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Calculating structural fire resistance of wood-frame assemblies

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3200
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Fire
Application
Floors
Walls
Author
Dagenais, Christian
Chorlton, Bronwyn
Chen, Zhiyong
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2022
Application
Floors
Walls
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Small Cross Section
Light Wood Frame
Research Status
Complete
Series
InfoNote
Summary
This InfoNote summarizes the verification and validation that the current design requirements of Annex B of CSA O86 can also be applied to small framing members used in unprotected and protected lightweight wood-frame assemblies, e.g., walls and floors. With minor editorial changes, the scope of application of Annex B of CSA O86 could include all wood and wood-based products listed in CSA O86, regardless of their original and residual dimensions.
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A Circular Approach for the Fire Safety Design in Mass Timber Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3095
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Siri, Qvist
Organization
Delft University of Technology
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Mass Timber
Fire Safety Design
Circular Design
Fire Risk
Fire Resilience
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The building industry consumes a lot of material, which causes depletion of material stocks, toxic emissions, and waste. Circular building design can help to reduce this impact, by moving from a linear to a circular design approach. To reach a circular build environment, all disciplines should be involved, including fire safety design. However, there is a contradiction between the objectives of circular and fire safety design, either affecting the aim of protection of material sources, or protection against fire risk. Timber is a material that has high potential in contributing to a circular building industry, as it is renewable, recyclable and can store CO2. However, timber is combustible, which increases the risk of fire. Therefore, mass timber building design has traditionally been restricted by building regulations. To enhance mass timber building design research on timber buildings has increased, to allow understanding of the risks. However, yet general guidelines or understanding on the fire behaviour and risk in timber buildings is lacking. This is a problem for the fire safety design and the potentials of timber contributing to a circular building industry. Until now, there was no specific method available that quantifies this relation between material use and fire risk in mass timber buildings. This limits the possibility of fire safety design and mass timber design to contribute to a more circular building industry. By creating a method that allows comparison between the economic and environmental impact of material use and fire risk, a well-founded choice of building materials is easier to make. The design tool created in this research quantifies the impact on material use for fire safety measures relating to CLT, encapsulation and sprinkler availability and their effect on the fire risk in mass timber buildings. This way insight is provided between the balance of material use and fire risk. By the sum of the impact on material use and fire risk, the total “circular fire safety impact” value is calculated. This value represents the total economic and environmental impact of the design based on the choice of building materials. By changing the fire safety design, the most optimal design variant can be determined. This is the variant with the lowest total impact value. This way, a circular design approach is used to steer fire safety design in mass timber buildings towards a design solution that does not only provide sufficient safety for people, but also provides maximum economic and environmental safety from a material point of view.
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Modelling a CLT specimen protected with gypsum exposed to parametric fire curve heat flux

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3216
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Osvaldova, Linda Makovicka
Magdolenova, Paulina
Markert, Frank
Zelinka, Samuel L.
Enoksen, Louise Frederikke
Klint, Malthe
Organization
University of Zilina
Technical University of Denmark
USDA Forest Service
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Gypsum Plaster Board
H-TRIS
Parametric Fire Curve
CFD Model
Fire Protection
Research Status
Complete
Series
Wood Research
Summary
This paper models bench-scale experiments using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The experiments measured the temperature profiles of fire-protected cross laminated timber (CLT) specimens exposed to parametric fire curve. The bench-scale experiment specimen is 250 x 250 mm and consists of a CLT panel 100 mm with three layers of gypsum plasterboard 15.5 mm as thermal and fire insulation. The specimens were exposed to a heat flux generated by a heat-transfer rate inducing system (H-TRIS) device. Two numerical models were created in order to copy the experiment conditions, one by using basic modelling techniques and one using advanced method. Comparing the layer temperature values of the experiment and basic model, a great difference was found. The difference between experimental and model temperatures increases the closer the analysed layer is to the heat source. The results show a good agreement between the model and the experiments, especially for the advanced numerical model.
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Fire Severity Outcome Comparison of Apartment Buildings Constructed from Combustible and Non-Combustible Construction Materials

