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Ability of Finger-Jointed Lumber to Maintain Load at Elevated Temperatures

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1832
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Fire
Material
Other Materials
Author
Rammer, Douglas
Zelinka, Samuel
Hasburgh, Laura
Craft, Steven
Publisher
Forest Products Laboratory
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Journal Article
Material
Other Materials
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Small Scale
Full Scale
Bending Test
Melamine Formaldehyde
Phenol-Resorcinol Formaldehyde
Creep
Polyurethane
Polyvinyl Acetate
Temperature
Durability
Research Status
Complete
Series
Wood and Fiber Science. 50(1): 44-54.
Summary
This article presents a test method that was developed to screen adhesive formulations for finger-jointed lumber. The goal was to develop a small-scale test that could be used to predict whether an adhesive would pass a full-scale ASTM E119 wall assembly test. The method involved loading a 38-mm square finger-jointed sample in a four-point bending test inside of an oven with a target sample temperature of 204°C. The deformation (creep) was examined as a function of time. It was found that samples fingerjointed with melamine formaldehyde and phenol resorcinol formaldehyde adhesives had the same creep behavior as solid wood. One-component polyurethane and polyvinyl acetate adhesives could not maintain the load at the target temperature measured middepth of the sample, and several different types of creep behavior were observed before failure. This method showed that the creep performance of the onecomponent adhesives may be quite different than the performance from short-term load deformation curves collected at high temperatures. The importance of creep performance of adhesives in the fire resistance of engineered wood is discussed.
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Acoustic Characteristics of Cross-Laminated Timber Systems

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2618
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Di Bella, Antonino
Mitrovic, Milica
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2020
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Design and Systems
Keywords
Wooden Building Technology
Building Acoustics
Noise Control
Flanking Transmission
Energy Efficiency
Sustainability
Research Status
Complete
Series
Sustainability
Summary
The growing diffusion of cross-laminated timber structures (CLT) has been accompanied by extensive research on the peculiar characteristics of this construction system, mainly concerning its economic and environmental benefits, lifecycle, structural design, resistance to seismic actions, fire protection, and energy efficiency. Nevertheless, some aspects have not yet been fully analysed. These include both the knowledge of noise protection that CLT systems are able to offer in relation to the possible applications and combinations of building elements, and the definition of calculation methods necessary to support the acoustic design. This review focuses on the main acoustic features of CLT systems and investigate on the results of the most relevant research aimed to provide key information on the application of acoustic modelling in CLT buildings. The vibro-acoustic behaviour of the basic component of this system and their interaction through the joints has been addressed, as well as the possible ways to manage acoustic information for calculation accuracy improvement by calibration with data from on-site measurements during the construction phase. This study further suggests the opportunity to improve measurement standards with specific reference curves for the bare CLT building elements, in order to compare different acoustic linings and assemblies on the same base. In addition, this study allows to identify some topics in the literature that are not yet fully clarified, providing some insights on possible future developments in research and for the optimization of these products.
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Advanced Methods of Encapsulation

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue41
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Author
Ranger, Lindsay
Roy-Poirier, Audrey
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2015
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Codes
Encapsulation
Type X Gypsum Board
National Building Code of Canada
Tall Wood
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This project aims to support the construction of tall wood buildings by identifying encapsulation methods that provide adequate protection of mass timber elements; the intention is that these methods could potentially be applied to mass timber elements so that the overall assembly could achive a 2 h fire resistance rating.
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Advanced Wood-Based Solutions for Mid-Rise and High-Rise Construction: Exit Fire Separations in Mid-Rise Wood Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1879
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shafts and Chases
Author
Ranger, Lindsay
Dagenais, Christian
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shafts and Chases
Topic
Fire
Keywords
National Building Code of Canada
Combustible Material
Mid-Rise
Noncombustible Construction
Research Status
Complete
Summary
FPInnovations initiated this project to demonstrate the ability of wood exit stairs in mid-rise buildings to perform adequately in a fire when NBCC requirements are followed, with the intent of changing perceptions of the fire safety of wood construction. The objective of this research is to investigate further the fire safety afforded by exit stair shafts of combustible construction, with the ultimate objective of better consistency between the provincial and national building codes with respect to fire requirements for exit stair shafts in mid-rise wood-frame construction.
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Advanced Wood-Based Solutions for Mid-Rise and High-Rise Construction: Mid-Rise Wood Exit Shaft Demonstration Fire Test Report

