Timber-concrete composite systems are a high-performance alternative for building floors, of great interest in the current context of environmental concerns. Looking for a more eco-friendly solution, the paper presents a new flooring system with a wood-concrete connection that does not require adhesives or special metal elements. Four-point bending tests were performed on TCC flooring samples with a span of 6.0, 7.2 and 8.4 m. Its cross section was a prefabricated piece in the shape of an inverted T made up of a lower glulam flange, glued together with a central plywood rib with aligned holes in its upper part that go through the entire thickness of the plywood. The set was completed with a top layer of poured-in-place concrete. The connection between both materials is achieved by penetrating the concrete into the rib holes. Additionally, corrugated steel bars were placed through said holes to achieve ductile behaviour. In all cases, a slenderness ratio of L/24 was used. The experimental results showed that the lowest value of ultimate load obtained was 4.3 times higher than the total service load estimated for a building for public use (9 kN/m2). The maximum deflection of the total load was between L/573 and L/709 for the loads corresponding to a building for public use (9 kN/m2) and between L/1069 and L/1340 for the case of residential type building (5 kN/m2). An analysis of the effects of vibrations in the service limit state in relation to user comfort has been included. The results indicate that the system satisfies the requirements for the intended uses.
Consequently, the proposed solution shows its effectiveness both in terms of strength and stiffness for the construction of light floors, being easy to build and having high performance.
Building with cross laminated timber (CLT) has gain increased interest over the last years, but in common to other wood-based building systems, inadequate low-frequency sound insulation is seen as a problem. This paper deals with two methods to improve the sound insulation of CLT panels, normally made from spruce: 1) heavy CLT, introducing compressed, i.e. densified, spruce as well as alternative wood species, and 2) elastic layer based upon shear motion. In addition to a series of laboratory measurements, a full-scale CLT floor made of two 60 mm birch panels with a 12 mm elastic layer in between was tested in a two-room test mock-up. The results from the acoustical measurements showed that the floor has about 7 dB greater airborne and impact sound insulation for one-third octave bands, 50–3150 Hz, compared to a standard CLT floor of the same total height.
Long-span cross-laminated timber (CLT) floors are typically an assembly of prefabricated CLT panels connected together on the site. The actual connections are commonly neglected in design calculations. Hence, a CLT floor is modelled either as a monolith slab or more frequently as a set of CLT panels with no connections at all. This paper presents a numerical study designed to examine the influence of two most common inter-panel connections, i.e. single surface spline and half-lapped joint, on vibration modes and vibration responses of a range of different CLT floors due to pedestrian-induced loading. Although the inter-panel connections are relatively complex in reality, they are modelled here as an equivalent 2D elastic strip between the CLT panels. This relatively simple yet robust model can be used with ease in design practice, regardless finite element (FE) software used to extract vibration modes of a CLT floor. The corresponding monolith floors and floors without inter-panel connections are studied for the comparison of the results. Vertical vibration responses are simulated for low-frequency and high-frequency floors using the corresponding walking force models given in a popular design guideline for footfall induced vibrations of civil engineering structures. Vibration responses were calculated for single pedestrian occupants and their walking paths parallel and perpendicular to the line of connection. The results showed that including the inter-panel connections in a FE model resulted in up to 2.5 higher RMS acceleration levels. Hence, the common practice of modelling CLT floors as monolith slabs or as a set of panels without connections should be left behind.
5th International Conference: Innovative Materials, Structures and Technologies (IMST 2022)
Journal of Physics: Conference Series
With the growing importance of the principles of sustainable construction, the use of load-bearing timber-concrete composite structures is becoming increasingly popular. Timber-concrete composite offers wider possibilities for the use of timber in construction, especially for large-span structures. The most significant benefit from combining these materials can be obtained by providing a rigid connection between the timber and concrete layers, which can be obtained by the adhesive timber-to-concrete connection produced by the proposed stone chips method. A sustainable solution involves the abandonment of steel longitudinal reinforcement. The use of such a solution in practice is often associated with fears of a fragile collapse. Therefore, the issue of how to increase the safety factor of the proposed material is topical now. The experimental investigation is made to determine the effect of synthetic fibre use on timber-concrete composite behaviour by testing a series of timber-concrete composite specimens with and without fibres in the concrete layer. The obtained results show that adding 0.5 % of synthetic macro fibres allows to abandon the use of longitudinal steel reinforcement and prevents the formation of large cracks in concrete and the disintegration of the concrete layer in case of collapse.
Glued-in perforated steel plate (GIPSP) connections demonstrate significant shear strength and high slip modulus. Consequently, they indicate substantial potential for application in timber–concrete composite (TCC) structures according to the emerging tendencies in high-storey and large-span buildings. However, the application pattern in prefabricated TCC structures and the theoretical analysis of the shear performances of GIPSP connections are highly deficient. This hinders the application of this type of shear connection. In this study, the shear performances of GIPSP connections were evaluated using push-out tests. Ten groups of push-out specimens with different steel plate numbers, steel plate lengths, and concrete slab types were tested. The concrete slab types investigated in the experiments included a prefabricated concrete slab and cast-in-situ concrete slab. The experimental results were discussed in terms of the failure mode, load-carrying capacity, and slip modulus. The theoretical models for the load-carrying capacity related to the associate failure mode were discussed based on an analysis of the failure mechanisms. In addition, design proposals with regard to the load-carrying capacity and slip modulus of the GIPSP connection were presented. The research results can provide design guidance for TCC beams using GIPSP connections and prefabricated concrete slabs.
