IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science
According to the predictions of United Nations (2017) there are more than 7 billion people on Earth and this number will reach 9.7 billion by 2050. Today, most of the population lives in the urban areas and the rapid growth entails more construction in a housing sector. Since the industrial revolution the world has experienced countless technological attainments and on the other hand risky increase in natural resources use, energy consumption, greenhouse gases emission, ozone depletion, toxification and global temperature rising. The question how the cities can respond to urban growth is related to the sustainable goals of Agenda 2030. This research discusses potential of the usage of timber as construction material and it also brings the answer to this question. The wood is 100% renewable, recyclable and nontoxic material with capacity to absorb CO2 and perform low embodied energy. The increase of timber use in the construction contributes to sustainable development and to the reduction of waste, CO2 emission, as well as energy consumption. The aim of this paper is to discuss the advantages of using timber as a sustainable solution in urban context, in comparison with most commonly used concrete. The findings demonstrate the value of timber as sustainable construction material.
Sustainability and innovation are key components in the fight against climate change. Mass timber buildings have been gaining popularity due to the renewable nature of timber. Although research comparing mass timber buildings to more mainstream buildings such as steel is still in the early stages and therefore, limited. We are looking to determine the difference between carbon footprints of mass timber and traditional steel and concrete buildings. This is done with the intention of determining the sustainability and practicality of mass timber buildings.
More and more people live in cities. The building industry is responsible for 33% of waste production and is set to increase further to 50% in 2025. The energy efficiency is continuously increased, but the waste production at the end of life of a building is largely ignored. This design proposes a solution in the form of a zero-waste high-rise design. It uses only recyclable or renewable materials. Mass-timber is chosen as the main material as it is not only renewable and easily reusable, it is also a storage of CO2. The design reuses the foundation of existing buildings, and with the lightweight properties of mass-timber, increases the density on the location by building taller. The design is four times taller as the current buildings. To allow for sustainable densification, the design offers public and collective qualities. The building has been designed is such a way to be easily refitted during its life cycle or to be completely disassembled at the end of life.
Properly designed wooden truss bridges are environmentally compatible construction systems. The sharp decline in the erection of such structures in the past decades can be led back to the great effort needed for design and production. Digital parametric design and automated prefabrication approaches allow for a substantial improvement of the efficiency of design and manufacturing processes. Thus, if combined with a constructive wood protection following traditional building techniques, highly efficient sustainable structures are the result. The present paper describes the conceptual design for a wooden truss bridge drawn up for the overpass of a two-lane street crossing the university campus of one of Vienna’s main universities. The concept includes the greening of the structure as a shading design element. After an introduction, two Austrian traditional wooden bridges representing a good and a bad example for constructive wood protection are presented, and a state of the art of the production of timber trusses and greening building structures is given as well. The third part consists of the explanation of the boundary conditions for the project. Subsequently, in the fourth part, the conceptual design, including the design concept, the digital parametric design, the optimization, and the automated prefabrication concept, as well as the potential greening concept are discussed, followed by a summary and outlook on future research.
Relying on China’s national standard “Standard for Building Carbon Emission Calculation” and related reports published by the Athena Institute, this report calculates the life cycle carbon emissions of wood buildings in China. The study collects basic information of all the projects, such as quantity of building materials, building envelope, energy system and so on. Calculations are conducted for 7 projects from the aspects of product stage, transportation stage, construction stage, operational energy and demolition stage
The research presents a Carbon Value Engineering framework. This is a quantitative value analysis method, which not only estimates cost but also considers the carbon impact of alternative design solutions. It is primarily concerned with reducing cost and carbon impacts of developed design projects; that is, projects where the design is already a completed to a stage where a Bill of Quantity (BoQ) is available, material quantities are known, and technical understanding of the building is developed.
This research demonstrates that adopting this integrated carbon and cost method was able to reduce embodied carbon emissions by 63-267 kgCO2-e/m2 (8-36%) when maintaining a concrete frame, and 72-427 kgCO2-e/m2 (10-57%) when switching to a more novel whole timber frame. With a GFA of 43,229 m2 these savings equate to an overall reduction of embodied carbon in the order of 2,723 – 18,459 tonnes of CO2-e. Costs savings for both alternatives were in the order of $127/m2 which equates to a 10% reduction in capital cost.
For comparison purposes the case study was also tested with a high-performance façade. This reduced lifecycle carbon emissions in the order of 255 kgCO2-e/m2, over 50 years, but at an additional capital cost, due to the extra materials. What this means is strategies to reduce embodied carbon even late in the design stage can provide carbon savings comparable, and even greater than, more traditional strategies to reduce operational emissions over a building’s effective life.
This series highlights five whole building life cycle assessments (WBLCAs) of buildings incorporating the building material known as cross-laminated timber (CLT) into some or all of their structure, using a primary cradle-to-grave system boundary. This case study series will serve as an educational resource for academics, professionals, and CLT project stakeholders. While there is some uncertainty about the best way to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from architecture and construction, using CLT and other wood building materials is one possible means to reduce the emissions associated with a building’s materials. When forests are managed sustainably, wood construction materials can contribute to climate change mitigation goals as an indefinite carbon store and as a replacement of other fossil-fuel intensive materials. WBLCA is an assessment method to estimate the environmental impacts of buildings; this series offers insight into the current possibilities and limitations of WBLCA for CLT buildings. The series begins with background information on WBLCA methods and CLT, a review of previously published CLT building WBLCAs, and a life cycle assessment of an individual CLT wall element using the WBLCA softwares Tally® and Athena Impact Estimator for Buildings (Athena IE).