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3202
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Fire
Author
Zheng, Alex
Garis, Len
Pike, Ian
Organization
University of British Columbia
University of Fraser Valley
Publisher
Springer
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Fire Safety
Combustible Materials
Non-combustible Materials
Apartment Fires
Wood-frame Structures
Research Status
Complete
Series
Fire Technology
Summary
Wood is commonly used in construction, but often perceived as being less safe than structures made from non-combustible materials. With the advancement of wood products and treatment, construction techniques, and protective systems, this may not be the case any longer. Using retrospective data from fire departments across Canada, this study aimed to determine whether the type of construction material (combustible or non-combustible) affected the fire severity outcome of a one to six storey apartment building fire, after accounting for protective systems (smoke alarms and sprinklers). The study found that, after adjusting for the presence of smoke alarms and sprinklers, structures constructed from non-combustible construction materials did not perform better in terms of injuries, requiring extinguishment by fire department, or the fire spreading beyond the room of origin. The presence of working smoke alarms and sprinklers played a central role in reducing the severity outcome of a fire. Smoke alarms and sprinklers both reduced the odds of extinguishment by the fire department and the fire spreading beyond the room of origin. Sprinklers also reduced the injury rate. Overall, this study highlighted the importance of protective systems in reducing fire severity outcomes.
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Thermophysical properties of balsa wood used as core of sandwich composite bridge decks exposed to external fire

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3073
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Fire
Application
Decking
Author
Vahedi, Niloufar
Tiago, Carlos
Vassilopoulos, Anastasios P.
Correia, João R.
Keller, Thomas
Organization
École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL)
Universidade de Lisboa
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Application
Decking
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Balsa Wood
Effective Thermophysical Properties
Thermal Conductivity
Specific Heat Capacity
Coefficient of Thermal Expansion
Charring Temperature
Charring Rate
Research Status
Complete
Series
Construction and Building Materials
Summary
The load-bearing performance of sandwich bridge decks comprising a balsa core and fiber-reinforced polymer composite face sheets exposed to fire is a main concern regarding the application of these deck systems. In order to obtain the thermal responses of the balsa core exposed to fire, the temperature-dependent values of thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity are required. Furthermore, information about the char depth and charring rate and the temperature-dependent coefficient of thermal expansion is also needed for the subsequent thermomechanical modeling. In the current study, the effective thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of balsa up to 850 °C were obtained from one-dimensional transient heat transfer models and experimental data using an inverse heat transfer analysis. The results showed that both properties depend significantly on the stages of combustion, direction of heat flow (in the tracheid or transverse direction) and density. Moreover, charring temperatures and rates were obtained, again as a function of direction and density. Finally, the coefficient of thermal expansion was measured in the transverse direction during evaporation and pyrolysis.
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Large-Scale Enclosure Fire Experiments Adopting CLT Slabs with Different Types of Polyurethane Adhesives: Genesis and Preliminary Findings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2963
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Hopkin, Danny
Wegrzynski, Wojciech
Spearpoint, Michael
Fu, Ian
Krenn, Harald
Sleik, Tim
Gorska, Carmen
Stapf, Gordian
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Adhesive
Bond-line Failure
Char Fall-off
Polyurethane
Auto-Extinction
Flame Spread
Research Status
Complete
Series
Fire
Summary
This paper provides understanding of the fire performance of exposed cross-laminated-timber (CLT) in large enclosures. An office-type configuration has been represented by a 3.75 by 7.6 by 2.4 m high enclosure constructed of non-combustible blockwork walls, with a large opening on one long face. Three experiments are described in which propane-fuelled burners created a line fire that impinged on different ceiling types. The first experiment had a non-combustible ceiling lining in which the burners were set to provide flames that extended approximately halfway along the underside of the ceiling. Two further experiments used exposed 160 mm thick (40-20-40-20-40 mm) loaded CLT panels with a standard polyurethane adhesive between lamella in one experiment and a modified polyurethane adhesive in the other. Measurements included radiative heat flux to the ceiling and the floor, temperatures within the depth of the CLT and the mass loss of the panels. Results show the initial peak rate of heat release with the exposed CLT was up to three times greater when compared with the non-combustible lining. As char formed, this stabilised at approximately one and a half times that of the non-combustible lining. Premature char fall-off (due to bond-line failure) was observed close to the burners in the CLT using standard polyurethane adhesive. However, both exposed CLT ceiling experiments underwent auto-extinction of flaming combustion once the burners were switched off.
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Large-scale compartment fires to develop a self-extinction design framework for mass timber—Part 1: Literature review and methodology

