The bending strength of hybrid wooden-core laminated timber (HWLT), a composite material made from existing cross-laminated timber (CLT) and plywood, was analyzed. Using plywood makes it possible to decrease the bending strength of the starting material. Korea Larch (Larix kaempferi Carr.) was used as plywood because of its popularity in Korea. To analyze HWLT’s bending properties, each component (lamina, plywood) was tested for bending, compression, and tensile strengths. The results showed that the HWLT’s bending strength depended on the plywood’s number of plies. With an increased number of plies, plywood’s bending strength decreased, and also HWLT’s bending strength decreased. Most of the failure showed in-plate shear failure of plywood. This result meant that use of reinforced plywood made it possible to increase HWLT’s bending strength for structural material.
The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the properties of glued laminated beams made in diverse configurations of timber quality classes, reinforced using a new technique that is cheaper and easy to apply. The aim of the experimental investigations was to enhance reinforcement effectiveness and rigidity of glued laminated beams. The tests consisted of four-point bending of large-scale specimens reinforced with basalt fibres (BFRP). The tests were meant to obtain images of failure, the load–displacement relation and load carrying capacity of basalt fibres depending on the reinforcement ratio. The tests, which concerned low and average quality timber beams, were conducted in a few stages. The aim of the study was to popularize and increase the use of low-quality timber harvested from reafforested areas for structural applications. In the study, theoretical and numerical analysis was carried out for reinforced and unreinforced elements in various configurations of wood quality classes. The aim was to compare the results with the findings of experimental tests. Based on the tests, it was found that the load carrying capacity of beams reinforced with basalt fibre was higher by, respectively, 13% and 20% than that of reference beams, while their rigidity improved by, respectively, 9.99% and 17.13%. The experimental tests confirmed that basalt fibres are an effective structural reinforcement of structural timber with reduced mechanical properties.
A computer aided numerical model for the simulation of the in-plane bending strength of CLT beams is presented. The model uses the Monte-Carlo-Method to generate mechanical characteristics of board lamellae and is suitable for the investigation of statistical effects such as homogenisation and size effects. Six different types of CLT beams, varying in size and in layup, were tested to validate the model and except for beams with only one lamella in direction of the beam height good agreement was found between the experimental results and the model’s simulations.
At the Institute of Structural Engineering at the ETH Zurich numerous of investigations are conducted to analyse the load bearing capacity of glued laminated timber beams. The investigations are part of the research project ’Influence of varying material properties on the load bearing capacity of glued laminated timber (glulam)’. The investigations are taking place on 24 glulam beams with well-known material properties. The glulam beams are fabricated out of 400 timber boards. From those boards the material properties are investigated non-destructively within a former research project. During the glulam fabrication it is particularly focused to keep the information of the timber boards; i.e. after the glulam fabrication the position of each particular timber board within the glulam beam and thus the position of each particular knot is still known. The glulam beams are investigated during a 4-point bending test. On the glulam members the load bearing capacity, the bending stiffness and the density is measured. Furthermore local strains within the glulam beams are investigated using an optical coordinate-measurement device. Following the test the failure is investigated in detail. Hereby the type of failure (knot cluster, finger joint, clear wood) and the amount of failure (number of damaged lamellas) is documented. Afterwards the failed glulam beams are loaded again to analyse the remaining bending strength and the corresponding remaining bending stiffness. The major aim of the experimental analysis is the investigation of the load bearing capacity of glulam beams with well-known local material properties. The gained results can be used for an investigation of the influence of local weak zones, such as knot clusters or finger joints, on the load bearing capacity of glulam. In addition a data basis is produced to develop a new model (or to evaluate existing models) for the estimation of the load bearing capacity of glulam.
This paper summarises parts of the research outcomes of a university-government collaborative project aiming at determining the capacity and reliability of veneer-based structural products manufactured from early to midrotation (juvenile) hardwood plantations logs. Two species planted for solid timber end-products (Eucalyptus cloeziana and Corymbia citriodora) and one species traditionally grown for pulpwood (Eucalyptus globulus) were studied for the manufacture of the new products. Focus of this paper is on LVL beams. To cost-effectively determine the nominal design bending strengths of the new beams, a numerical model was developed. The model was found to accurately predict the strength of LVL beams with an average predicted to experimental ratio of 1.00 with a low coefficient of variation of 0.10. Using an established probabilistic database of the material properties of the veneered resources as model input, Monte-Carlo simulations were then performed. The design strength of the new LVL beams was established and found to be comparable to, and in some cases up to 2.5 times higher than, the ones of commercially available softwood products. Recommendations are also made in the paper on the appropriate capacity factors to be used for various service categories of structures. The proposed capacity factors were found to be 5% to 12% lower than the ones currently used in Australia for beams manufactured from mature softwood logs
An overview on the mechanical and physical properties of cross laminated timber (solid wood panels) in the building industry and its use in timber construction is presented. Structure-property relations for solid wood based materials are discussed. Important properties, such as strength, sorption, diffusion, thermal conductivity in relation to the board structure are presented. By varying the structure, the properties can be optimized over a wide range. The focus of this publication lies on experimental works performed by Swiss researchers at the ETH Zürich.
Development of cross laminated timber (CLT) manufacturing facilities will require an optimization of manufacturing parameters to ensure efficient production. This study examined the effects of press pressure, press time and the addition of water to bond surfaces for a CLT panel composed of southern pine lumber and polyurethane adhesive. Evaluation of the CLT panels used the five-point bending test for bending stiffness, bending strength and shear stiffness in addition to measuring the resistance to shear by compression loading. The shear strength and percent wood failure values obtained from the resistance to shear by compression loading. The optimal combination of manufacturing parameters studied was 100% press pressure and a press time of 80% of the manufacturer recommendations. The addition of water to the bondline surfaces was deemed unnecessary for CLT materials conforming to the PRG-320 standard. Comparison of mechanical properties with Grade V3 showed higher bending strength and shear stiffness values.