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Vibration Serviceability of Footbridges Made of the Sustainable and Eco Structural Material: Glued-Laminated Wood

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2977
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Author
Hawryszków, Pawel
Biliszczuk, Jan
Organization
Wroclaw University of Science and Technology
Editor
Li, Fengming
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Keywords
Footbridges
Dynamic Behaviour
In situ Measurement
Research Status
Complete
Series
Materials
Summary
In this paper, dynamic analyses of two untypical, modern footbridges made of glued-laminated timber are presented. One of them is among the longest cable-stayed bridges for pedestrians in the world, made of such a structural material. Both structures are qualified as having low sensitivity to vibrations. The results of numerical modal analysis using FEM and non-destructive experimental dynamic tests of investigated footbridges are compared. Important differences in obtained results are captured, which are identified as the positive effect in relation to design aspects. Moreover, the same in situ measurements confirm the high level of damping in footbridges made of glued-laminated wood, which is a very significant and distinguishing feature not commonly recognized. The study also calls attention to the choice of timber as an advisable material for footbridges. This is not only because of environmentally friendly and aesthetic reasons, but also due to providing highly satisfying vibration comfort for pedestrians.
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Experimental Study and Numerical Simulation Analysis on Vertical Vibration Performances of 12 m Span Wood Truss Joist Floors

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3207
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Application
Trusses
Author
Zhang, Zhanyi
Wang, Shuangyong
Deng, Hao
Zhou, Haibin
Organization
Chinese Academy of Forestry
Editor
Chen, Jun
Wang, Haoqi
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Application
Trusses
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Keywords
Wood Floor
Floor Vibration
Vibration Serviceability
Numerical Methods
Research Status
Complete
Series
Buildings
Summary
Walking-induced vibration control in wood floors is a critical issue attracting the attention of many researchers and engineers. This paper presents an experimental study applying static deflection tests, modal tests, and pedestrian load tests to a series of full-scale 12 m span tooth plates connected to wood truss joist floors with strongbacks and partition walls. A comparison of the calculation error of vibration parameters between the theoretical formula and a numerical model was also conducted. The results show that strongbacks and partition walls effectively reduce both the vertical displacement and the root means acceleration at the center of the floor under pedestrian load but increases the natural frequency. The partition wall can achieve a better vibration-reduction effect than strongbacks. The error of the finite element model is higher than that of the theoretical formula. Using the theoretical formula in engineering wood floor design is recommended.
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Vibration performance of timber-concrete composite floor section – verification and validation of analytical and numerical results based on experimental data

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3269
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Floors
Author
Movaffaghi, Hamid
Pyykkö, Johan
Organization
University of Borås
Jönköping University
Uppsala University
Publisher
Taylor&Francis Online
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Floors
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Keywords
Composite Floor
Fundamental Frequency
RMS Velocity
RMS Acceleration
Finite Element Method
Research Status
Complete
Series
Civil Engineering and Environmental Systems
Summary
Vibration performance of a one-way simply supported timber-concrete composite (TCC) floor section has been studied using analytical as well as numerical methods. Focal points have been verification and validation of results from analytical and numerical calculations of vibration response based on experimental data. For the analytical calculations, floor bending stiffness and vibrational response are determined from methods proposed in the current and revised versions of Eurocode 5. The numerical calculations based on the finite element (FE) method are done using 3D solid elements with orthotropic material parameters. When comparing the results of the FE analysis, better agreement with the experimental data is reached for the fundamental frequency when 3D solid elements are used rather than 3D beam elements. Furthermore, better agreement with the experimental data is reached for RMS acceleration by FE analysis rather than the method based on Eurocode 5. For detailed analysis, the authors suggest performing dynamic FE analysis and calculating vibration response from the TCC floor’s modal responses as eigenmodes and natural eigenfrequencies below 40 Hz. For future studies, it is recommended that the verification of vibration response may be accomplished by applying standard EN 16929.
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Cross-Laminated Timber Floor: Analysis of the Acoustic Properties and Radiation Efficiency

