The research study focuses on different strengthening techniques for timber concrete composites (TCC) using different types of wire and wire mesh integrated with a layer of epoxy on a timber core embedded in concrete using experimental and analytical procedure. The impact of TCC on axial compression performance, modulus of elasticity, failure mode and post failure behavior and ductility were compared to reference concrete specimens. Different types of wire and wire mesh used in strengthening of the timber core, timber core size and reinforcement in the concrete cylinder were all parameters considered in this study. Timing of application of the epoxy on the wire strengthened timber core was very important. For structural applications, where the weight reduction and ductility as well as post failure endurance are essential, the development of this composite is recommended. The ratio of the ductility index to the weight is discussed. The light weight of the timber composite, and the increased ductility were noted in this study. An equation to estimate the axial compression capacity of the strengthened timber concrete composite was developed in this study. This study will pave the way for further applications for timber concrete composite aiming at reducing dead weight of concrete and the reducing the amount of concrete and steel in construction.
Results from a series of blast tests performed in October 2016 on three two-story, single-bay cross-laminated timber (CLT) structures demonstrated the ability of CLT construction to resist airblast loads in a predictable fashion. These tests were performed on structures without superimposed load to limit inertial resistance. Subsequently, a follow-on series of tests was performed to investigate the response of axially-loaded CLT construction. Panels damaged during the preceding test were removed and replaced. Axial load was applied using precast concrete blocks to simulate the loaded condition of a five-story building at the first-floor front panel of the structures. These test structures were exposed to two shots: the first was designed to keep the structures within their respective elastic ranges while the second was designed to push the structures beyond their elastic limits. Reflected pressure and peak deflections were recorded at the front panels of the test structures to document the two-way panel load distribution behavior under a dynamic load event and the clearing of the shock wave. Prior to conducting the blast tests, a small number of tests were performed on a load tree test apparatus to aid in test planning by investigating the post-peak response of individual CLT panels of various lengths to quasi-static out-of-plane and axial loads applied simultaneously. This paper provides an overview of the results obtained from both the quasi-static and blast tests of axially-loaded CLT. Additionally, the paper compares CLT structure, component, and connection response across the suite of data. Conclusions are offered to assist engineers in the design of load bearing CLT construction exposed to airblast loads.
Cross laminated timber (CLT) and self-tapping screws have strongly dominated the latest developments in timber engineering. Although knowledge of connection techniques in traditional light-frame structures can be applied to solid timber constructions with CLT, there are some product specifics requiring additional attention; for example in positioning of fasteners, differentiation in the side face and narrow face of the panels and the influence of potential gaps. The load–displacement behaviour of single, axially-loaded self-tapping screws positioned in the narrow face of CLT and failing in withdrawal was investigated. For the first time a multivariate probabilistic model was formulated together with models relating the parameters with the thread-fibre angle and the density. Different types and widths of gaps, initial slip and / or delayed stiffening as well as softening after exceeding of the maximum load can be considered. Beyond the scope of this contribution, the probabilistic model is seen as a worthwhile basis for investigations into the withdrawal behaviour of primary axially loaded, compact groups of screws positioned in timber products and subjected to withdrawal failure.
A set of novel structural fire tests on axially loaded cross-laminated timber (CLT) compression elements (walls), locally exposed to thermal radiation sufficient to cause sustained flaming combustion, are presented and discussed. Test specimens were subjected to a sustained compressive load, equivalent to 10 % or 20 % of their nominal ambient axial compressive capacity. The walls were then locally exposed to a nominal constant incident heat flux of 50 kW/m2 over their mid height area until failure occurred. The axial and lateral deformations of the walls were measured and compared against predictions calculated using a finite Bernoulli beam element analysis, to shed light on the fundamental mechanics and needs for rational structural design of CLT compression elements in fire. For the walls tested herein, failure at both ambient and elevated temperature was due to global buckling. At high temperature failure results from excessive lateral deflections and second order flexural effects due to reductions the walls’ effective crosssection and flexural rigidity, as well as a shift of the effective neutral axis in bending during fire. Measured average one-dimensional charring rates ranged between 0.82 and 1.0 mm/min in these tests. As expected, the lamellae configuration greatly influenced the walls’ deformation responses and times to failure; with 3- ply walls failing earlier than those with 5-plies. The walls’ deformation response during heating suggests that, if a conventional reduced cross section method (RCSM), zero strength layer analysis were undertaken, the required zero strength layer depths would range between 15.2 mm and 21.8 mm. Deflection paths further suggest that the concept of a zero strength layer is inadequate for properly capturing the mechanical response of fire-exposed CLT compression elements.