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1176
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Fire
Application
Shafts and Chases
Author
Ranger, Lindsay
Dagenais, Christian
Bénichou, Noureddine
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Report
Application
Shafts and Chases
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Mid-Rise
Residential
Multi-Family
Exit Shafts
Research Status
Complete
Summary
FPInnovations conducted a research project to study the construction of mid-rise wood exit shafts in Ontario and Québec. The scope of the project included an investigation into the concerns that have been raised in regards to the use of wood exits in mid-rise buildings, an analysis of recent Canadian fire statistics in residential multi-family structures, and a fire demonstration of a mass timber wall and supported light-frame floor. This report describes the fire demonstration completed as part of this project; this report acts as a supplement to the full project report.
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Free
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Advanced Wood-Based Solutions for Mid-Rise and High-Rise Construction: Modelling of Timber Connections Under Force and Fire

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1473
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Connections
Fire
Seismic
Design and Systems
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Author
Chen, Zhiyong
Ni, Chun
Dagenais, Christian
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Report
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Topic
Connections
Fire
Seismic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Finite Element Model
Bolted Connection
Load-Displacement Curves
Research Status
Complete
Summary
FPInnovations carried out a survey with consultants and researchers on the use of analytical models and software packages related to the analysis and design of mass timber buildings. The responses confirmed that a lack of suitable models and related information for material properties of timber connections was creating an impediment to the design and construction of this type of buildings. Furthermore, there is currently a lack of computer models and expertise for carrying out performance-based design for wood buildings, in particular seismic and/or fire performance design. In this study, a sophisticated constitutive model for wood-based composite material under stress and temperature was developed. This constitutive model was programmed into a user-subroutine which can be added to most general-purpose finite element software. The developed model was validated with test results of a laminated veneer lumber (LVL) beam and glulam bolted connection under force and/or fire.
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Advancing Knowledge of Mid-ply Shear Walls: Mid-Ply Shear Wall Fire Resistance Testing

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2808
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Fire
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Shear Walls
Author
Ranger, Lindsay
Dagenais, Christian
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Report
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Shear Walls
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Shear Walls
Fire Resistance Rating
Mid-Rise
Midply Wall
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The objective of this research is to address a knowledge gap related to fire performance of midply shear walls. Testing has already been done to establish the structural performance of these assemblies. To ensure their safe implementation and their broad acceptance, this project will establish fire resistance ratings for midply shear walls. Fire tests will provide information for the development of design considerations for midply shear walls and confirm that they can achieve at least 1-hour fire-resistance ratings that are required for use in mid-rise buildings. This research will support greater adoption of mid-rise residential and non-residential wood-frame construction and improve competition with similar buildings of noncombustible construction. This work will also support the development of the APA system report for midply walls, which will be a design guideline for using midply walls in North America.
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Free
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Analyse de Performance Acoustique et de Résistance au Feu

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2752
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Organization
Société en commandite NEB
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Fire
Keywords
Origine
Fire Resistance
Acoustic Performance
Tall Timber
Multi-Storey
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Le présent rapport décrit une partie des activités de recherche et développement (R&D) en lien avec la démonstration de la résistance au feu ainsi que les études sur la performance acoustique effectuées dans le cadre de la construction du bâtiment Origine. Ce bâtiment est la tour résidentielle en bois massif la plus haute au Québec. Sa réalisation a débuté en 2015 à la suite des analyses préliminaires de faisabilité technique-économique qui se sont étalées pendant toute l’année 2014. La construction et l’installation se sont finalisées vers la fin de 2017. En premier lieu, le rapport présente les démarches liées à la réalisation d’un exercice de démonstration d’incendie pour une cage d’escaliers/ascenseur avec une chambre d’habitation adjacente, l’analyse de résultats et les principales conclusions en lien avec la pertinence de l’utilisation du bois massif pour des édifices de grande hauteur. En ce qui concerne la performance acoustique, le rapport présente la méthodologie d’étude et d’analyse des résultats des tests acoustiques pour des assemblages de mur et de plancher utilisés dans le projet Origine. De plus, ce rapport facilite la compréhension des activités réalisées et permet de montrer objectivement la capacité des produits en bois massif à offrir un environnement sécuritaire et confortable aux occupants de bâtiments multi-étagés. Les principaux résultats indiquent que les cages d’escaliers/ascenseur faites en bois massif, conçues pour une résistance au feu équivalente à celle faites en béton, peuvent offrir une excellente performance et servent d’alternatives adéquates pour les bâtiments multi-étagés. En ce qui concerne le développement d’assemblages acoustiques pour les murs et les planchers en bois massif, il a été prouvé qu’une approche multicritère permet d’offrir des solutions performantes à des coûts raisonnables. Finalement, il est clair que ce projet constitue un jalon très important dans le chemin d’acceptation des bâtiments multi-étagés en bois massif au Québec et au Canada. Sa construction, faite presque entièrement en bois, a nécessité de nombreux efforts économiques, de R&D, de conception et d’installation. De plus, les activités réalisées pour l’acceptation de ce type de construction ont permis de mettre en place de nouvelles technologies et des techniques de conception qui faciliteront la réplication de ce type de projet partout en Amérique du Nord.
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Analysis of Cross-Laminated Timber Charring Rates Upon Exposure to Non-Standard Heating Conditions

