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84 records – page 1 of 5.

The Economic and Emissions Benefits of Engineered Wood Products in a Low-Carbon Future

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2351
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Environmental Impact
Cost
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Other Materials
Application
Wood Building Systems
General Application

Identifying the Economic Barriers to CLT Cost Estimation Among Building Construction Professionals

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2345
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Cost
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Stutesman, Jonathan H.
Organization
Virginia Tech
Year of Publication
2019
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Cost
Keywords
Cost Estimation
Survey
Commercial
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Cross-laminated timbers (CLTs) are strong and lightweight structural building materials. CLTs are made from renewable wood resources and have significant economic potential as a new value-added product for the United States. However, market penetration has been obstructed by product affordability and lack of availability for use. Previous studies and projects have surveyed opinions of designers and contractors about the adoption of CLTs. No previous study was found that surveyed cost estimators, who serve the essential function of creating economic comparisons of alternative materials in commercial construction. CLTs are not included in these current cost estimation tools and software packages which may be limiting the potential use of CLT in construction. The purpose of this study was to discover if cost estimation is being used to make structural decisions potentially affecting the marketability of CLT use in construction and building design because of the ability to estimate CLTs adequately. Through the use of a survey, the re-designing of a building, and discussions with subject matter experts, this study examined the knowledge level of cross-laminated timbers of under-surveyed building construction professions and the relationship between cost estimation and structural material choices. Their responses are demonstrating the need for better cost estimation tools for cross-laminated timbers such as inclusion in the Construction Specifications Institute's classification systems in order for CLTs to become a more competitive product. The study concluded that cost estimation is important for CLT market development, because it is being used extensively in the construction industry.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Analysis of Economic Feasibility of Ash and Maple Lamella Production for Glued Laminated Timber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2225
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Cost
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
General Application
Author
Schlotzhauer, Philipp
Kovryga, Andriy
Emmerich, Lukas
Bollmus, Susanne
Van de Kuilen, Jan-Willem
Militz, Holger
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2019
Country of Publication
Switzerland
Format
Journal Article
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
General Application
Topic
Cost
Keywords
Europe
Maple
Ash
Strength
Hardwood
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Forests
ISSN
1999-4907
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Carbon Value Engineering: Integrated Carbon and Cost Reduction Strategies for Building Design

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2268
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Environmental Impact
Cost
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Walls
Beams
Author
Robati, Mehdi
Oldfield, Philip F.
Nezhad, Ali Akbar
Carmichael, David
Organization
UNSW Sydney
Multiplex Australasia
Publisher
Cooperative Research for Low Carbon Living
Year of Publication
2019
Country of Publication
Australia
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Walls
Beams
Topic
Environmental Impact
Cost
Keywords
Value Engineering
Embodied Carbon
Hybrid Life Cycle Assessment
Capital Cost
Environmentally-extended Input-Output Analysis
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The research presents a Carbon Value Engineering framework. This is a quantitative value analysis method, which not only estimates cost but also considers the carbon impact of alternative design solutions. It is primarily concerned with reducing cost and carbon impacts of developed design projects; that is, projects where the design is already a completed to a stage where a Bill of Quantity (BoQ) is available, material quantities are known, and technical understanding of the building is developed. This research demonstrates that adopting this integrated carbon and cost method was able to reduce embodied carbon emissions by 63-267 kgCO2-e/m2 (8-36%) when maintaining a concrete frame, and 72-427 kgCO2-e/m2 (10-57%) when switching to a more novel whole timber frame. With a GFA of 43,229 m2 these savings equate to an overall reduction of embodied carbon in the order of 2,723 – 18,459 tonnes of CO2-e. Costs savings for both alternatives were in the order of $127/m2 which equates to a 10% reduction in capital cost. For comparison purposes the case study was also tested with a high-performance façade. This reduced lifecycle carbon emissions in the order of 255 kgCO2-e/m2, over 50 years, but at an additional capital cost, due to the extra materials. What this means is strategies to reduce embodied carbon even late in the design stage can provide carbon savings comparable, and even greater than, more traditional strategies to reduce operational emissions over a building’s effective life.
Online Access
Free
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Costs and Procurement for Cross-Laminated Timber in Mid-Rise Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2112
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Cost
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Lien, Anne Gunnarshaug
Lolli, Nicola
Publisher
Kaunas University of Technology
Year of Publication
2019
Country of Publication
Lithuania
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Cost
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Mid-Rise
Greenhouse Gases
Student Residence
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Journal of Sustainable Architecture and Civil Engineering
ISSN
2335–2000
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Use of Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) in Industrial Buildings in Nordic Climate — A Case Study

