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Analysis Behavior of Openings on Full-Size Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) Frame Shear Walls Tested Monotonically

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3335
Year of Publication
2023
Topic
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Author
Dungani, Rudi
Sulistyono
Karliati, Tati
Suhaya, Yoyo
Malik, Jamaludin
Alpian
Supriyati, Wahyu
Organization
Institut Teknologi Bandung
Kuningan University
Palangka Raya University
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2023
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Topic
Seismic
Keywords
Monotonic Test
Seismic Resistance
Wood-Frame
Opening
Research Status
Complete
Series
Forests
Summary
Walls, as components of the lateral-force-resisting system of a building, are defined as shear walls. This study aims to determine the behavior of shear wall panel cross-laminated-timber-based mangium wood (Acacia mangium Willd) (CLT-mangium) in earthquake-resistant prefabricated houses. The earthquake performance of CLT mangium frame shear walls panels has been studied using monotonic tests. The shear walls were constructed using CLT-mangium measuring 2400 mm × 1200 mm × 68 mm with various design patterns (straight sheathing, diagonal sheathing/45°, windowed shear wall with diagonal pattern and a door shear wall with a diagonal pattern). Shear wall testing was carried out using a racking test, and seismic force calculations were obtained using static equivalent earthquake analysis. CLT-mangium sheathing installed horizontally (straight sheathing) is relatively weak compared to the diagonal sheathing, but it is easier and more flexible to manufacture. The diagonal sheathing type is stronger and stiffer because it has triangulation properties, such as truss properties, but is more complicated to manufacture (less flexible). The type A design is suitable for low-intensity zones (2), and types B, D, E1 and E2 are suitable for moderate-intensity zones (3, 4), and type C is suitable for severe-intensity zones (5).
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Experimental investigations of a new highly ductile hold-down with adaptive stiffness for timber seismic bracing walls

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3370
Year of Publication
2023
Topic
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Author
Maître, K.
Lestuzzi, P.
Geiser, M.
Organization
Bern University of Applied Sciences
École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
Publisher
Springer
Year of Publication
2023
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Topic
Seismic
Keywords
Hold-Down
Adaptative Stiffness
Buckling Restrained Brace
Capacity Design
CLT Shear Wall
High Ductility
Research Status
Complete
Series
Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering
Summary
An efficient implementation of the capacity design requires high ductility combined with a low overstrength of the critical regions. Conventional timber connections do not generally offer such ideal combination, resulting in modest behaviour and relatively high overstrength factors. Inspired by the Buckling Restrained Brace a new hold-down has been developed where the timber wall directly acts as a casing. The new hold-down has been given an adaptive stiffness allowing the structure to be stiff in the wind, while becoming more flexible in the case of an earthquake. Furthermore, local crushing of the timber members is completely avoided, and the new hold-down could be replaced after an earthquake. Experimental investigations were performed on hold-down specimens. The results show ultimate displacement values vu,c of more than 30 mm in a cyclic test according to EN12512. Eleven Cross Laminated Timber shear walls, in which the new hold-down has been implemented, were tested following monotonic and static-cyclic tests procedures, with and without vertical load. A very high ductility has been achieved with almost no strength degradation, little pinching and limited overstrength.
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Modeling of Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) panels loaded with combined out-of-plane bending and compression

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2842
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Columns
Walls
Author
Huang, Zirui
Huang, Dongsheng
Chui, Ying Hei
Shen, Yurong
Daneshvar, Hossein
Sheng, Baolu
Chen, Zhongfan
Organization
Southeast University
University of Alberta
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Columns
Walls
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Rolling Shear
Beam-and-Column
Analytical Model
Load-Carrying Capacity
Research Status
Complete
Series
Engineering Structures
Summary
Rolling shear is one of the major concerns that significantly impact the performance of CLT walls if they are subjected to combined out-of-plane bending and compression loads. Because the effects of rolling shear and out-of-plane bending are coupled to each other, prediction of the load-carrying capacity of CLT wall is always a challenge for the design of CLT structures. Current design codes employ an Ayrton-Perry type interaction equation as the failure criterion to check the safety of a CLT panel loaded with combined bending and compression. Nevertheless, there is no model available to predict their load-carrying capacity. The presented work aims at developing an analytical model to predict the load-carrying capacity of CLT wall loaded with combined out-of-plane bending and compression. In total 12 five-layer CLT panels loaded with different initial load eccentricities were tested to investigate the failure modes. Observed during the test were two ultimate failure modes, i.e., compression crush on the concave side and tension rupture in convex side. Based on these failure modes and deeming the test member as a beam-column, an analytical model which takes rolling shear effects into account to predict the load-carry capacity of CLT compression-bending members was developed. An explicit formula based on compression failure mode was proposed. The model is capable of determining the distribution of rolling shear stress along longitudinal direction, rolling shear-induced axial force and moments in CLT beam-columns. By calculating the load-carrying capacities of the specimens tested in this study as well as the additional three- and seven-layer specimens tested by another studies, it was found that the compression failure mode-based formula can provide good agreements with the test results.
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Contemporary and Novel Hold-Down Solutions for Mass Timber Shear Walls

