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121 records – page 1 of 13.

Analysis Behavior of Openings on Full-Size Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) Frame Shear Walls Tested Monotonically

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3335
Year of Publication
2023
Topic
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Author
Dungani, Rudi
Sulistyono
Karliati, Tati
Suhaya, Yoyo
Malik, Jamaludin
Alpian
Supriyati, Wahyu
Organization
Institut Teknologi Bandung
Kuningan University
Palangka Raya University
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2023
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Topic
Seismic
Keywords
Monotonic Test
Seismic Resistance
Wood-Frame
Opening
Research Status
Complete
Series
Forests
Summary
Walls, as components of the lateral-force-resisting system of a building, are defined as shear walls. This study aims to determine the behavior of shear wall panel cross-laminated-timber-based mangium wood (Acacia mangium Willd) (CLT-mangium) in earthquake-resistant prefabricated houses. The earthquake performance of CLT mangium frame shear walls panels has been studied using monotonic tests. The shear walls were constructed using CLT-mangium measuring 2400 mm × 1200 mm × 68 mm with various design patterns (straight sheathing, diagonal sheathing/45°, windowed shear wall with diagonal pattern and a door shear wall with a diagonal pattern). Shear wall testing was carried out using a racking test, and seismic force calculations were obtained using static equivalent earthquake analysis. CLT-mangium sheathing installed horizontally (straight sheathing) is relatively weak compared to the diagonal sheathing, but it is easier and more flexible to manufacture. The diagonal sheathing type is stronger and stiffer because it has triangulation properties, such as truss properties, but is more complicated to manufacture (less flexible). The type A design is suitable for low-intensity zones (2), and types B, D, E1 and E2 are suitable for moderate-intensity zones (3, 4), and type C is suitable for severe-intensity zones (5).
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Experimental investigations of a new highly ductile hold-down with adaptive stiffness for timber seismic bracing walls

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3370
Year of Publication
2023
Topic
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Author
Maître, K.
Lestuzzi, P.
Geiser, M.
Organization
Bern University of Applied Sciences
École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne
Publisher
Springer
Year of Publication
2023
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Topic
Seismic
Keywords
Hold-Down
Adaptative Stiffness
Buckling Restrained Brace
Capacity Design
CLT Shear Wall
High Ductility
Research Status
Complete
Series
Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering
Summary
An efficient implementation of the capacity design requires high ductility combined with a low overstrength of the critical regions. Conventional timber connections do not generally offer such ideal combination, resulting in modest behaviour and relatively high overstrength factors. Inspired by the Buckling Restrained Brace a new hold-down has been developed where the timber wall directly acts as a casing. The new hold-down has been given an adaptive stiffness allowing the structure to be stiff in the wind, while becoming more flexible in the case of an earthquake. Furthermore, local crushing of the timber members is completely avoided, and the new hold-down could be replaced after an earthquake. Experimental investigations were performed on hold-down specimens. The results show ultimate displacement values vu,c of more than 30 mm in a cyclic test according to EN12512. Eleven Cross Laminated Timber shear walls, in which the new hold-down has been implemented, were tested following monotonic and static-cyclic tests procedures, with and without vertical load. A very high ductility has been achieved with almost no strength degradation, little pinching and limited overstrength.
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Contemporary and Novel Hold-Down Solutions for Mass Timber Shear Walls

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2941
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Author
Tannert, Thomas
Loss, Cristiano
Organization
University of Northern British Columbia
University of British Columbia
Editor
Tullini, Nerio
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Self-Tapping Screws
Internal-Perforated Steel Plates
Hyperelastic Bearing Pads
Proprietary Connections
Research Status
Complete
Series
Buildings
Summary
‘Mass timber’ engineered wood products in general, and cross-laminated timber in particular, are gaining popularity in residential, non-residential, as well as mid- and high-rise structural applications. These applications include lateral force-resisting systems, such as shear walls. The prospect of building larger and taller timber buildings creates structural design challenges; one of them being that lateral forces from wind and earthquakes are larger and create higher demands on the ‘hold-downs’ in shear wall buildings. These demands are multiple: strength to resist loads, lateral stiffness to minimize deflections and damage, as well as deformation compatibility to accommodate the desired system rocking behaviour during an earthquake. In this paper, contemporary and novel hold-down solutions for mass timber shear walls are presented and discussed, including recent research on internal-perforated steel plates fastened with self-drilling dowels, hyperelastic rubber pads with steel rods, and high-strength hold-downs with self-tapping screws.
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A numerical and experimental investigation of non-linear deformation behaviours in light-frame timber walls