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3018
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Author
Granzotto, Nicola
Marzi, Arianna
Gasparella, Andrea
Organization
Free University of Bozen
Editor
Vasques, César M. A.
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Keywords
Acoustic Characterization
Sound Radiation Efficiency
Research Status
Complete
Series
Applied Sciences
Summary
Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) is a building technology that is becoming increasingly popular due to its sustainable and eco-friendly nature, as well as its availability. Nevertheless, CLT presents some challenges, especially in terms of impact noise and airborne sound insulation. For this reason, many studies focus on the vibro-acoustic behavior of CLT building elements, to understand their performance, advantages and limitations. In this paper, a 200 mm CLT floor has been characterized in the laboratory, according to ISO standards, by three noise sources: dodecahedron, standard tapping machine and rubber ball. In order to understand the vibro-acoustic behavior of the CLT floor, measurements through the analysis of sound pressure levels and velocity levels, measured by dedicated sensors, were performed. Analysis was carried out in order to understand what is prescribed by the prediction methods available in the literature and by the simulation software. Then, a specific prediction law for the CLT floor under investigation was derived. Finally, an analysis on sound radiation index is provided to complete the vibro-acoustic study.
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Acoustic emission monitoring of wood materials and timber structures: A critical review

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3187
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Author
Nasir, Vahid
Ayanleye, Samuel
Kazemirad, Siavash
Sassani, Farrokh
Adamopoulos, Stergios
Organization
The University of British Columbia
Mississippi State University
Iran University of Science and Technology
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Keywords
Non-Destructive Evaluation
Acoustic Emission
Structural Health Monitoring
Wood Machining
Kiln Drying
Termite Detection
Thermally Modified Timber
Wood Fracture
Damage Detection
Research Status
Complete
Series
Construction and Building Materials
Summary
The growing interest in timber construction and using more wood for civil engineering applications has given highlighted importance of developing non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods for structural health monitoring and quality control of wooden construction. This study, critically reviews the acoustic emission (AE) method and its applications in the wood and timber industry. Various other NDE methods for wood monitoring such as infrared spectroscopy, stress wave, guided wave propagation, X-ray computed tomography and thermography are also included. The concept and experimentation of AE are explained, and the impact of wood properties on AE signal velocity and energy attenuation is discussed. The state-of-the-art AE monitoring of wood and timber structures is organized into six applications: (1) wood machining monitoring; (2) wood drying; (3) wood fracture; (4) timber structural health monitoring; (5) termite infestation monitoring; and (6) quality control. For each application, the opportunities that the AE method offers for in-situ monitoring or smart assessment of wood-based materials are discussed, and the challenges and direction for future research are critically outlined. Overall, compared with structural health monitoring of other materials, less attention has been paid to data-driven methods and machine learning applied to AE monitoring of wood and timber. In addition, most studies have focused on extracting simple time-domain features, whereas there is a gap in using sophisticated signal processing and feature engineering techniques. Future research should explore the sensor fusion for monitoring full-scale timber buildings and structures and focus on applying AE to large-size structures containing defects. Moreover, the effectiveness of AE methods used for wood composites and mass timber structures should be further studied.
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Experimental and numerical modal analysis of a cross laminated timber floor system in different construction states

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3145
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Author
Kawrza, Michael
Furtmüller, Thomas
Adam, Christoph
Organization
University of Innsbruck
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Keywords
Floor Construction
Footfall Sound Insulation
Modal Analysis
Optimization
Research Status
Complete
Series
Construction and Building Materials
Summary
This paper addresses the vibration characteristics of a cross laminated timber (CLT) floor in a residential building during three construction states. Experimental modal analyses are carried out on the blank CLT slab, on the slab with added drywall ceiling, and on the slab with drywall ceiling and added floating screed. A reliable numerical model of the system is created with the means of a finite element model updating procedure. This model shows that some experimentally determined modes can be attributed to the dynamic interaction with the shaker used for excitation during the tests. In the finite element model, this effect can subsequently be eliminated. Based on the validated numerical model, the impact of various parameters of the floor construction on the low-frequency footfall sound insulation is investigated.
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Evaluating Laboratory Measurements for Sound Insulation of Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) Floors: Configurations in Lightweight Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3157
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Author
Vardaxis, Nikolaos-Georgios
Hagberg, Delphine Bard
Dahlström, Jessica
Organization
Lund University
Editor
Park, Junhong
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Keywords
Airborne Sound
Impact Noise
Sound Insulation
Research Status
Complete
Series
Applied Sciences
Summary
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) floors with supplementary layers or floating floors comprise a common solution in new multistory timber structures. However, bare CLT components provide poor sound insulation, especially in low frequencies during structure-borne sound propagation. Thus, floor configurations in wooden buildings deploy more layers for improved acoustic behavior. Twelve contemporary CLT floors were analyzed after laboratory measurements of airborne sound reduction and impact sound transmission utilizing the following indicators: Rw, Rw, 100, Rw, 50, Ln,w, Ln,w,100, and Ln,w,50 (per ISO 10140, ISO 717). An increase in sound insulation was achieved thanks to added total mass and thickness, testing layers of the following: elastic mat for vibration isolation, wool insulation, gypsum boards, plywood, concrete screed, and wooden parquet floor. The results indicate that multilayered CLT floors can provide improvements of up to 22 dB for airborne sound and 32 dB for impact sound indicators compared with the bare CLT slab. Floating floor configurations with dry floor solutions (concrete screed) and wooden parquet floors stand out as the optimal cases. The parquet floor provides a 1–2 dB improvement only for impact sound indicators in floating floor setups (or higher in three cases).
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Long-term analysis of the environmental effects on the global dynamic properties of a hybrid timber-concrete building