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2941
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Author
Tannert, Thomas
Loss, Cristiano
Organization
University of Northern British Columbia
University of British Columbia
Editor
Tullini, Nerio
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Self-Tapping Screws
Internal-Perforated Steel Plates
Hyperelastic Bearing Pads
Proprietary Connections
Research Status
Complete
Series
Buildings
Summary
‘Mass timber’ engineered wood products in general, and cross-laminated timber in particular, are gaining popularity in residential, non-residential, as well as mid- and high-rise structural applications. These applications include lateral force-resisting systems, such as shear walls. The prospect of building larger and taller timber buildings creates structural design challenges; one of them being that lateral forces from wind and earthquakes are larger and create higher demands on the ‘hold-downs’ in shear wall buildings. These demands are multiple: strength to resist loads, lateral stiffness to minimize deflections and damage, as well as deformation compatibility to accommodate the desired system rocking behaviour during an earthquake. In this paper, contemporary and novel hold-down solutions for mass timber shear walls are presented and discussed, including recent research on internal-perforated steel plates fastened with self-drilling dowels, hyperelastic rubber pads with steel rods, and high-strength hold-downs with self-tapping screws.
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Mechanical Behavior of GFRP Dowel Connections to Cross Laminated Timber-CLT Panels

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2957
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Connections
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Walls
Author
Almeida, Amanda
Moura, Jorge
Organization
Maringá State University
Londrina State University
Editor
Knapic, Sofia
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Walls
Topic
Connections
Keywords
GFRP
Dowel-Type Connections
Panel-to-Panel
Design Methodology
Push-Out Tests
Research Status
Complete
Series
Forests
Summary
Sustainability issues are driving the civil construction industry to adopt and study more environmentally friendly technologies as an alternative to traditional masonry/concrete construction. In this context, plantation wood especially stands out as a constituent of the cross-laminated timber (CLT) system, laminated wood glued in perpendicular layers forming a solid-wood structural panel. CLT panels are commonly connected by screws or nails, and several authors have investigated the behavior of these connections. Glass-fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) dowels have been used to connect wooden structures, and have presented excellent performance results; however, they have not yet been tested in CLT. Therefore, the objective of this study is to analyze the glass-fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP)-doweled connections between CLT panels. The specimens were submitted to monotonic shear loading, following the test protocol described in EN 26891-1991. Two configurations of adjacent five-layer panels were tested: flat-butt connections with 45° dowels (x, y, and z axes), and half-lap connections with 90° dowels. The results were evaluated according to the mechanical connection properties of strength, stiffness, and ductility ratio. The results showed higher stiffness for butt-end connections. In terms of strength, the half-lap connections were stronger than the butt-end connections.
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Shaft Wall Solutions for Light-Frame and Mass Timber Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2999
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
General Information
Application
Walls
Author
McLain, Richard
Publisher
WoodWorks
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Report
Application
Walls
Topic
General Information
Keywords
Shaft Wall
Fire Resistance
Assembly Options
Floor-to-wall Intersections
Research Status
Complete
Summary
It is fairly common for mid-rise wood buildings to include shaft walls made from other materials. However, wood shaft walls are a code-compliant option for both light-frame and mass timber projects—and they typically have the added benefits of lower cost and faster installation. This paper provides an overview of design considerations, requirements, and options for light wood-frame and mass timber shaft walls under the 2018 and 2021 IBC, and considerations related to non-wood shaft walls in wood buildings.
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Experimental Verification of Thermal Insulation in Timber Framed Walls

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3007
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Moisture
Application
Walls
Author
Michálková, Daniela
Durica, Pavol
Organization
University of Zilina
Editor
Pavlik, Zbyšek
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Application
Walls
Topic
Moisture
Keywords
Timber Framed
Relative Humidity
Thermal Conductivity
Material Properties
Research Status
Complete
Series
Materials
Summary
Current environmental crisis calls for sustainable solutions in the building industry. One of the possible solutions is to incorporate timber-framed constructions into designs. Among other benefits, these structures are well established in many countries, originating in traditional building systems. This paper focuses on experimental timber-frame walls. Different wall assemblies vary in thermal insulation materials and their combinations. We investigated ten experimental wall structures that have been exposed to natural external boundary conditions since 2015. The emphasis was on their state in terms of visual deterioration, mass moisture content, and thermal conductivity coefficient. We detected several issues, including defects caused by inappropriate realization, causing local moisture increase. Material settlement in loose-fill thermal insulation was another issue. Concerning was a significant change in the thermal conductivity of wood fiber insulation, where the current value almost doubled in one case compared to the design value determined by the producer.
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A numerical and experimental investigation of non-linear deformation behaviours in light-frame timber walls

