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An Exploratory Study of Composite Cross-Laminated Timber (CCLT) Made from Bamboo and Hemlock-fir Mix

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2411
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems

Delamination Testing of CLT Panels: An Exploratory Study

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2626
Year of Publication
2011
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Casilla, Romulo
Pirvu, Ciprian
Wang, Brad
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2011
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Adhesive
Bond Quality
Delamination Test
Strength
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
A study was conducted with the primary objective of examining the efficacy of delamination test using cylindrical core specimens to assess the bond quality of cross laminated timber (CLT) products. A prototype coring drill bit was fabricated to prepare a cylindrical-shaped specimen, the height of which corresponds to the full thickness of the CLT panel. A secondary objective was to examine the effect of pressure, adhesive type, number of plies, and specimen shape on the delamination resistance of CLT panels. The wood material used for the CLT samples was Select grade nominal 1 x 6-inch Hem-Fir boards. Examples of three adhesive types were evaluated, which were designated as A, B, and C. The delamination tests used were as described in CAN / CSA O122-06 and EN 302-2. Cylindrical specimen extracted as core was found satisfactory as a test specimen type for use in delamination testing of CLT product. Its efficacy was comparable to that of a square cross-section specimen. The former is recommended as it can be extracted from thicker panels and from any location in the panel. It would also be more convenient to plug the round hole. Adhesive type had a strong effect on delamination resistance based on the two delamination tests used. Adhesive A exhibited the greatest delamination resistance, followed in decreasing order, by adhesives C and B. It should be noted that no effort was made to find the optimum CLT manufacturing parameters for each type of adhesive. Therefore the relative rankings of the adhesives tested may not be representative. However, for the purposes of this study, the different performance levels from the three adhesives are useful in providing insight into how the proposed delamination test responds to significant changes in CLT manufacturing parameters. Pressure used in fabricating the CLT panel showed a strong effect on delamination resistance as demonstrated for one of the adhesives. Delamination resistance decreased with decreasing pressure. The effect of the number of plies in the CLT panel was dependent upon the type of adhesive, and this was probably related to the adhesive’s assembly time characteristic. These results provide support as to the effectiveness of delamination test in assessing the moisture durability of CLT panels. It was able to differentiate the performance in delamination resistance among different types of adhesives, and able to detect the effect of manufacturing parameters such as pressure and increased number of plies in CLT construction. The test procedure described in CAN / CSA O122-06 appears to be reasonable in the delamination resistance assessment of CLT panels for qualification and quality control testing. Based on the results of the study along with some background information and guidelines, delamination requirements for CLT panels are proposed. The permitted delamination values are greater than those currently specified for laminated and fingerjoined lumber products. This is in recognition of the higher bond line stresses when bonded perpendicular laminations (i.e. CLT) are exposed to the delamination wetting and drying cycles, as opposed to parallel laminations (i.e. glulam or fingerjoints).
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Evaluation of the Bonding Quality of E. grandis Cross-Laminated Timber Made With a One-Component Polyurethane Adhesive

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2369
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Dugmore, Michael
Publisher
Stellenbosch University
Year of Publication
2018
Country of Publication
South Africa
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Polyurethane
Panels
Bond Performance
Bond Quality
Durability Assessment
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Eucalyptus grandis is South Africa‘s most important commercial hardwood species. The availability of E. grandis and its fast growth rate creates the opportunity to explore its uses further. Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is a prefabricated multilayer engineered panel product made of at least three layers, with the grain direction of some or all of the consecutive layers orthogonally orientated. In order to add value to E. grandis, reduce the export of low-cost chips, increase the profit margins of local plantation owners and create jobs, the development of E. grandis CLT in South Africa may be an option. There is concern among some researchers that the bonding quality evaluation tests proposed by CLT standards have been developed for glulam and are too severe for CLT. These researchers proposed that further analysis and possibly even revision of the test methods should be considered. There is also a need to evaluate the mechanical properties of CLT panels made of E. grandis to completely understand the structural performance of these panels, including their bond quality and durability, and therefore be able to rely on E. grandis CLT as a construction material. The objectives of this study were: . To evaluate the face-bonding quality of CLT panels from E. grandis timber bonded with a one component polyurethane resin; . To determine the influence of material and processing parameters on the face-bonding quality of CLT manufactured from E. grandis timber bonded with a one component polyurethane resin; . To analyse different testing methods for evaluating the face-bonding quality of CLT. The design for this experiment consisted of eight groups with different combinations of parameters for density, grooves and pressure per group. Four different testing methods were used to evaluate the face-bonding quality of CLT panels from E. grandis and to determine the effect of parameters on face-bonding quality: A delamination test on 100 x 100 mm block specimens (Test A), a shear test on 40 x 40 mm specimens (Test B), a shear test on 40 x 40 mm specimens with grain direction 45° to load direction (Test C) and a combined delamination and shear test on 70 x 70 mm specimens with grain direction 45° to load direction (Test D). Results of the statistical analysis indicated that E. grandis CLT made with 1C-PUR adhesive can obtain excellent face-bonding quality using a clamping pressure of 0.7 MPa and with no stress relief grooves present. All samples passed the shear test (Test B) which is the reference test method proposed by EN 16351 (2015). It was found that a strength component and durability component will be an advantage when testing the bond quality of CLT. Shear tests at 45° to the load direction did not completely eliminate the rolling shear effect. The combined delamination and shear test (Test D), seems to have potential as a good test for bond quality since it is a combination of a durability and shear strength test. There are still questions about the relative advantages of specific test methods for bond quality, especially on the effect of rolling shear. Further work should focus on this aspect and the use of stress models might be a way of gaining further insights.
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