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3188
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Author
Larsson, Carl
Abdeljaber, Osama
Bolmsvik, Åsa
Dorn, Michael
Organization
Linnaeus University
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Keywords
Structural Health Monitoring
Ambient Vibration Monitoring
Environmental Monitoring
Research Status
Complete
Series
Engineering Structures
Summary
With the increased availability of timber materials, such as cross-laminated timber, the number of buildings using timber as a structural material has been rapidly increasing. As these buildings are new to the market, limited data and research on their long-term structural modal performance are available. This is particularly important in timber buildings since the material properties of wood are highly affected by environmental factors, especially the moisture content. Over time, the evolution of the dynamic properties is essential for damage indication in structural health monitoring systems since natural changes can mask the influence of damage. This work presents three years of observations from a structural monitoring system collecting data ever since completing a four-story timber-concrete hybrid building in Sweden. Ambient vibrations of the building were measured using geophones, resulting in 3,100 datasets. The temperature and relative humidity were measured both externally using a weather station and internally using sensors embedded in several walls and a slab in the building. The observed natural frequencies of the building vary with ± 0.2 Hz around the mean value over time. Linear regression analysis shows a significant correlation between the moisture content of a cross-laminated timber slab and the natural frequencies (coefficient of determination up to 0.84). A predictive model for the natural frequencies is presented, taking seasonal variations and a dry-out of the structure into account. Variations from the expected values are ± 0.1 Hz at most. The model clearly narrows the error margins for damage indication in a structural health monitoring system.
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Experimental modal analysis of a cross-laminated timber slab

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3009
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Kawrza, M.
Furtmüller, T.
Adam, C.
Maderebner, R.
Organization
University of Innsbruck
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Keywords
Experimental Modal Analysis
Complex Mode Shapes
Modal Parameter Estimation
Conference
37th Danubia Adria Symposium on Advances in Experimental Mechanics
Research Status
Complete
Series
Materials Today: Proceedings
Summary
This paper presents the results of an investigation of the dynamic response of a point-supported cross-laminated timber (CLT) slab without joists with a column grid of 5.0 × 5.0 m and overall dimensions of 16.0 × 11.0 × 0.2 m. The results are based on a detailed experimental modal analysis, identifying seven modes from the dynamic response of 651 measurement points, including natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios. These modal parameters exhibit a time variance that is due to environmental influences during the measurement period of two days. As a result of this disturbance effect, the determined mode shapes have a non-negligible imaginary part, which is eliminated by correcting each of the 73 measurements individually. The findings presented provide in-depth insight into the dynamic behavior of the large-scale CLT structure with point supports realized with a novel steel connector.
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Effect of construction features on the dynamic performance of mid-rise CLT platform-type buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3271
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Ussher, Ebenezer
Gurholt, Carl-Ulrik Dahle
Misalsen, Jonas Næss
Aloisio, Angelo
Tomasi, Roberto
Organization
Università degli Studi dell’Aquila
Publisher
Taylor&Francis Online
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Keywords
Buildings
Natural Frequencies
Numerical Model
Research Status
Complete
Series
Wood Material Science & Engineering
Summary
Engineered Wood Products like Cross-Laminated-Timber (CLT) are transforming capabilities of wood as a construction material, enabling architects and engineers to create innovative buildings. Using CLT can have many advantages compared with using traditional materials, not least of which is reducing total superstructure gravitational weights. Reducing gravitational weight can simplify and speed up construction processes and reduce foundation costs. Plus, being made from wood, CLT has desirable ‘green’ credentials like renewability of forest resources and carbon sequestration for the lifespans of buildings. However, like other lightweight structural systems, CLT buildings can be susceptible to high-amplitude motions during ambient or other dynamic force and displacement disturbances. Studies reported here address the dynamic behaviour of mid-rise multi-storey buildings constructed from massive CLT elements, with a focus on predicting lateral modal response characteristics of such buildings. The vehicle for this is detailed Finite Element (FE) models verified as accurate replicators of ambient dynamic motions of completed CLT buildings. Here applications of FE models relate to performances of buildings during seismic events. However, the intent is to also use them to predict motions of buildings during windstorms.
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Simulation of impact force generated by an ISO tapping machine on a wooden slab using explicit dynamics analysis