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2911
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Xu, Hangyu
Pope, Ian
Gupta, Vinny
Cadena, Jaime
Carrascal, Jeronimo
Lange, David
McLaggan, Martyn
Mendez, Julian
Osorio, Andrés
Solarte, Angela
Soriguer, Diana
Torero, Jose
Wiesner, Felix
Zaben, Abdulrahman
Hidalgo, Juan
Organization
The University of Queesland
University of College London
The University of Edinburgh
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Performance-based Design
Compartment Fires
Heat Transfer
Pretection of Wood
Large-scale
Mass Timber
Research Status
Complete
Series
Fire Safety Journal
Summary
Fire safety remains a major challenge for engineered timber buildings. Their combustible nature challenges the design principles of compartmentation and structural integrity beyond burnout, which are inherent to the fire resistance framework. Therefore, self-extinction is critical for the fire-safe design of timber buildings. This paper is the first of a three-part series that seeks to establish the fundamental principles underpinning a design framework for self-extinction of engineered timber. The paper comprises: a literature review introducing the body of work developed at material and compartment scales; and the design of a large-scale testing methodology which isolates the fundamental phenomena to enable the development and validation of the required design framework. Research at the material scale has consolidated engineering principles to quantify self-extinction using external heat flux as a surrogate of the critical mass loss rate, and mass transfer or Damköhler numbers. At the compartment scale, further interdependent, complex phenomena influencing self-extinction occurrence have been demonstrated. Time-dependent phenomena include encapsulation failure, fall-off of charred lamellae and the burning of the movable fuel load, while thermal feedback is time-independent. The design of the testing methodology is described in reference to these fundamental phenomena.
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Smoke Hazards of Tall Timber Buildings with New Products

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2964
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Fire
Author
Cheng, Chi-Honn
Chow, Cheuk-Lun
Yue, Tsz-Kit
Ng, Yiu-Wah
Chow, Wan-Ki
Organization
City University of Hong Kong
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Editor
Formisano, Antonio
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Tall Timber Buildings
Fire Hazards
Smoke Hazards
Public Concerns
New Timber Products
Research Status
Complete
Series
Encyclopedia
Summary
Timber buildings can now stand very tall using new products. As timber materials are expected to be easily ignitable, the fire hazard of timber is a concern. Charring of the timber surface would maintain structural stability, but would also be accompanied by smoke. Although treating timber products with fire retardants would delay the ignition time under low radiative heat flux, toxic combustion products and unburnt fuel would be emitted immediately upon burning. More smoke and higher toxic gas concentrations such as carbon monoxide would be given off upon burning some fire retardants under high flashover heat fluxes. Due to the fast upward movement of smoke under stack effect, spreading of toxic smoke in tall timber buildings would lead to a hazardous environment. Engineered timber consists of derivative timber products. New engineered timber products are manufactured with advanced technology and design, including cross-laminated-timber (CLT), laminated veneer lumber (LVL) and glue-laminated timber (Glulam). The fire behaviour of timber products has been studied for several decades. However, the smoke hazards of using new timber products in building construction should be monitored. The objective of this study is to inspire stakeholders in fire safety of timber buildings, inter alia smoke hazards, to use new timber products to build tall buildings.
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Mechanical and Fire Performance of Innovative Hollow Glue-Laminated Timber Beams