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue136
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Bartlett, Alastair
Hadden, Rory
Bisby, Luke
Law, Angus
Organization
Fire and Materials
Year of Publication
2015
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Charring Rate
Heat Release Rate
Fire Resistance
Conference
Fire and Materials 2015
Research Status
Complete
Notes
February 2-4, 2015, San Francisco, United States
Summary
The use of engineered timber products such as cross-laminated timber (CLT) is of increasing interest to architects and designers due to their desirable aesthetic, environmental, and structural properties. A key factor preventing widespread uptake of these materials is the uncertainty regarding their performance in fire. Currently, the predominant approach to quantifying the structural fire resistance of timber elements is the charring rate, which allows estimation of residual cross-section and hence strength. The charring rate is usually determined by testing timber specimens in a furnace by exposure to a ‘standard fire’. However, it is recognized that the resulting charring rates are not necessarily appropriate for non-standard fire exposures or for characterizing the structural response in a real timber building. The effect of heating rate on the charring rate of CLT samples is investigated. The charring rate resulting from three heating scenarios (constant, simulated ‘standard fire’ and quadratically increasing) was calculated using interpolation of in-depth temperature measurements during exposure to heating from a mobile array of radiant panels, or in a Fire Propagation Apparatus (FPA). Charring rate is shown to vary both spatially and temporally, and as a function of heating rate within the range 0.36–0.79 mm/min. The charring rate for tests carried out under simulated ‘standard fire’ exposures were shown to agree with the available literature, thus partially verifying the new testing approach; however under other heating scenarios the Eurocode charring rate guidance was found to be unconservative for some of the heat flux exposures in this study. A novel charring rate model is presented based on the experimental results. The potential implications of this study for structural fire resistance analysis and design of timber structures are discussed. The analysis demonstrates that heating rate, sample size and orientation, and test setup have significant effects on charring rate and the overall pyrolysis, and thus need to be further evaluated to further facilitate the use of structural timber in design.
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Analysis of Full-Scale Fire-Resistance Tests of Structural Composite Lumber Beams

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue366
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Fire
Material
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
Application
Beams
Author
Dagenais, Christian
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2014
Format
Report
Material
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
Application
Beams
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Encapsulation
Type X Gypsum Board
Fire Resistance
Full Scale
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The key objective of this study is to analyze full-scale fire-resistance tests conducted on structural composite lumber (SCL), namely laminated veneer lumber (LVL), parallel strand lumber (PSL) and laminated strand lumber (LSL). A sub-objective is to evaluate the encapsulation performance of Type X gypsum board directly applied to SCL beams and its contribution to fire-resistance of wood elements. The test data is being used to further support the applicability of the newly developed Canadian calculation method for mass timber elements, recently implemented as Annex B of CSA O86-14.
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An Improved Model for the Fire Design of Cross Laminated Timber in Bending