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3256
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Author
Lietzén, Jesse
Sormunen, Juho
Pajunen, Sami
Kylliäinen, Mikko
Organization
Tampere University
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Keywords
Impact Sound Insulation
Impact Force
FEM
Explicit Time Integration
LS-DYNA
Tapping Machine
Wooden Floor
Research Status
Complete
Series
Engineering Structures
Summary
Application of simulation tools to compute impact sound insulation properties of wooden floors has raised interests in recent decades. To achieve accurate results from the prediction models, information from force excitation generated by impact sound sources is required. The purpose of our study was to present a validated procedure to determine the non-linear impact force excitation generated by an ISO tapping machine. The method comprised use of finite element method (FEM) and explicit time integration to compute impact force pulse generated by a hammer of the tapping machine. With a post-processing procedure, the force pulses can be converted to present point forces describing the continuous operation of the tapping machine on the floor. To demonstrate the applicability of the method, the finite element model was applied to imitate an experimental situation on a cross-laminated timber (CLT) slab. The model validation showed that the computational model closely predicts the force pulse generated on the CLT slab. Findings from a sensitivity analysis revealed that local properties of the slab were the most important to the simulated impact force pulse. The findings of the analysis are helpful for those developing simulation tools to compute the impact force generated by the tapping machine on wooden floors.
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Evaluation of Modulus of Elasticity and Modulus of Rupture of Cross-Laminated Timber with Longitudinal Vibration NDE Techniques

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3217
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Correa, Laurice Mara Spinelli
Franca, Frederica Jose Nistal
Shmulsky, Rubin
Seale, R. Daniel
Ross, Robert
Senalik, Christopher Adam
Organization
Forest Products Laboratory
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
MOE
MOR
SYP
Longitudinal Vibration
Time Domain
Frequency Domain
Strength Model
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This paper presents research conducted to examine the potential of using longitudinal vibration techniques to evaluate the modulus of elasticity and strength of cross-laminated timber (CLT). Thirty-nine CLT panels were manufactured from southern pine dimension lumber in accordance with accepted manufacturing standards. Nominal 2 by 8 in. southern pine lumber specimens were used for the three-ply panels. A 10-ft-long specimen, having a 4.125- by 18-in. cross-section, was obtained from each panel. Weight and dimensions were determined for each specimen, and longitudinal vibration nondestructive evaluation techniques were used to determine frequency of oscillation and energy loss characteristics of the specimens. The dynamic modulus of elasticity was then determined. Each specimen was then tested to failure in a flatwise (third point) bending mode. Flatwise bending modulus of elasticity and strength (modulus of rupture) were determined. Excellent correlative relationships were observed between dynamic and flatwise bending moduli. A strong positive relationship was observed between the dynamic modulus and flatwise bending strength. Nondestructive testing of CLT panels is recommended for quality control protocols.
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An efficient analytical method to obtain the homogenised frequency-independent elastic material properties of cross-laminated timber elements