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3189
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Fire
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Author
Perkovic, Nikola
Rajcic, Vlatka
Organization
University of Zagreb
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Fire
Keywords
Fiber-reinforced
intumescent
Hollow Section
Research Status
Complete
Series
Polymers
Summary
Fire safety greatly contributes to feeling safe, and it is a key parameter for the selection of building materials. The combustibility of timber is one of the main reasons to have the strict restriction on timber for use as a building material, especially for multistory buildings. Therefore, the main prerequisite for the use of timber in buildings is to ensure adequate fire resistance, using passive and active fire protection measures. This article contains the results of mechanical and fire experimental tests of both normal and innovative hollow glued laminated timber beams. A total of 10 timber beams were tested at ambient temperature, and 3 timber beams in fire conditions, which differed in cross-section type but also in the applied fire protection. The first beam was a normal GL beam without fire protection, the second a hollow beam covered by intumescent paint, while the third was also hollow, additionally protected by mineral wool infill inside the holes. The load-carrying capacity of the hollow beam in ambient conditions was estimated at 65% of the load-carrying capacity of a normal GL beam. Fire tests indicated that hollow timber beams with both intumescent paint and mineral wool infill failed at a similar time as a normal GL beam without fire protection. One-dimensional ß0 and notional charring rates ßn were obtained. Time to the protective material failure was 17 min. The main cause of failure of hollow beams was the appearance of delamination due to the reduction of the lamella bonding surface.
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Performance of midply shear wall

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3037
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Fire
Acoustics and Vibration
Application
Shear Walls
Author
Ni, Chui
Dagenais, Christian
Qian, Cheng
Hu, Lin
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Report
Application
Shear Walls
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Fire
Acoustics and Vibration
Keywords
Midply Shear Wall
Structural Performance
Fire Performance
Acoustic Performance
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Midply shear wall, which was originally developed by researchers at Forintek Canada Corp. (predecessor of FPInnovations) and the University of British Columbia, is a high-capacity wood-frame shear wall system that is suitable for high wind and seismic loadings. Its superior seismic performance was demonstrated in a full-scale earthquake simulation test of a 6-storey wood-frame building in Japan (Peietal.,2010). Midply shear wall, however, had limited applications due to its low resistance to vertical load and difficulty to accommodate electrical and plumbing services. For broader applications of Midply shearwall, these limitations needed to be addressed. In collaboration with APA–The Engineered Wood Association and the American Wood Council (AWC), a new framing arrangement was designed to increase the vertical load resistance of Midply shearwalls and make it easier to accommodate electrical and plumbing services. Consequently, structural, fire and acoustic tests have been conducted to evaluate various performance attributes of Midply shear wall with the new framing configuration. This InfoNote provides a summary of the structural, fire and acoustic performance of Midply shearwalls from the tests.
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Fire Performance of Mass Timber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2824
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Dagenais, Christian
Ranger, Lindsay
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Fire Resistance
CSA 086
National Design Specifications for Wood Construction (NDSR)
Fire Test
Fire Stopping
Connections
Insurance
Mass Timber
Research Status
Complete
Series
InfoNote
Summary
This InfoNote summarizes recent research and work in progress. A significant amount of fire research has been conducted on mass timber over the last 10 years in Canada. This has supported the successful design and construction of numerous low-, mid-and even high-rise wood buildings. This has also fostered the introduction of new provisions into the National Building Code of Canada which has made wood and mass timber construction more accessible. However, the fire performance of these systems remains a concern for many potential occupants or owners of these buildings, not to mention building officials and fire departments. Research at FPInnovations continues to support designers and builders in the use of mass timber assemblies by ensuring fire safe designs.
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Structural Means for Fire-Safe Wooden Façade Design