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1940
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Schmid, Joachim
Klippel, Michael
Fahrni, Reto
Frangi, Andrea
Tiso, Mattia
Just, Alar
Werther, Norman
Organization
ETH Zurich
Tallinn University of Technical
Technical University Munich
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Fire Resistance
Model
Zero-Strength Layer
Cross-Section
Bending
Strength
Stiffness
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 20-23, 2018, Seoul, Republic of Korea
Summary
In this study, new design models for cross-laminated timber (CLT) are developed to verify the fire resistance up to 120 minutes. This is done aiming for the popular Effective Cross-Section Method using a so-called zero-strength layer (ZSL) to account for losses in strength and stiffness. This was done using a method earlier presented at WCTE 2010 and discussed with the European industry. To allow for improvements, (a) the current CLT product portfolio was analysed and thermal and mechanical simulations were done accordingly for initially unprotected and unprotected members. Further, (b) new definitions for the ZSL were used to allow for a higher accuracy of the simplified models. As anoutcome, a model with (1) tabulated data between 7.0 and 12.0 mm for the effective ZSL only considering longitudinal layers and (2) a simplified model “twelve and two” is proposed for CLT members in bending.
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Free
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APA Engineered Wood Construction Guide

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3089
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Design and Systems
General Information
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
OSL (Oriented Strand Lumber)
Application
Floors
Walls
Roofs
Organization
APA
Year of Publication
2019
Format
Book/Guide
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
OSL (Oriented Strand Lumber)
Application
Floors
Walls
Roofs
Topic
Design and Systems
General Information
Keywords
Selection and Specification
Structural Composite Lumber
I-Joist
Engineered Wood Products
Construction
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Comprehensive guide to engineered wood construction systems for both residential and commercial/industrial buildings. Includes information on plywood and oriented strand board (wood structural panels), glulam, I-joists, structural composite lumber, typical specifications and design recommendations for floor, wall and roof systems, diaphragms, shear walls, fire-rated systems and methods of finishing.
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Free
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Application of Analysis Tools From Newbuilds Research Network in Design of a High-Rise Wood Building

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue278
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Design and Systems
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Organization
NEWBuildS
Year of Publication
2015
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Market and Adoption
Keywords
High-Rise
British Columbia Building Code
Mixed-Use
Research Status
Complete
Summary
In this project, a conceptual but realistic 20-storey building of hybrid construction incorporating massive timber panels and other structural materials was identified. The project team, consisting of three practicing consultants and 6 graduate student and post-doctoral researchers from NEWBuildS, undertook an analysis and engineering design of the demonstration building. An advisory group that includes FPInnovations scientists, NEWBuildS supervisors of the graduate students and Post Doctoral Fellows, provides technical support to the project team. The performance attributes addressed in the project were structural performance under seismic and wind load, fire resistance and building envelope. . This publication documents the analysis and design of the demonstration building, and identifies technical issues that require further study.
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Free
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Application of Ductile Yield Link in Glulam Moment Connections

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2313
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Connections
Design and Systems
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Columns
Beams
Author
Almousawi, Sayed Husain
Publisher
Virginia Tech
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Thesis
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Columns
Beams
Topic
Connections
Design and Systems
Keywords
Beam Column Connection
Moment Frame Connection
Self-Tapping Screws
Reinforcement
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Wood beam-column connections have traditionally been designed as simple shear connections, ignoring their potential moment capacity. A major reason for not utilizing such moment connections is linked to the brittle limit states that wood components exhibit. The purpose of this research was to develop and test a ductile and high-strength wood moment frame connection. A design procedure for such a connection is presented herein. The proposed glulam beam-column connection utilizes an embedded steel knife plate with a reduced section that acts as a ductile yield link, thus limiting the moment that can be transferred through the connection. This configuration is intended to fail through yielding of the ductile link, thus preventing non-ductile failure mechanisms of wood from occurring. In addition, the connection provides more wood cover over the embedded steel plate, which potentially may increase the connection's fire rating as compared to typical connections. Two specimens, based on a baseline connection developed using the design procedure presented, were monotonically loaded until failure. Unlike the first specimen, the second was reinforced in the perpendicular-to-grain direction using self-tapping screws. Failure mechanisms were analyzed, and performance characteristics related to the connection's strength, stiffness, and ductility were evaluated. Results indicated that the reinforced specimen exhibited higher strength, stiffness, and ductility compared to the unreinforced specimen. The reinforced specimen showed improvements of 9.49% and 42.2% in yielding and ultimate moment, respectively, compared to the unreinforced specimen. Moreover, an improvement of 31.3% in ductility was obtained using perpendicular-to-grain reinforcement.
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Free
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Assessing the Adhesive Performance in CLT Exposed to Fire