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2352
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Design and Systems
Energy Performance
Cost
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
General Application

Structural Design Process for Estimating Cross-Laminated Timber Use Factors for Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2170
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Design and Systems
Cost
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
General Application

Understanding Costs and Identifying Value in Mass Timber Construction: Calculating the ‘Total Cost of Project’ (TCP)

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1897
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Cost
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
General Application
Author
Kremer, Paul
Ritchie, Laurence
Publisher
Mass Timber Construction Journal
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
General Application
Topic
Cost
Keywords
Cost Versus Value
Quantity Survey
Productivity
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Mass Timber Construction Journal
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Artificial Neural Network for Assessment of Energy Consumption and Cost for Cross Laminated Timber Office Building in Severe Cold Regions

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1206
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Energy Performance
Cost
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Dong, Qi
Xing, Kai
Zhang, Hongrui
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2018
Country of Publication
Switzerland
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Energy Performance
Cost
Keywords
Energy Consumption
Office Buildings
Severe Cold Regions
Artificial Neural Network
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Sustainability
ISSN
2071-1050
Summary
This paper aims to develop an artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the energy consumption and cost of cross laminated timber (CLT) office buildings in severe cold regions during the early stage of architectural design. Eleven variables were selected as input variables including...
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Analysis of Military Protective Structures: A Framework for Quantifying Cost-Benefit of Existing and New Protective Systems

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1432
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Design and Systems
Cost
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
General Application
Author
Crofoot, Henry
Organization
Colorado School of Mines
Year of Publication
2018
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
General Application
Topic
Design and Systems
Cost
Keywords
Protection
Military
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Lessons Learned from Life Cycle Assessment and Life Cycle Costing of Two Residential Towers at the University of British Columbia

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1223
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Cost
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Hybrid Building Systems

The Economic and Emissions Benefits of Engineered Wood Products in a Low-Carbon Future

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1460
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Environmental Impact
Cost
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems

Tall with Timber: A Seattle Mass Timber Tower Case Study

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1957
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Cost
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Hybrid Building Systems

A Theoretical Approach Towards Ressource Efficiency in Multi-Story Timber Buildings Through BIM and Lean

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1910
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Design and Systems
Cost
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Timber-Concrete Composite
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Walls
Columns

Encapsulated Mass Timber Construction - Cost Comparison Canada: Construction, Time & Maintenance Cost-Benefit Report

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2359
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Cost
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Columns
Floors
Organization
Hanscomb
Publisher
National Research Council Canada
Year of Publication
2017
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Columns
Floors
Topic
Cost
Keywords
Encapsulated Mass Timber Construction
Building Code
Time
Construction Time
Construction Cost
Maintenance Cost
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The Task Group on Combustible Construction is in the process of evaluating a proposed code change request related to buildings of encapsulated mass timber construction (EMTC). As part of the analysis of the code change request, an impact analysis is required that includes a cost-benefit analysis. Hanscomb was hired to provide a cost-benefit analysis and to compare the estimated value of the following: 1. The cost of constructing a building of mass timber (unprotected) versus a building constructed of encapsulated mass timber (e.g. mass timber protected with a double layer of Type X gypsum board) versus a traditional concrete and steel building. 2. The time to build a building of mass timber construction (unprotected) versus a building of encapsulated mass timber construction versus a traditional concrete and steel building. 3. The annual maintenance costs of building of mass timber construction versus a building of encapsulated mass timber construction versus a traditional concrete and steel building. For the purposes of this study two sets of conceptual floor plans and elevations have been created: 1. A 12 storey building with a Group C major occupancy (residential) where each storey is 6,000 m2 in floor area. 2. A 12 storey building with a Group D major occupancy (office) where each storey is 7,200 m2 in floor area.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Evaluation of Thermal Performance, Environmental Impact, and Cost Effectiveness of an XLam Component for Retrofitting in Existing Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1414
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Seismic
Environmental Impact
Cost
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Dalla Mora, Tiziano
Righi, Alessandro
Peron, Fabio
Romagnoni, Piercarlo
Publisher
Springer, Cham
Year of Publication
2017
Country of Publication
Switzerland
Format
Book Section
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Seismic
Environmental Impact
Cost
Keywords
Retrofit
Installation
Assembly
Prototype
Italy
Residential
Thermal
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Mediterranean Green Buildings & Renewable Energy
ISBN
978-3-319-30746-6
Online Access
Payment Required
Resource Link
Less detail