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2854
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Fire
Material
Other Materials
Application
Building Envelope
Author
Engel, Thomas
Werther, Norman
Organization
Technical University of Munich
Publisher
Springer
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Material
Other Materials
Application
Building Envelope
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Fire Safety
Fire Spread
Fire Stop
Wooden Façade
Research Status
Complete
Series
Fire Technology
Summary
This study investigates five fire stop variants used to limit the spread of fire on wooden façades. For this purpose, five fire tests using various types of wooden façade claddings and different fire stops were conducted as full-scale tests and compared to the existing findings. The influences and interactions between the material qualities of the external wall behind the façade cladding, the construction type of the wooden façade cladding, the design of the substructure, the depth of the ventilation gap, and the design of the fire stops were investigated. In evaluating the fire stops, the design of the interior corners, the joint design, and the influence of thermal expansion were examined. Finally, design proposals for the design of fire stops at wooden façades in order to limit the spread of fire were derived based on this evaluation. The outlook presents further needs that need to be investigated in the future in order to clarify undiscussed aspects or points that were ultimately not evaluated within the scope of this study.
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Demonstrating Fire-Resistance Ratings for Mass Timber Elements in Tall Wood Structures

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2919
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Fire
Material
Solid-sawn Heavy Timber
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Floors
Author
McLain, Richard
Organization
WoodWorks
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Report
Material
Solid-sawn Heavy Timber
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Floors
Topic
Fire
Keywords
IBC
Minimum Dimensions
Fire Resistance Rating
Noncombustible Protection
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Changes to the 2021 International Building Code (IBC) have created opportunities for wood buildings that are much larger and taller than prescriptively allowed in past versions of the code. Occupant safety, and the need to ensure fire performance in particular, was a fundamental consideration as the changes were developed and approved. The result is three new construction types—Type IV-A, IV-B and IV-C—which are based on the previous Heavy Timber construction type (renamed Type IV-HT), but with additional fire protection requirements. One of the main ways to demonstrate that a building will meet the required level of passive fire protection, regardless of structural materials, is through hourly fire-resistance ratings (FRRs) of its elements and assemblies. The IBC defines an FRR as the period of time a building element, component or assembly maintains the ability to confine a fire, continues to perform a given structural function, or both, as determined by the tests, or the methods based on tests, prescribed in Section 703. FRRs for the new construction types are similar to those required for Type I construction, which is primarily steel and concrete. They are found in IBC Table 601, which includes FRR requirements for all construction types and building elements; however, other code sections should be checked for overriding provisions (e.g., occupancy separation, shaft enclosures, etc.) that may alter the requirement.
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National fire regulations for the use of wood in buildings – worldwide review 2020

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3272
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Fire
Author
Östman, Birgit
Organization
Linnaeus University
Publisher
Taylor&Francis Online
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Fire Safety
Building Regulations
Research Status
Complete
Series
Wood Material Science & Engineering
Summary
The possibilities for building in wood have gradually increased in recent decades mainly due to environmental benefits. But there are still restrictions in terms of fire regulations in many countries, especially for taller buildings. The situation has therefore been mapped in about 40 countries on four continents as an update to a survey in 2002. The main issues are how high buildings with load-bearing wooden frames may be built and how much visible wood may be used both inside and outside on facades. The restrictions apply primarily to prescriptive fire design according to simplified design with detailed rules, which are mainly used for residential buildings and offices. For more complicated constructions e.g. public buildings, shopping centers, arenas and assembly halls, performance based design can be used by fire safety engineering design using, e.g. methods for evacuation and smoke filling, which increases the possibilities of using wood in buildings. The possibilities to use wood in buildings increase if sprinklers are installed, which is highlighted. Major differences between countries have been identified, both in terms of the number of storeys permitted in wood structures, and of the amounts of visible wood surfaces in interior and exterior applications. Several countries have no specific regulations, or do not limit the number of storeys in wooden buildings. The conclusion is that the differences are still large and that many countries have not yet started to use larger wood constructions despite supplies of forest resources, but harmonizing activities on performance based principles are ongoing worldwide.
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Experimental analysis of cross-laminated timber rib panels at normal temperature and in fire