In this study, the bending performance of a separable cross-laminated timber (CLT)–concrete composite slab for reducing environmental impact was investigated. The slab has consisted of CLT and eco–concrete, and round-notch shape shear connectors resist the shear force between the CLT and eco-concrete. The eco–concrete was composed of a high-sulfated calcium silicate (HSCS) cement, which ensures low energy consumption in the production process. The bending stiffness and load-carrying capacities of the slab were theoretically predicted based on the shear properties of the notch connectors and validated with an experimental test. The shear properties of two types of notch shear connectors (Ø100 mm and Ø200 mm) were measured by planar shear tests. As a result, the stochastically predicted bending stiffness of the slab (with Ø100 mm shear connector) was 0.364 × 1012 N mm2, which was almost similar to test data. The load-carrying capacities of the slab were governed by the shear failure of the notch connectors, and the lower fifth percentile point estimate (5% PE) was 21.9 kN, which was 7.9% higher than the prediction (20.2 kN). In a parameter study, the effect of notch diameter for the CLT-concrete slab span was analyzed depending on the applied loads, and the maximum spans of the slab with Ø100 mm notch or Ø200 mm notch were not significantly different.
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) slabs in residential buildings need additional weight, e.g., in the form of screeds or gravel layers, to fulfill the criterion for the highest impact-sound class. The additional mass is, however, not exploited for the load bearing behavior, but adds additional weight and leads to an increased height of the floor construction. In this study, such a CLT floor construction with a construction height of 380 mm is compared with a composite slab consisting of a CLT plate with a concrete layer on top with a floor construction height of 330 mm. The timber concrete composite (TCC) slab has a different creep behavior than the CLT slab. Thus, the development of the time-dependent deflections over the service life are of interest. A straightforward hybrid approach is developed, which exploits advanced multiscale-based material models for the individual composite layers and a standardized structural analysis method for the structural slab to model its linear creep behavior. The introduced approach allows to investigate load redistribution between the layers of the composite structure and the evolution of the deflection of the slab during the service life. The investigated slab types show a similar deflection after 50 years, while the development of the deflections over time are different. The CLT slab has a smaller overall stiffness at the beginning but a smaller decrease in stiffness over time than the investigated TCC slab.
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) has become increasingly prominent in building construction and can be seen in buildings throughout the world. Specifically, the use of CLT floor and roof panels as a primary gravity force-resisting component has become relatively commonplace. Now, with availability of the 2021 Special Design Provisions for Wind and Seismic (SDPWS 2021) from the American Wood Council (AWC), U.S. designers have a standardized path to utilize CLT floor and roof panels as a structural diaphragm. Prior to publication of this document, projects typically had to receive approval to use CLT as a structural diaphragm on a case-by-case basis from the local Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ).
This paper highlights important provisions of SDPWS 2021 for CLT diaphragm design and recommendations developed by the authors in the upcoming CLT Diaphragm Design Guide, based on SDPWS 2021.
Long-span timber floor elements increase the adaptability of a building and they exhibit a significant market potential. High cost of the floor elements is a challenge, and the timber sector is under substantial pressure to find more economical solutions without weakening otherwise favourable environmental performance. The range of technical timber-based materials and components, structural typologies, overlays and ceiling systems represent an immense solution space when searching for a competitive design for a specific building application. Finding the optimum solution requires a computational procedure. In this study a recent development for the accounting of manufacturing resources for timber elements is utilized to build an optimization framework for cost and ECO2 minimisation of timber floor elements finalized at the factory gate. The design of the element is formulated as a discrete optimization problem which is solved by a mixed-integer sequential linearization procedure. Various material combinations and constraint combinations are treated. The optimization framework provides a tool for rapid design exploration that can be used in timber floor design situations. The results of the calculations carried out in this study provide insight on the general trends of optimum floor elements. The optimization model is used to analyse the characteristics of the optimum designs, and a comparison between the current and the proposed method for the second generation of Eurocode 5 is chosen as a vehicle for demonstrating achievable implications.
Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) is a building technology that is becoming increasingly popular due to its sustainable and eco-friendly nature, as well as its availability. Nevertheless, CLT presents some challenges, especially in terms of impact noise and airborne sound insulation. For this reason, many studies focus on the vibro-acoustic behavior of CLT building elements, to understand their performance, advantages and limitations. In this paper, a 200 mm CLT floor has been characterized in the laboratory, according to ISO standards, by three noise sources: dodecahedron, standard tapping machine and rubber ball. In order to understand the vibro-acoustic behavior of the CLT floor, measurements through the analysis of sound pressure levels and velocity levels, measured by dedicated sensors, were performed. Analysis was carried out in order to understand what is prescribed by the prediction methods available in the literature and by the simulation software. Then, a specific prediction law for the CLT floor under investigation was derived. Finally, an analysis on sound radiation index is provided to complete the vibro-acoustic study.