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11 records – page 1 of 2.

Description of Small and Large-Scale Cross Laminated Timber Fire Tests

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1339
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Rooms
Wood Building Systems
Author
Emberley, Richard
Putynska, Carmen
Bolanos, Aaron
Lucherini, Andrea
Solarte, Angela
Soriguer, Diana
Gonzalez, Mateo
Humphreys, Kathryn
Hidalgo, Juan
Maluk, Cristian
Law, Angus
Torero, Jose
Publisher
ScienceDirect
Year of Publication
2017
Country of Publication
Netherlands
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Rooms
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Large Scale
Small Scale
Compartment Fire Test
Heat Flux
Temperature
Self-Extinction
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Fire Safety Journal
Summary
A large-scale fire test was conducted on a compartment constructed from cross laminated timber (CLT). The internal faces of the compartment were lined with non-combustible board, with the exception of one wall and the ceiling where the CLT was exposed directly to the fire inside the compartment. Extinction of the fire occurred without intervention. During the fire test, measurements were made of incident radiant heat flux, gas phase temperature, and in-depth temperature in the CLT. In addition, gas flow velocities and gas phase temperatures at the opening were measured, as well as incident heat fluxes at the facade due to flames and the plume leaving the opening. The fuel load was chosen to be sufficient to attain flashover, to achieve steadystate burning conditions of the exposed CLT, but to minimize the probability of uncertain behaviors induced by the specific characteristics of the CLT. Ventilation conditions were chosen to approximate maximum temperatures within a compartment. Wood cribs were used as fuel and, following decay of the cribs, selfextinction of the exposed CLT rapidly occurred. In parallel with the large-scale test, a small scale study focusing on CLT self-extinction was conducted. This study was used: to establish the range of incident heat fluxes for which self-extinction of the CLT can occur; the duration of exposure after which steady-state burning occurred; and the duration of exposure at which debonding of the CLT could occur. The large-scale test is described, and the results from both the small and large-scale tests are compared. It is found that selfextinction occurred in the large-scale compartment within the range of critical heat fluxes obtained from the small scale tests.
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Development of a Ready-To-Assemble (RTA) Tornado Safe Room Constructed from Cross-Laminated Timber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue716
Topic
Design and Systems
Wind
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Rooms
Author
Black, Todd
Falk, Bob
Organization
Forest Products Laboratory
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Rooms
Topic
Design and Systems
Wind
Keywords
Ready-To-Assemble
Tornadoes
Lateral Loads
Research Status
In Progress
Summary
Over the past several decades, the market for ready-to-assemble (RTA) products has grown significantly. RTA kitchen cabinets and furniture are commonplace because they can be shipped flat and assembled on site, which has greatly reduced shipping costs associated with an otherwise voluminous product. Packaged with necessary hardware and instructions, these RTA products are typically easy to assemble and fool proof. The development of a standardized safe room using CLT that is ready to assemble, easy to ship, and quick to fabricate on site would not only increase the level of safety for our population but also increase the market opportunity for these engineered wood products. This research is an extension of research by the USDA Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, to develop a do-it-yourself safe room constructed from wood that can be incorporated into existing housing and that utilizes commodity wood products. The objective of this project is to develop a RTA tornado safe room and shelter from CLT for use in existing and new residential and commercial construction.
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Effects of Exposed Cross Laminated Timber on Compartment Fire Dynamics

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1340
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Rooms
Author
Hadden, Rory
Bartlett, Alastair
Hidalgo, Juan
Santamaria, Simón
Wiesner, Felix
Bisby, Luke
Deeny, Susan
Lane, Barbara
Publisher
ScienceDirect
Year of Publication
2017
Country of Publication
Netherlands
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Rooms
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Compartment Fires
Heat Release Rate
Temperature
Exposed Timber
Auto-Extinction
Combustible Material
Heat Transfer
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Fire Safety Journal
Summary
A series of compartment fire experiments has been undertaken to evaluate the impact of combustible cross laminated timber linings on the compartment fire behaviour. Compartment heat release rates and temperatures are reported for three configuration of exposed timber surfaces. Auto-extinction of the compartment was observed in one case but this was not observed when the experiment was repeated under identical condition. This highlights the strong interaction between the exposed combustible material and the resulting fire dynamics. For large areas of exposed timber linings heat transfer within the compartment dominates and prevents auto-extinction. A framework is presented based on the relative durations of the thermal penetration time of a timber layer and compartment fire duration to account for the observed differences in fire dynamics. This analysis shows that fall-off of the charred timber layers is a key contributor to whether auto-extinction can be achieved.
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Full-Scale Tests in a Furnished Living Room to Evaluate the Fire Performance of Protected Cross-Laminated and Nail-Laminated Timber Construction

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue710
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Design and Systems
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Rooms
Author
Janssens, Marc
Organization
American Wood Council
Year of Publication
2015
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Rooms
Topic
Design and Systems
Fire
Keywords
Full Scale
Type X Gypsum Board
Room Fire
Heat Release Rate
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The objective of the two tests described in this report was to evaluate the performance of cross-laminated timber (CLT) and nail laminated timber (NLT) construction protected with two layers of %-in. (16-mm) type X gypsum board when exposed to the thermal environment of a severe living room fire for the American Wood Council (Client), located in Leesburg, Virginia. The tests were conducted on September 3 and 15, 2015, at Southwest Research Institute's (SwRI) Fire Technology Department, located in San Antonio, Texas. This report describes the testing of the assemblies that were evaluated and the results that were obtained. The results presented in this report apply specifically to the materials and products tested and in the manner tested.
Copyright
Courtesy, American Wood Council, Leesburg, VA
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Free
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High Energy Performance Six-Storey Wood-Frame Building: Field Monitoring