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2933
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Author
Kleinhenz, Miriam
Just, Alar
Frangi, Andrea
Organization
ETH Zurich
Tallinn University of Technology
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Timber Composite Structures
Massive Timber Rib Panel
Fire Resistance
ISO Fire Exposure
Glue Line Quality
Effective Width
Research Status
Complete
Series
Engineering Structures
Summary
The results of an experimental programme on the structural behaviour, fire behaviour, and fire resistance of CLT rib panels are presented. The floor system consists of cross-laminated timber (CLT) plates rigidly bonded to glued-laminated timber ribs by means of screw-press gluing. The experimental programme comprised ultimate-load tests at normal temperature as reference tests and full-scale fire resistance tests on four cross-sections. In addition to the reference tests, shear tests of the glue line between CLT plate and glued-laminated timber rib were performed for analysis of the cross-sections’ composite action. The results of the reference tests show good agreement with results based on the simplified method according to EN 1995-1-1 [1] and its final draft of CLT design [2]. The importance of the glue line’s quality was confirmed. The fire resistance tests show results on the safe side compared to predictions of the fire behaviour according to EN 1995-1-2 [3] and its actual draft [4]. However, the fire resistance was underestimated due to conservative assumptions about the composite cross-section’s structural behaviour. The experimental programme addressed the fire behaviour and fire resistance of CLT rib panels currently not covered in standards. The project’s overall aim is the development of design rules in fire for EN 1995-1-2.
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Determination of Char Rates for Glulam Columns Exposed to a Standard Fire for Three Hours

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3238
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Fire
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Columns
Author
Hasburgh, Laura E.
Bourne, Keith
Barber, David
Organization
Forest Products Laboratory
ARUP
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Columns
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Char Rates
Tall Wood
Fire Resistance
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The fire resistance of a structural building member includes its ability to survive a specified fire without loss of its loadbearing function. For glue laminated timber columns, fire resistance is determined by either subjecting a structural member to a standard fire test or by using one of two accepted calculation methods. For wood structural members, the calculation methods rely on char rates obtained from numerous standard fire tests. The existing calculation methods are limited under United States building codes to calculating fire resistance ratings of 120 minutes or less. However, over the past decade there has been a push towards tall wood buildings and designers desire more exposed wood to be permitted in buildings. This desire, coupled with the recent adoption of code language that permits tall wood buildings up to 18 stories, has resulted in the need to determine char rates for glue laminated timber to use in the fire resistance calculations up to 180 minutes. Here we present the experimental method and initial char rate results of glue laminated columns exposed to the standard fire.
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Advancing Knowledge of Mid-ply Shear Walls: Mid-Ply Shear Wall Fire Resistance Testing

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2808
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Fire
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Shear Walls
Author
Ranger, Lindsay
Dagenais, Christian
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Report
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Shear Walls
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Shear Walls
Fire Resistance Rating
Mid-Rise
Midply Wall
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The objective of this research is to address a knowledge gap related to fire performance of midply shear walls. Testing has already been done to establish the structural performance of these assemblies. To ensure their safe implementation and their broad acceptance, this project will establish fire resistance ratings for midply shear walls. Fire tests will provide information for the development of design considerations for midply shear walls and confirm that they can achieve at least 1-hour fire-resistance ratings that are required for use in mid-rise buildings. This research will support greater adoption of mid-rise residential and non-residential wood-frame construction and improve competition with similar buildings of noncombustible construction. This work will also support the development of the APA system report for midply walls, which will be a design guideline for using midply walls in North America.
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Intermediate-scale test developed to screen adhesive fire performance in glued-laminated timber before full-scale testing

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3239
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Fire
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Author
Zelinka, Samuel
Bourne, Keith
Bechle, Nathan
Rammer, Douglas
Organization
Forest Products Laboratory
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Report
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Adhesive Performance
Standardization
Building Code Development
Research Status
Complete
Notes
Research Note
Summary
When a new engineered wood adhesive is developed for use in a fire-rated assembly, it must first pass a full-scale fire test, for example, a test in accordance with ASTM E119 in the United States. Although full-scale tests serve as the necessary entry to the marketplace, they are extremely costly and reflect the performance of the entire assembly and not just the adhesive. As a result, it is difficult to quantify differences in adhesive performance under elevated temperatures or fire conditions with these tests. Here, we present the results from a new test method developed at the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, to examine adhesive wood performance in glulam beams. The test is part of a larger research program for examining different adhesive formulations. The goals of the intermediate-scale test were to understand differences between adhesive formulations and to provide guidance regarding the performance for full-scale adhesive tests.
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Free
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Experimental study of compartment fire development and ejected flame thermal behavior for a large-scale light timber frame construction

