions for predicting the panel’s stiffnesses and maximum longitudinal and rolling shear stresses. The derived closed-form solutions are in agreement with the reference FE results and they can be used for practical design purposes.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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11 records – page 1 of 2.