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3022
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Application
Walls
Shear Walls
Author
Kuai, Le
Ormarsson, Sigurdur
Vessby, Johan
Maharjan, Rajan
Organization
Linnaeus University
Karlstad University
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Application
Walls
Shear Walls
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Timber Structures
Internal Force Distribution
Light-frame Shear Walls
Parametric Study
Openings
Research Status
Complete
Series
Engineering Structures
Summary
In recent decades, there is a trend in Scandinavian countries to build multi-storey residential houses using prefabricated timber modules. It is a highly efficient construction process with less environmental impact and less material waste. A significant building element in the timber modules is the light-frame timber wall, which has to be carefully analysed and optimized in this process. This paper presents a new parametric Finite Element (FE) model that can simulate both in-plane and out-of-plane deformations in the light-frame walls. A new and flexible (Eurocode based) approach to define the properties of the mechanical connections is introduced. A numerical model is presented through simulations of several walls that were verified with full-scale experiments. The results indicate that the numerical model could achieve fairly reasonable accuracy with the new approach. Furthermore, several parametric studies are presented and discussed from global and local points of view, to investigate the effects of certain parameters that are not considered in the design method according to Eurocode 5.
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Performance of midply shear wall

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3037
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Fire
Acoustics and Vibration
Application
Shear Walls
Author
Ni, Chui
Dagenais, Christian
Qian, Cheng
Hu, Lin
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Report
Application
Shear Walls
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Fire
Acoustics and Vibration
Keywords
Midply Shear Wall
Structural Performance
Fire Performance
Acoustic Performance
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Midply shear wall, which was originally developed by researchers at Forintek Canada Corp. (predecessor of FPInnovations) and the University of British Columbia, is a high-capacity wood-frame shear wall system that is suitable for high wind and seismic loadings. Its superior seismic performance was demonstrated in a full-scale earthquake simulation test of a 6-storey wood-frame building in Japan (Peietal.,2010). Midply shear wall, however, had limited applications due to its low resistance to vertical load and difficulty to accommodate electrical and plumbing services. For broader applications of Midply shearwall, these limitations needed to be addressed. In collaboration with APA–The Engineered Wood Association and the American Wood Council (AWC), a new framing arrangement was designed to increase the vertical load resistance of Midply shearwalls and make it easier to accommodate electrical and plumbing services. Consequently, structural, fire and acoustic tests have been conducted to evaluate various performance attributes of Midply shear wall with the new framing configuration. This InfoNote provides a summary of the structural, fire and acoustic performance of Midply shearwalls from the tests.
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Innovations in mass timber lateral systems

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3099
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Author
Bailey, Dawson
Organization
Kansas State University
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Topic
Seismic
Keywords
Rocking Timber Walls
Lateral Systems
Post Tensioning
Research Status
Complete
Summary
As mass timber becomes increasingly popular in the United States and around the world, there comes more demand for mass timber in larger buildings. With this demand comes a necessity for these buildings to be able to withstand seismic forces; and in some locations, these forces can get quite high. Typical mass timber lateral systems (such as CLT shear walls) have worked fine for lower seismic forces and shorter buildings, but with this new demand comes a need for newer systems. Rocking timber walls is one of these systems. The goal of a rocking timber wall is to allow the lateral wall system to move in the case of high seismic force, thus reducing the loading the wall experiences. This is done with vertical post tensioning (PT) within cross-laminated timber panels (CLT). In addition, easily replaceable energy dissipation devices, such as U-shaped flexural plates (UFPs), allow for concentration of inelastic deformation during rocking of the walls, which keeps the CLT and PT components free from harm. Another system used to handle seismic load in tall mass timber structures are inter-story isolation systems. These systems can isolate the force at separate levels, effectively decreasing the load the foundation takes from the building's movement. Even newer than these systems is the Floor Isolated Re-centering Modular Construction System (FIRMOC), which utilizes rocking timber walls, inter-story isolation, and the addition of prefabricated modular mass timber to create a system capable of effectively and efficiently dealing with large seismic forces. This report seeks to present these innovative, capable, and effective lateral systems for seismic forces in large scale mass timber structures in a manner that provides understanding of how they work and what makes them effective.
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Free
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Seismic performance evaluation of innovative balloon type CLT rocking shear walls

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3133
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Author
Yang, T.Y.
Lepine-Lacroix, S.
Guerrero, J.A. Ramos
McFadden, J.B.W.
Al-Janabi, M.A.Q.
Organization
The University of British Columbia
National Research Council Canada
Al-Nahrain University
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Topic
Seismic
Keywords
Rocking Shear Walls
CLT Shear Walls
Seismic Performance
Nonlinear Finite Element Model
Research Status
Complete
Series
Resilient Cities and Structures
Summary
Balloon type cross laminated timber (CLT) rocking shear walls are a novel seismic force resisting system. In this paper, the seismic performance of four 12-story balloon type CLT rocking shear walls, designed by a structural engineering firm located in Vancouver (Canada) using the performance-based design procedure outlined in the technical guideline published by the Canadian Construction Materials center (CCMC)/National Research Council Canada (NRC), is assessed. The seismic performance of the prototype CLT rocking shear walls was investigated using nonlinear time history analyses. Robust nonlinear finite element models were developed using OpenSees and the nonlinear behavior of the displacement-controlled components was calibrated using available experimental data. A detailed site-specific hazard analysis was conducted and sets of ground motions suitable for the prototype buildings were selected. The ground motions were used in a series of incremental dynamic analyses (IDAs) to quantify the adjustable collapse margin ratio (ACMR) of the prototype balloon type CLT rocking shear walls. The results show that the prototype balloon type CLT rocking shear walls designed using the performance-based design procedure outlined in the CCMC/NRC technical guideline have sufficient ACMR when compared to the acceptable limits recommended by FEMA P695.
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Practical Modeling Approaches for Buildings with Mass Timber Lateral Systems