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3254
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Vallely, Sven
Schoenwald, Stefan
Organization
Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (Empa)
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Homogenisation
Equivalent Single Layer
Vibro-acoustics
First Order Shear Deformation Theory
Research Status
Complete
Series
Journal of Sound and Vibration
Summary
Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) is a renewable, sustainable, and cost-efficient building element that has been growing in popularity in recent years. To improve one of its weaknesses, suboptimal noise and vibration isolation performance, computationally efficient, accessible, and extensible CLT vibro-acoustic models are required. An effective approach for such models is the homogenisation of layered materials. This paper presents a validated homogenisation method based on First-Order Shear Deformation Theory (FSDT) that obtains the frequency-independent elastic material properties. It is applicable to arbitrary stacking sequences and orientations. The homogenised material properties are utilised with FSDT Equivalent Single Layer (ESL) models that are readily implemented with many finite element method codes to calculate the vibro-acoustic behaviour of CLT elements, even including thickness resonance effects when applied with an appropriate model. The presented homogenisation method for CLT is validated in a numerical study by comparing the mechanical mobilities of ESL models against layerwise dynamic models. The numerical study is conducted based on a validated 5-ply model, for 2- to 7-ply CLT plates with proportionally increasing thicknesses and three idealised boundary conditions. The frequency-independent material properties allow for graphical exploration of the anisotropic nature of CLT and the calculation universal anisotropic index of the considered CLT plates. The flexibility of the homogenisation method, combined with its ready implementation in already widely implemented FSDT models can have an application and impact beyond the vibro-acoustic considerations of CLT, into the general mechanical modelling of CLT as it is implemented in ever more advanced applications.
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U.S. Mass Timber Floor Vibration Design Guide

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2874
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Organization
WoodWorks
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Book/Guide
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Keywords
Floor Vibration
Vibration Design Methods
Finite Element Modeling
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The scope of this guide focuses on the design of mass timber floor systems to limit human-induced vibration. The primary performance goal is to help designers achieve a low probability of adverse comment regarding floor vibrations in a manner consistent with the vibration design guides for steel and concrete systems. This includes excitation primarily from human walking as observed by other people in the building. Some treatment of design for sensitive equipment in response to human walking is also discussed. This design guide covers the range of currently available mass timber panels, including cross-laminated timber (CLT) manufactured from either solid sawn or structural composite lumber (SCL) laminations, nail-laminated timber (NLT), dowel laminated timber (DLT) and glue-laminated timber (GLT), as well as their support framework of timber beams. The target user of this guide is a design professional with working knowledge of mass timber structural design and some background knowledge of structural dynamics as related to floor vibrations. It may be particularly useful to design engineers with limited experience with vibration analysis, experienced multi-material engineers familiar with vibration analysis but unfamiliar with mass timber vibration, and applications engineers assisting manufacturers in the development of solutions and proposals for projects.
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From Canada to the World: FPInnovations' Three-Generation Floor Vibration Research and Code Implementation

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2826
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Floors
Author
Hu, Lin
Cuerrier-Auclair, Samuel
Qian, Cheng
Dale, Angela
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Floors
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Keywords
Lumber Joists
Engineered Wood Joists
Mass Timber
Floor Vibration-controlled Design Method
CSA 086
National Building Code of Canada
Research Status
Complete
Series
InfoNote
Summary
FPInnovations’involvement in various codes and standards technical committees aims to monitor, contributeor propose changes for improvement as well as to create new standards to include new wood products and systems based on knowledge developed from FPInnovations’ research activities. Involvement also allows FPInnovations to be aware of any potential changes to codes and standards and to recognize and address threats and opportunities for wood use. Codes and standards exist to protect consumers but are written to reflect the current practices and knowledge based on a consensus agreement by committee members. FPInnovations’ involvement in codes and standards committees helps to align the coming changes with new wood products. This InfoNote reports on FPInnovations’ contribution to the floor vibration-control design methods on codes and standards implementation and research.
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Predicting the Human-Induced Vibration of Cross Laminated Timber Floor Under Multi-Person Loadings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2701
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Author
Wang, Chang
Chang, Wen-Shao
Yan, Weiming
Huang, Haoyu
Publisher
ScienceDirect
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Keywords
Human-Induced Vibration
Multi-Person Loadings
Numerical Modelling
Research Status
Complete
Series
Structures
Summary
The vibration of cross laminated timber (CLT) floor is closely related to human-induced loadings. However, research and prediction approaches regarding human-induced vibration of the CLT floor have been mostly limited to a single-person excitation condition. This paper presents new prediction approaches to the vibration response of the CLT floor under multi-person loadings. The effect of multi-person loadings on the vibration performance of a CLT floor was investigated through numerical modelling, experimental testing and analytical investigation. A finite element model was developed through a computational software to perform an accurate analysis of human-induced loadings. An analytical model was established to predict human-induced vibration of the CLT floor under multi-person loadings. Experimental tests were conducted to validate the numerical modelling. Results of both numerical modelling and experimental testing showed that the vibration performance of the CLT floor under multi-person loadings was almost double that under single-person loadings. Thus, multi-person activities are more likely to cause the occupants feelings of discomfort. A method for predicting the human-induced vibration of the CLT floor under multi-person loadings was then developed. The measured response, numerical modelled response, and predicted response were compared using an existing design metric, vibration dose value (VDV). The results were largely consistent. It is therefore concluded that the proposed prediction method will enable engineers to design timber floor systems that consider multi-person loadings.
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In-situ performance testing of a four storey CLT building in Vancouver. Building vibration and sound insulation