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3048
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Fire
Author
Zhang, Yuchun
Yang, Xiaolong
Luo, Yueyang
Gao, Yunji
Liu, Haiyan
Li, Tao
Organization
Southwest Jiaotong University
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Light Timber Frame Construction
Room Fire Development
Ejected Flame
Research Status
Complete
Series
Case Studies in Thermal Engineering
Summary
Most of the previous work focused on fire behavior of non-combustible construction. However, few investigations have systematically addressed fire development and window ejected flame based on large-scale light timber frame construction (LTFC). This paper conducted a large-scale natural fire experiment to explore the fire development of wooden buildings and the ejected flame behavior by a two-layer light timber frame construction (LTFC). The experimental LTFC included two compartments, with four façade walls consisted of external and internal linings, within 5.1 m height, 3.6 m long and 2.4 m width, and weight of 1480.1 kg. The room temperature, mass variation in burning, radical temperature profiles outside the openings-façade wall, and ejected flame dimension were measured and analyzed. The results were summarized as follows: In LTFC, the room temperature and heat release rate (HRR) would show a second rapid rise, as if “twice flashover” occurred in fully burning stage. This phenomenon is obviously different from the traditional compartment fire development of buildings. Besides, after flashover, the ejected flame height continuously increased until the fire turned into decay stage, whereas the horizontal ejection distance would maintain a steady stage and increased as the openings broken extremely. Furthermore, the region outside the openings façade wall could be divided into three regions, ejected flame region (including continuous and intermittent flame) (Tr > 180 °C), buoyant plume region(150 °C > Tr > 60 °C) and heated air region(60 °C > Tr > T8). A modified function was proposed to predict the temperature profile at different heights for the openings-ejected flame. The data of this paper will enhance the comprehension for fire development of timber buildings and provide some useful information to assess the thermal behavior of window-ejected flame of façade wall.
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Combination of laser scanner and drilling resistance tests to measure geometry change for structural assessment of timber beams exposed to fire

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3057
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Fire
Application
Beams
Author
Cabaleiro, Manuel
Suñer, Carlos
Sousa, Hélder S.
Branco, Jorge M.
Organization
University of Vigo
University of Minho
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Application
Beams
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Drilling Resistance Test
Structural Assessment
Laser Scanning
Cloud Point
Research Status
Complete
Series
Journal of Building Engineering
Summary
A structure may be totally destroyed due to a fire, but often it is only partially damaged and parts of it may still be salvaged and reused. For buildings with significant historic and cultural value, it is of utmost importance that these elements, which were only partially damaged, can still be recovered as to preserve the authenticity of the structure. In the case of timber elements after a fire, it is common to find damage on the cross-section exterior part, whereas the inner part presents still a non-damaged section. Therefore, the element is often found with an exterior irregular shape, either due to its original shape prior decay or due to the exposure to fire, that does not coincide with the inner residual cross-section. Moreover, it is essential to perform a preliminary safety analysis to verify which elements can be preserved and to what extent interventions could be needed. The objective of this work is to apply a methodology that allows to calculate the residual cross-section of partially burnt timber elements structures as to calculate the resistant and apparent sections for geometry assessment and to implement that information in three-dimensional structural models. For this purpose, this work proposes a methodology based on a combination of drilling resistance tests together with laser scanner measurements. The methodology was first tested and calibrated within a controlled laboratory environment and then validated onsite using elements from a building exposed to a past fire. The Casa de Sarmento (Sarmento's House) in Guimarães (Portugal) was used as case study, where various structural damages due to a past fire were found.
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Free
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