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1945
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Connections
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Walls
Author
Klippel, Michael
Schmid, Joachim
Fahrni, Reto
Frangi, Andrea
Organization
ETH Zurich
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Walls
Topic
Connections
Fire
Keywords
Adhesive
Fire Tests
Polyurethane
1C PUR
Melamine Urea Formaldehyde
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) became a popular engineered wood product in recent years for highquality and innovative timber buildings. As for any building product, the fire behaviour of CLT panels requires careful evaluation in the design of such buildings. The adhesive used in the bond lines of CLT plays an important role in the fire design. However, currently, European standards do not provide a test method to assess the adhesive performance in CLT exposed to fire. This paper presents a series of fire tests performed with CLT panels glued with different adhesives. It is shown how the mass loss of the CLT panels in standard fire resistance tests can be used to assess the adhesive performance in CLT exposed to fire.
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Free
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Assessing the Fire Integrity Performance of Cross-Laminated Timber Floor Panel-To-Panel Joints

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue185
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Connections
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Author
Dagenais, Christian
Organization
Carleton University
Year of Publication
2016
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Topic
Connections
Fire
Keywords
Finite Element Model
Thickness
Codes
Panel-to-Panel
Joints
Canada
US
Fire Resistance
Research Status
Complete
Summary
During the past few years, a relatively new technology has emerged in North America and changed the way professionals design and build wood structures: Cross-laminated Timber (CLT). CLT panels are manufactured in width ranging from 600 mm to 3 m. As such, fastening them together along their major strength axis is required in order to form a singular structural assembly resisting to in-plane and out-of-plane loading. Typical panel-to-panel joint details of CLT assemblies may consist of internal spline(s), single or double surface splines or half-lapped joints. These tightly fitted joint profiles should provide sufficient fire-resistance, but have yet to be properly evaluated for fire-resistance in CLT assemblies. The experimental portion of the study consisted at conducting ten (10) intermediate-scale fire-resistance tests of CLT floor assemblies with four (4) types of panel-to-panel joints and three (3) CLT thicknesses. The data generated from the intermediate-scale fire tests were used to validate a finite element heat transfer model, a coupled thermal-structural model and a simplified design model. The latter is an easy-to-use design procedure for evaluating the fire integrity resistance of the four commonly-used CLT floor assemblies and could potentially be implemented into building codes and design standards. Based on the test data and models developed in this study, joint coefficient values were derived for the four (4) types of CLT panel-to-panel joint details. Joint coefficients are required when assessing the fire integrity of joints using simple design models, such as the one presented herein and inspired from Eurocode 5: Part 1-2. The contribution of this study is to increase the knowledge of CLT exposed to fire and to facilitate its use in Canada and US by complementing current fire-resistance design methodologies of CLT assemblies, namely with respect to the fire integrity criterion. Being used as floor and wall assemblies, designers should be capable to accurately verify both the load-bearing and separating functions of CLT assemblies in accordance with fire-related provisions of the building codes, which are now feasible based on the findings of this study.
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Free
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Assessing The Flammability of Mass Timber Components: A Review

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue87
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Mehaffey, Jim
Dagenais, Christian
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2014
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
National Building Code of Canada
Flame Spread
Model
Cone Calorimeter Testing
Buildings
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This report begins with a discussion of the mechanisms of flame spread over combustible materials while describing the NBCC prescriptive solutions that establish the acceptable fire performance of interior finish materials. It is noted that while flame spread ratings do give an indication of the fire performance of products in building fires, the data generated are not useful as input to fire models that predict fire growth in buildings. The cone calorimeter test is then described in some detail. Basic data generated in the cone calorimeter on the time to ignition and heat release rates are shown to be fundamental properties of wood products which can be useful as input to fire models for predicting fire growth in buildings. The report concludes with the recommendation that it would be useful to run an extensive set of cone calorimeter tests on SCL, glue-laminated timber and CLT products. The fundamental data could be most useful for validating models for predicting flame spread ratings of massive timber products and useful as input to comprehensive computer fire models that predict the course of fire in buildings. It is also argued that the cone calorimeter would be a useful tool in assessing fire performance during product development and for quality control purposes.
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Free
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Assessment of Borate-Treated Lamstock for a More Durable CLT

