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Experimental Study on Loading Capacity of Glued-Laminated Timber Arches Subjected to Vertical Concentrated Loads

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2581
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Arches
Author
Zhou, Jiale
Chuanxi, Li
Ke, Lu
He, Jun
Wang, Zhifeng
Publisher
Hindawi
Year of Publication
2020
Format
Journal Article
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Arches
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
In-Plane Loading
Capacity
Douglas-Fir
Model
Failure Modes
Research Status
Complete
Series
Advances in Civil Engineering
Summary
Glued-laminated timber arches are widely used in gymnasiums, bridges, and roof trusses. However, studies on their mechanical behaviours and design methods are still insufficient. This paper investigates the in-plane loading capacity of circular glued-laminated timber arches made of Douglas fir. Experiments were conducted on four timber-arch models with different rise-to-span ratios under concentrated loads at mid-span and quarter-point locations. The structural responses, failure modes, and loading capacity of the timber arch specimens were obtained. The results show that the timber arches presented symmetric and antisymmetric deformation under mid-point and quarter-point loading conditions, respectively. The downward shifting of the neutral axis of the cross section was observed under mid-point loading condition, which contributes to higher loading capacity compared to that under quarter-point loading condition. The loading condition significantly affects the ultimate loads and the strain distribution in the cross section. Based on the design formula in current standards for timber structures, an equivalent beam-column method was introduced to estimate the loading capacity of the laminated timber arches under vertical concentrated loads. The moment amplification factor in the formula was compared and discussed, and the value provided in the National Design Specification for Wood Construction was recommended with acceptable accuracy.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Lateral Testing of Glued Laminated Timber Tudor Arch

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1722
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Seismic
Mechanical Properties
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Arches
Author
Rammer, Douglas
Line, Philip
Year of Publication
2016
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Arches
Topic
Seismic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Full Scale
Lateral Load
Damping
Deformation
Failure Modes
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 4638-4646
Summary
Glued laminated timber Tudor arches have been in wide use in the United States since the 1930s, but detailed knowledge related to seismic design in modern U.S. building codes is lacking. FEMA P-695 (P-695) is a methodology to determine seismic performance factors for a seismic force resisting system. A limited P-695 study for glued laminated timber arch structures highlighted the lack of lateral load testing; therefore, critical modelling information was not available and assumptions based on available research were used. In this study, full-scale lateral load testing of the glued laminated timber arch is used to fill in gaps in test-based information and assess the following characteristics: damping, deformation behaviour, and failure modes.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Seismic Analysis of Three-Hinge Glulam Tudor Arches Using the FEMA P-695 Methodology

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue693
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Seismic
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Arches
Author
Charney, Finley
Eberle, Jonathan
Line, Philip
Kochkin, Vladimir
Year of Publication
2014
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Arches
Topic
Seismic
Keywords
Maximum Considered Earthquake
Seismic Response Modification Factor
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 10-14, 2014, Quebec City, Canada
Summary
This paper discusses the determination of the ASCE 7 seismic response modification factor R for three-hinge glulam Tudor arches. In an attempt to meet this objective, a limited application of the methods and procedures outlined in FEMA P-695 were used to assess the performance of a variety of arch designs. Computational models were created using finite elements within OpenSees to accurately depict the behaviour of the arch. When the crown connections were redesigned using load combinations incorporating over-strength, all of the light gravity load designs systems were successfully able to demonstrate a probability of collapse of less than ten percent when subjected to Maximum Considered Earthquake (MCE) level of ground shaking. Systems designed for heavy gravity did not pass; however, a variety of sidestudies on the influence of inelastic behaviour in the base connections, and varied levels of damping indicate that acceptance criteria of FEMA P-695 may be met through refined modeling assumptions based on results of testing.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Structural Performance of the Second Oldest Glued-Laminated Structure in the United States

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1118
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Serviceability
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Arches
Author
Rammer, Douglas
de Melo Moura, Jorge
Ross, Robert
Organization
Structures Congress
Publisher
American Society of Civil Engineers
Year of Publication
2014
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Arches
Topic
Serviceability
Keywords
Uniform Loading
Deformation
Conference
Structures Congress 2014
Research Status
Complete
Notes
April 3-5, 2014, Boston, Massachusetts, United States
Summary
The second glued-laminated structure built in the United States was constructed at the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) in 1934 to demonstrate the performance of wooden arch buildings. After 75 years of use the structure was decommissioned in 2010. Shortly after construction, researchers structurally evaluated the gluedlaminated arch structure for uniform loading on the center arch. This structural system evaluation was added to the existing laboratory work on glued-laminated arches to develop the foundation on which the current glued-laminated arch design criteria is based. After 75 years of service and decommisioning, recovered arches were tested in the laboratory to evaluate the loss of structural performance. Loss of structural performance was evaluated by comparing original and current deformation. Based on a preliminary visual and structural assessment, the degradation of structural performance was minimal in the arches, except for two arch that were affected by the building fire.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Wood Design Manual 2017

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2160
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Design and Systems
Connections
Fire
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Bridges and Spans
Columns
Floors
Ceilings
Arches
Shear Walls
Trusses
Walls