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3169
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Seismic
Application
Shear Walls
Organization
Colorado School of Mines
Year of Publication
2022
Application
Shear Walls
Topic
Seismic
Keywords
Numerical Modeling
Modeling Guide
Post-tensioned Rocking Wall Lateral Systems
Performance-Based Seismic Design
Research Status
In Progress
Notes
Project contact is Shiling Pei (United States)
Summary
This project is aimed at meeting the needs of mass timber design industry by developing a numerical modeling guide for multi-story wood buildings with post-tensioned rocking wall lateral systems. Through close collaboration of researchers, practicing engineers, and software developers, three main deliverables will be generated from this project. The first one is a tall wood modeling guide which provide detailed suggestions on mass timber building modeling options and processes using commercial programs widely available in design offices. One or multiple of PERFORM-3D, ETABS and SAP2000 packages will be used in this study. The second deliverable will be a mass timber dynamic response validation data package based on full-scale dynamic testing results from two- and ten-story mass timber buildings. This package contains building design detail and dynamic test responses, which can be used by design engineers to validate their own numerical model for performance-based seismic design or approval for new mass timber projects. Finally, the third deliverable will be a show-case archetype building modeling example in which a 6-story office building will be designed and modeled for a high seismic region location. The example will demonstrate typical steps a design engineer can follow to design and model such a building for review and approval by building officials.
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Determination of seismic performance factors for cross-laminated timber shear walls based on FEMA P695 methodology

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3215
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Author
Lindt, John van de
Amini, M. Omar
Rammer, Douglas
Line, Philip
Pei, Shiling
Popovski, Marjan
Organization
Forest Products Laboratory
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Topic
Seismic
Keywords
Seismic Design
Mass Timber Design
FEMA P695
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) construction has been gaining popularity in North America. However, CLT-based seismic force resisting systems are not recognized in current U.S. design codes, which is among the many challenges preventing widespread adoption of CLT in the United States. The purpose of this study was to investigate the seismic behavior of CLT-based shear wall systems and to determine seismic performance factors, namely, the response modification factor (R factor), the system overstrength factor(O), and the deflection amplification factor (Cd), using the FEMA P695 procedure. Nine index buildings including single-family dwellings, multifamily dwellings, and commercial (including mixed use) midrise buildings were developed, from which 72 archetypes were extracted. Testing performed at the component and subassembly levels included connector tests and isolated shear wall tests. A CLT shear wall design method was developed and used to design the archetypes, which were then assessed with nonlinear pushover analysis and incremental dynamic analysis. Based on the required collapse margin, an R factor of 3 is proposed for CLT shear wall systems with 2:1 or mixed aspect ratio panels up to 4:1, and an R factor of 4 is proposed for CLT shear wall systems made up of only 4:1 aspect ratio panels. Results from this study have been proposed for recognition in U.S. building codes (such as the International Building Code) through specific change proposals to update reference standards such as ASCE 7 Minimum Design Loads and Associated Criteria for Buildings and Other Structures and Special Design Provisions for Wind and Seismic.
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Free
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The wall–frame interaction effect in CLT-steel hybrid system

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3260
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Frames
Shear Walls
Author
Vogiatzis, Tzanetis
Tsalkatidis, Themistoklis
Efthymiou, Evangelos
Organization
Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
Norwegian University of Life Sciences
Publisher
Frontiers
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Frames
Shear Walls
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Steel-moment Resisting Frame
Steel-timber Hybrid Structure
Seismic Behavior
Numerical Analysis
Ductility
Research Status
Complete
Series
Frontiers in Built Environment
Summary
Behaviour and capacity of cross-laminated timber (CLT) infills built inside steel frames have been given increasing research attention in recent years. It is widely accepted that when the CLT wall panel is built in tight contact with the bounding steel frame to participate in the load sharing, its inherently large in-plane stiffness will attract additional forces to the frame area and change the behaviour of the hybrid system. If not designed properly, the structural integrity of both the infill and the frame will be compromised. It is thus crucial to accurately evaluate the contribution of the infill CLT wall panel to the stiffness and strength of the hybrid system. To that end, a finite element study was performed to investigate the frame-wall interaction effect on the behaviour of hybrid systems. The lateral stiffness, lateral load capacities and hysteretic characteristics of the hybrid systems with frictional and connected interfaces were investigated. The load-sharing effect between the CLT wall and the steel frame was studied. The numerical results showed that the connected models were very effective as the infill absorbed a substantial part of the lateral load, during the initial stages of loading.
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121 records – page 1 of 13.