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3182
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Organization
Washington State University
Year of Publication
2022
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Durability
Borate-Treated
Research Status
In Progress
Notes
Forest Service/USDA Wood Innovations Grants Recipient Point of Contact: Karl R. Englund Location: Pullman, Washington
Summary
The durability of wood has always limited mass adoption into many markets. With CLT, wood’s perceived ineffective performance when exposed to bio-deterioration and fire has many customers hesitant to commit to a mass timber structure. Our project will evaluate a commercial ready process to pretreat the lamstock of CLT panels with a variety of borate-based treatment options. By treating the lamstock prior to CLT fabrication, a more homogeneous treatment is realized, making a more durable panel that can be implemented in areas prone to high humidity and mitigate risks associated with durability. Our work will provide a commercial-ready solution that can be easily implemented in-line, lowering costs and not interrupting process flows or outputs.
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Auto-Extinction of Engineered Timber as a Design Methodology

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1676
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Bartlett, Alastair
Hadden, Rory
Bisby, Luke
Lane, Barbara
Year of Publication
2016
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Extinction
Fire Propagation Apparatus
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 3934-3941
Summary
Engineered timber products such as cross-laminated timber (CLT) are gaining popularity with designers due to attractive aesthetic, sustainability, and constructability credentials. The fire behaviour of such materials is a key requirement for buildings formed predominantly of exposed, structural timber elements. Whilst design guidance focuses on the residual structural capacity of timber elements exposed to a ‘standard fire’, the fundamental characteristics of CLT’s performance in fire, such as ignition, flame spread, delamination, and extinction are not currently considered. This paper focuses on the issues relating to increased fuel load due to a combustible building material itself. Whilst an increasingly common protection solution to this conundrum is to fully encapsulate the timber elements, there is limited supporting test data on this approach. Through understanding these concepts from a fundamental, scientific perspective, the behaviour can be properly understood, and, rather than limiting design, can be incorporated into design to satisfy suitable performance criteria. In this paper therefore, the concept of auto-extinction – a phenomenon by which a timber sample will cease flaming when the net heat flux to the sample drops below a critical value – is explored experimentally and related to firepoint theory. A series of c.100 small scale tests in a Fire Propagation Apparatus (FPA) have been carried out to quantify the conditions under which flaming extinction occurs. Critical mass loss rate at extinction is shown to occur at a mass flux of 3.5g/m2s or a temperature gradient of 28K/mm at the charline. External heat flux and airflow were not found to affect the critical mass loss rate at the range tested. This approach is then compared with a compartment fire with multiple exposed timber surfaces. With further testing and refinement, this method may be applied in design, enabling architects’ visions of exposed, structural timber to be safely realised.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Ballistic Performance of Enhanced Cross-Laminated Timber (ECLT)

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3305
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Sanborn, Kathryn
Riser, Brian
Gentry, Russell
Stewart, Lauren
Organization
Georgia Institute of Technology
Publisher
WIT Press
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Enhanced
Ballistic Event
Blast Event
Research Status
Complete
Series
WIT Transactions on The Built Environment
Summary
Over the past 60 years, the materials traditionally used to construct temporary military structures have become less effective in operational theaters that require greater force protection from ballistic and blast events. Cross-laminated timber (CLT), an engineered wood product that has recently grown in popularity due to its strength and ease of assembly, has the potential to serve as an alternate or replacement building material. However, its viability for use in temporary military structures not only depends on its well-documented performance under normal design loads, but also its less-understood performance under ballistics and blast loading conditions. To better characterize CLT under such conditions in the absence of historical data, a series of ballistic experiments were conducted at the United States Army Engineer Research and Development Center (ERDC) to measure the penetration depth or residual velocity of munitions fired at various velocities. Based on the 152 initial ballistic experiments, new enhanced cross-laminated timber (ECLT) samples were developed using known armor materials and evaluated in terms of constructability and ballistic performance. During construction, heavy plate armor was significantly less compatible in bonding with CLT configurations and in some cases required mechanical connections, whereas the more fibrous materials developed for use in lightweight armor bonded well to the CLT with an epoxy mixture. The most promising ballistic performances came from the ECLT samples using flexible fibrous materials. In general, the testing showed that increased ballistic performance is attainable by enhancing CLT, but such improvements have consequences such as increased weight or material cost. Therefore, compromise on acceptable protection levels during the design process using cost-benefit analysis is necessary. Ultimately, ECLT samples modified with fiberglass fabric showed greatest cost-benefit potential.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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