Wood for Mid-Rise Construction: Opportunities for Atlantic Canadian Urban Centres

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1955
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Cost
Market and Adoption
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Organization
UPLAND Urban Planning and Design Studio
Publisher
Atlantic WoodWORKS!
Year of Publication
2017
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Cost
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Mid-Rise
National Building Code of Canada
Canada
Market Demand
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Recent changes to the National Building Code of Canada (NBC), and a trend towards more diversified housing options, have meant that many Canadian jurisdictions are acting quickly to capture the environmental, economic and social benefits of higher wood buildings. The 2015 NBC now permits wood frame construction to be 6 storeys high. Today, already 75% of Canadians live in jurisdictions that allow 6 storey wood frame construction. With the overall benefits of using wood as a building material well documented, Atlantic WoodWORKS! studied the opportunities for 6 storey wood construction in Atlantic Canadian Centres. The research included a comprehensive market study and projections for mid-rise demand in four major centres in Atlantic Canada, a review of recent and upcoming planning changes in major Atlantic Canadian cities and a full cost analysis, comparing wood construction to three other construction methods in use in the Atlantic market using a real-life wood mid-rise structure built by an experienced builder.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Identifying Mass Timber Research Priorities, Barriers to Adoption and Engineering, Procurement and Construction Challenges In Canada

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2372
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
Timber (unspecified)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Syed, Taha
Publisher
University of Toronto
Year of Publication
2020
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Thesis
Material
Timber (unspecified)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Mass Timber
Barriers
Research Priorities
Challenges
Construction
Engineering
Procurement
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Mass timber construction in Canada is in the spotlight and emerging as a sustainable building system that offers an opportunity to optimize the value of every tree harvested and to revitalize a declining forest industry, while providing climate mitigation solutions. Little research has been conducted, however, to identify the mass timber research priorities of end users, barriers to adoption and engineering, procurement and construction challenges in Canada. This study helps bridge these gaps. The study also created an interactive, three-dimensional GIS map displaying mass timber projects across North America, as an attempt to offer a helpful tool to practitioners, researchers and students, and fill a gap in existing knowledge sharing. The study findings, based on a web-based survey of mass timber end users, suggest the need for more research on (a) total project cost comparisons with concrete and steel, (b) hybrid systems and (c) mass timber building construction methods and guidelines. The most important barriers for successful adoption are (a) misconceptions about mass timber with respect to fire and building longevity, (b) high and uncertain insurance premiums, (c) higher cost of mass timber products compared to concrete and steel, and (d) resistance to changing from concrete and steel. In terms of challenges: (a) building code compliance and regulations, (b) design permits and approvals, and (c) insufficient design experts in the market are rated by study participants as the most pressing “engineering” challenge. The top procurement challenges are (a) too few manufactures and suppliers, (b) long distance transportation, and (c) supply and demand gaps. The most important construction challenges are (a) inadequate skilled workforce, (b) inadequate specialized subcontractors, and (c) excessive moisture exposure during construction.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Calculative Cost and Process Analysis of Timber-Concrete-Composite Ceilings with Focus on Effort and Performance Values for Cost Calculations of Multi-Storey Timber Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1753
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Cost
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Ceilings
Author
Koppelhuber, Joerg
Leitenbauer, Alexander
Heck, Detlef
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Ceilings
Topic
Cost
Keywords
Prefabrication
Multi-Storey
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 5006-5014
Summary
Composite structures use the advantages of two materials – timber and concrete – and improve the efficiency of a material application. Especially the concept of timber-concrete-composite ceilings has synergetic effects to achieve an effective ratio of thickness to span with high cost effectiveness simultaneously. Following the systematic...
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

The Case for Tall Wood Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue835
Edition
Second
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
General Information
Cost
Environmental Impact
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Organization
Michael Green Architecture
Edition
Second
Year of Publication
2017
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Book
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
General Information
Cost
Environmental Impact
Design and Systems
Keywords
FFTT
Tall Wood
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The report describes a new structural system in wood that is the first significant challenger to concrete and steel structures since their inception in tall building design more than a century ago. The introduction of these ideas is fundamentally driven by the need to find safe, carbon-neutral and sustainable alternatives to the incumbent structural materials of the urban world. The market for these ideas is quite simply enormous. The proposed solutions have significant capacity to revolutionize the building industry to address the major challenges of climate change, urbanization, sustainable development and world housing needs.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

84 records – page 1 of 5.