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3022
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Application
Walls
Shear Walls
Author
Kuai, Le
Ormarsson, Sigurdur
Vessby, Johan
Maharjan, Rajan
Organization
Linnaeus University
Karlstad University
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Application
Walls
Shear Walls
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Timber Structures
Internal Force Distribution
Light-frame Shear Walls
Parametric Study
Openings
Research Status
Complete
Series
Engineering Structures
Summary
In recent decades, there is a trend in Scandinavian countries to build multi-storey residential houses using prefabricated timber modules. It is a highly efficient construction process with less environmental impact and less material waste. A significant building element in the timber modules is the light-frame timber wall, which has to be carefully analysed and optimized in this process. This paper presents a new parametric Finite Element (FE) model that can simulate both in-plane and out-of-plane deformations in the light-frame walls. A new and flexible (Eurocode based) approach to define the properties of the mechanical connections is introduced. A numerical model is presented through simulations of several walls that were verified with full-scale experiments. The results indicate that the numerical model could achieve fairly reasonable accuracy with the new approach. Furthermore, several parametric studies are presented and discussed from global and local points of view, to investigate the effects of certain parameters that are not considered in the design method according to Eurocode 5.
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Performance of midply shear wall

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3037
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Fire
Acoustics and Vibration
Application
Shear Walls
Author
Ni, Chui
Dagenais, Christian
Qian, Cheng
Hu, Lin
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Report
Application
Shear Walls
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Fire
Acoustics and Vibration
Keywords
Midply Shear Wall
Structural Performance
Fire Performance
Acoustic Performance
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Midply shear wall, which was originally developed by researchers at Forintek Canada Corp. (predecessor of FPInnovations) and the University of British Columbia, is a high-capacity wood-frame shear wall system that is suitable for high wind and seismic loadings. Its superior seismic performance was demonstrated in a full-scale earthquake simulation test of a 6-storey wood-frame building in Japan (Peietal.,2010). Midply shear wall, however, had limited applications due to its low resistance to vertical load and difficulty to accommodate electrical and plumbing services. For broader applications of Midply shearwall, these limitations needed to be addressed. In collaboration with APA–The Engineered Wood Association and the American Wood Council (AWC), a new framing arrangement was designed to increase the vertical load resistance of Midply shearwalls and make it easier to accommodate electrical and plumbing services. Consequently, structural, fire and acoustic tests have been conducted to evaluate various performance attributes of Midply shear wall with the new framing configuration. This InfoNote provides a summary of the structural, fire and acoustic performance of Midply shearwalls from the tests.
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A Sustainable Approach to Build Insulated External Timber Frame Walls for Passive Houses Using Natural and Waste Materials

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3044
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Application
Walls
Author
Georgescu, Sergiu-Valeriu
Sova, Daniela
Campean, Mihaela
Cosereanu, Camelia
Organization
Transilvania University of Brasov
Editor
Zelinka, Samuel L.
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Application
Walls
Topic
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Timber Frame Walls
Thermal Insulation
Passive House
Natural Materials
Waste Materials
Research Status
Complete
Series
Forests
Summary
This paper presents structures of timber-framed walls designed for passive houses, using natural and waste resources as insulation materials, such as wool, wood fibers, ground paper, reeds (Phragmites communis), and Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) wastes. The insulation systems of stud walls composed of wool–ABS composite boards and five types of fillers (wool, ABS, wood fibers, ground paper, and reeds) were investigated to reach U-value requirements for passive houses. The wall structures were designed at a thickness of 175 mm, including gypsum board for internal wall lining and oriented strand board (OSB) for the exterior one. The testing protocol of thermal insulation properties of wall structures simulated conditions for indoor and outdoor temperatures during the winter and summer seasons using HFM-Lambda laboratory equipment. In situ measurements of U-values were determined for the experimental wall structures during winter time, when the temperature differences between outside and inside exceeded 10 °C. The results recorded for the U-values between 0.20 W/m2K and 0.35 W/m2K indicate that the proposed structures are energy-efficient walls for passive houses placed in the temperate-continental areas. The vapour flow rate calculation does not indicate the presence of condensation in the 175 mm thick wall structures, which proves that the selected thermal insulation materials are not prone to degradation due to condensation. The research is aligned to the international trend in civil engineering, oriented to the design and construction of low-energy buildings on the one hand and the use of environmentally friendly or recycled materials on the other.
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377 records – page 1 of 38.