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1918
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Energy Performance
Application
Walls
Wood Building Systems
Roofs
Rooms
Author
Wang, Jieying
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2019
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Application
Walls
Wood Building Systems
Roofs
Rooms
Topic
Energy Performance
Keywords
Mid-Rise
Durability
Vertical Movement
Indoor Environmental Conditions
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This monitoring study aims to generate field performance data from a highly energy efficient building in the west coast climate as part of FPInnovations’ efforts to assist the building sector in developing durable and energy efficient wood-based buildings. A six-storey mixed-use building, with five storeys of wood-frame residential construction on top of concrete commercial space was completed in early 2018 in the City of Vancouver. It was designed to meet the Passive House standard. The instrumentation aimed to gather field data related to the indoor environment, building envelope moisture performance, and vertical movement to address the most critical concerns among practitioners for such buildings.
Online Access
Free
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Improving the Sound Absorption of Cross-Laminated Timber Panels Using Resonant Absorbent Layer

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1265
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Rooms
Author
Logawa, Banda
Organization
University of British Columbia
Year of Publication
2017
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Rooms
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Keywords
Sound Absorption
In Situ
Reverberation Time
Speech Intelligibility Index
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Developed in the mid-1990s in Austria and Germany, Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) is an innovative wood product known for its strength in both orthogonal directions, and its dimensional stability, making it a sustainable alternative to concrete slabs. CLT is created through the cross-lamination process, which glues together odd number of layers of wood planks placed in orthogonally alternating directions. With the growing interest in the application of CLT in North America, numerous studies has been conducted to characterize the acoustical properties of CLT panels. However, most of them focused on the sound-transmission aspect of CLT, very few on the sound absorption. This thesis will explore the sound-absorption characteristics of CLT, the effect on overall room-acoustical conditions, the utilization of resonant sound-absorbing layers on CLT to make it more sound-absorptive, and proposed solutions to improve this performance aspect. To demonstrate the low sound absorption and poor acoustical conditions in rooms with exposed and untreated CLT panels, several in-situ reverberation-time (RT) measurements were conducted in multiple buildings in British Columbia. Average sound-absorption coefficients and estimated Speech Intelligibility Indices (SII) were calculated as baseline performance measures for this study. Based on the results from five different buildings, involving 8 rooms configurations, average sound-absorption coefficients for exposed CLT panels are approximately between 0.02 to 0.13, resulting in barely acceptable conditions for verbal communication. To optimize the sound-absorption characteristics of prototype CLT panels, a transfer-matrix model has been developed to predict the performance of multi-layered CLT panels. This theoretical model was then validated by using three different sound-absorption measurement methods (impedance tube, spherical decoupling, and reverberation chamber) for multiple HR array configurations. After identifying the important parameters of an HR system and their effects on performance, a final prototype configuration with Helmholtz Resonator Array was then created with the goal of improving the room- acoustical performance of CLT, as well as responding to input from the CLT manufacturers and experts. Both the theoretical and experimental results confirmed that the proposed solution has the required sound-absorption performance and achieves all research objectives.
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Free
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Nail Laminated Timber Compartment Fire Tests

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2165
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Fire
Design and Systems
Material
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Rooms
Wood Building Systems

Numerical Modelling of Water Mist Systems in Protection of Mass Timber Residential Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2681
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Rooms
Author
Elsagan, Nour
Ko, Yoon
Publisher
National Research Council Canada
Year of Publication
2020
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Rooms
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Sprinklers
Fire Suppression
Exposed Timber
Water Mist Systems
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
"This report presents the findings from a simulation parametric study to investigate the use of water mist systems for a residential compartment fire involving exposed mass timber structures. The fire and suppression models were first validated against experimental data obtained from the NRC fire tests that were conducted under the same project. Seventeen simulations were conducted using Fire Dynamic Simulator (FDS) software. The following parameters were investigated: effect of fuel arrangement and location on fire severity in exposed wood compartment, effect of different finishing on fire severity in compartment, fire and suppression in open space vs compartment, effectiveness of water mist systems in fire suppression in compartments with different finishing. The results show the effectiveness of the water mist system in suppressing the fire in exposed wood compartments where a high heat release is expected due to the high fuel load"--Executive summary, page iv.
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Free
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Real-Scale Fire Tests on Timber Constructions

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1679
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Rooms
Author
Li, Xiao
McGregor, Cameron
Medina, Alejandro
Sun, Xiaoqian
Barber, David
Hadjisophocleous, George
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Rooms
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Full Scale
Fire Test
Heat Release Rate
Delamination
Charring
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 3959-3967
Summary
This paper documents the findings of a series of full-scale room fire tests, which includes tests on fully protected, partially protected CLT rooms as well as light-frame timber/steel rooms under real natural fires, aiming to investigate the fire behaviour and performance of CLT panels as an increasingly popular engineered wood product and to compare it to the performance of more traditional construction methods. Results show that the CLT panels when left unprotected get involved in the room fire as part of the combustible contents, responsible for over 60% of total heat release in the fully unprotected CLT room and double the heat release rate of a fully protected room fire where the CLT does not contribute. Partially-protected CLT rooms also demonstrates various levels of fire contribution. The amount of CLT exposure is also related to the occurrence of re-ignition and a second flashover after all the movable fuels are consumed. The behaviour of CLT delamination and charring as well as the performance of gypsum boards in fire are also discussed.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Structural Capacity in Fire of Laminated Timber Elements in Compartments with Exposed Timber Surfaces

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2105
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Fire
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Rooms

11 records – page 1 of 2.