The current research investigated the delamination process of adhesively bonded hardwood (European beech) elements subject to changing climatic conditions. For the study of the long-term fracture mechanical behavior of gluedlaminated components under varying moisture content, the role of moisture development, time- and moisture-dependent responses are absolutely crucial. For this purpose, a 3D orthotropic hygro-elastic, plastic, visco-elastic, mechano-sorptive wood constitutive model with moisture-dependent material constants was presented in this work. Such a comprehensive material model is capable to capture the true historydependent stress states and deformations which are essential to achieve reliable design of timber structures. Besides the solid wood substrates, the adhesive material also influences the interface performance considerably. Hence, to gain further insight into the stresses and deformations generated in the bond-line, a general hygro-elastic, plastic, visco-elastic creep material model for adhesive was introduced as well. The associated numerical algorithms developed on the basis of additive decomposition of the total strain were formulated and implemented within the Abaqus Finite Element (FE) package. Functionality and performance of the proposed approach were evaluated by performing multiple verification simulations of wood components, under different combinations of mechanical loading and moisture variation. Moreover, the generality and efficiency of the presented approach was further demonstrated by conducting an application example of a hybrid wood element.
Glued laminated timber (glulam) is manufactured by gluing and stacking timber lamellas,
which are sawn and finger-jointed parallel to the wood grain direction. This results in a
sustainable and competitive construction material in terms of dimensional versatility and
load-carrying capacity. With the proliferation of glued timber constructions, there is an
increasing concern about safety problems related to adhesive bonding. Delaminations are
caused by manufacturing errors and in service climate variations simultaneously combined
with long-sustained loads (snow, wind and gravel filling on flat roofs). Several recent
building collapses were related to bonding failure, which should be prevented in the future
with a timely defect detection. As an outlook, the feasibility of air-coupled ultrasound tomography was demonstrated with numerical tests and preliminary experiments on glulam. The FDTD wave propagation model was excited by the difference of the time-reversed sound fields transmitted through a test and a reference (defect-free) glulam cross-section. Both datasets were obtained with the same SLT setup. Wave convergences then provided a map of bonding defects along the height and width of the inspected glulam cross-sections. Further
research is envisaged in this direction
This study investigates the bending and bonding performances of glued laminated timber beams manufactured using a combination of Malaysian lower and higher- grade timber species. Two types of beams were prepared which were mono-species and mixed-species glulam. Mono-species glulam with uniform layup were fabricated using Merpauh, Jelutong and Sesendok. Mixed-species glulam with balanced layup were fabricated whereby Merpauh was positioned equally at the outer layers and either Jelutong or Sesendok were positioned at the inner layers. Three replicates of ten-layered glulam beams measuring 100 mm in width, 300 mm in depth and 6200 mm in length were manufactured according to MS758 for each mono and mixed-species glulam. Bending, delamination and block shear tests were done on all the glulam beams. The results show that glulam manufactured from the combination of Sesendok and Merpauh obtained the highest bending properties and structural efficiency. In addition, the bonding performance at the interface between Sesendok-Merpauh lamellas proved to be excellent.
This study aims to develop an improved understanding of the interfacial bond behavior of softwood glulam joints with bonded-in threaded steel rod. A total of 39 glulam joints with bonded-in single-threaded steel rods were tested to failure in the pull-pull configuration. The test results were presented in term of failure modes, load-relative movement response, pullout strength, and the corresponding slip. The distributions of bonded-in rod axial strain, interfacial bond stress, and relative movement were also analyzed to evaluate the local bond stress– relative movement response in the bond line. The results confirmed that the bond-relative movement response is dependent on the locations along the anchorage length, and the bond-relative movement responses located near both the loaded end and the anchorage end were observed to be stiffer than those at other locations. Finally, the predictions for the load capacity of the glulam joints with bonded-in threaded steel rod were carried out based on several existing empirical formulas.
The feasibility of manufacturing cross-laminated timber (CLT) from southern yellow pine (United States grown) treated with micronized copper azole type C (MCA-C) preservative was evaluated. Lumber (2x6 visually graded no. 2 boards) was treated to two retention levels (1.0 and 2.4 kg/m3 ), planed to a thickness of 35 mm, and assembled along with an untreated control group using three adhesive systems following product specifications: melamine formaldehyde (MF), resorcinol formaldehyde (RF), and one-component polyurethane (PUR). Block shear and delamination tests were conducted to examine the bonding performance in accordance with ASTM D905 and ASTM D2559 Standards, respectively. One-way analysis of variance and Kruskal-Wallis H test were conducted to evaluate the effects of preservative retention and adhesive type on block shear strength (BSS) and wood failure percentage (WFP). Regardless of adhesive type, the 1.0 kg/m3 retention treatment significantly lowered BSS compared to the untreated control. CLT composed of the laminations treated at 2.4 kg/m3 maintained BSS when PUR and RF were used but not MF. The average WFP of each CLT configuration ranged from 89% to 99%. The untreated CLT specimens did not experience any delamination under accelerated weathering cycles. The delamination rates of the treated specimens assembled using MF and RF increased with the preservative retention level, while PUR provided delamination rates less than 1% to the laminations treated at both levels. These combined data suggest that, under the conditions tested, PUR provided overall better bonding performance than MF and RF for MCA-C treated wood.
Different methods, including bending tests and small and medium size shear tests, were used to assess the skin to stringer glue line shear strength of Radiata Pine Cross-Laminated Timber Derived Stressed-Skin Panels (CLT SSP). Bending test shear strengths were estimated using the mechanically jointed beam theory (gamma method) for CrossLaminated Timber (CLT) panels with modifications in the layers’ effective widths, and then compared with results from the small and medium size shear tests. Small and medium size shear tests proved to be possible methods for assessing bonding strength for factory production control. The small shear tests provided lower strength values and higher scatter results than those gathered from the medium size tests. The mean shear strength results obtained from bending tests were inferior to the values obtained from the small and medium size specimens. The bending tests proved necessary for assessing the mechanical behaviour of CLT SSP.
Structural engineered woods require the use of previously evaluated structural adhesives in accordance with a variety of standard methods (ASTM D2559, ASTM D7247, CSA O112.9, CSA O112.10, CSA O177, etc.). The basic assumption is that a bonded engineered wood product will have a performance equivalent to, or better than, the non-bonded product it replaces, regardless of the conditions of use (dry, wet, fire, etc.). Nevertheless, the results of cross-laminated wood (CLT) fire tests have shown that the requirements currently imposed on adhesives do not allow to limit lamellae detachment when CLT is exposed to fire. Traditionally, this behavior is not observed for glulam. It is essential to review the classification and performance criteria imposed on adhesives by submitting them to the various tests currently standardized. The analysis of the results may also be used to develop a new test method for adhesives exposed to high temperatures, depending on the anticipated use of the engineered wood product.