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2909
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Author
Sadegh-Mazloomi, Mohammad
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Keywords
Ambient Vibration Testing
Acoustic Testing
Insulation
Research Status
Complete
Summary
FPInnovations has been conducting a series of field testing on wood mid-rise and tall wood buildings, including this 4-story mass timber building in Vancouver, to measure their dynamic performance. The general objectives of the field measurements of the building wind-induced vibrations and sound insulation performance are to develop improved knowledge and assemble a database of wind-induced vibration and sound insulation performance of mid-rise and tall-wood buildings. Ambient vibration and ASTM acoustic testing were performed to measure the dynamic performance of the building including the building natural frequencies, damping ratios and mode shapes. It was found that the measured first natural frequency and damping ratio of this building are overall similar to those measured from other 4-storey buildings that have exhibited good wind-induced vibration performance. The measured apparent impact insulation performance (AIIC) of 58 is considered as a satisfactory sound insulation performance indicator according to FPInnovations’ field experience about occupant satisfaction. It is believed that the test results will help the designers to obtain insight into the construction details of the building and the correlations between the details and the final performances in terms of building dynamic and sound insulation performance. Furthermore, the test results provided reliable data on the vibration and the sound insulation performance of the selected floor assemblies. The measured AIIC, building natural frequencies, and damping ratios can provide technical reference to architects and engineers to verify their designs and the design tools used.
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Performance of midply shear wall

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3037
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Fire
Acoustics and Vibration
Application
Shear Walls
Author
Ni, Chui
Dagenais, Christian
Qian, Cheng
Hu, Lin
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Report
Application
Shear Walls
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Fire
Acoustics and Vibration
Keywords
Midply Shear Wall
Structural Performance
Fire Performance
Acoustic Performance
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Midply shear wall, which was originally developed by researchers at Forintek Canada Corp. (predecessor of FPInnovations) and the University of British Columbia, is a high-capacity wood-frame shear wall system that is suitable for high wind and seismic loadings. Its superior seismic performance was demonstrated in a full-scale earthquake simulation test of a 6-storey wood-frame building in Japan (Peietal.,2010). Midply shear wall, however, had limited applications due to its low resistance to vertical load and difficulty to accommodate electrical and plumbing services. For broader applications of Midply shearwall, these limitations needed to be addressed. In collaboration with APA–The Engineered Wood Association and the American Wood Council (AWC), a new framing arrangement was designed to increase the vertical load resistance of Midply shearwalls and make it easier to accommodate electrical and plumbing services. Consequently, structural, fire and acoustic tests have been conducted to evaluate various performance attributes of Midply shear wall with the new framing configuration. This InfoNote provides a summary of the structural, fire and acoustic performance of Midply shearwalls from the tests.
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Free
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Reduced and test-data correlated FE-models of a large timber truss with dowel-type connections aimed for dynamic analyses at serviceability level

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3004
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Serviceability
Acoustics and Vibration
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Trusses
Author
Landel, Pierre
Linderholt, Andreas
Organization
RISE Research Institutes of Sweden
Linnaeus University
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Trusses
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Serviceability
Acoustics and Vibration
Keywords
Tall Timber Structures
Mechanical Connection
Dowel-type Fastener
Wind-induced Vibration
Modal Testing Properties
Connection Stiffness
FE-Model Reduction
Research Status
Complete
Series
Engineering Structures
Summary
The rise of wood buildings in the skylines of cities forces structural dynamic and timber experts to team up to solve one of the new civil-engineering challenges, namely comfort at the higher levels, in light weight buildings, with respect to wind-induced vibrations. Large laminated timber structures with mechanical joints are exposed to turbulent horizontal excitation with most of the wind energy blowing around the lowest resonance frequencies of 50 to 150 m tall buildings. Good knowledge of the spatial distribution of mass, stiffness and damping is needed to predict and mitigate the sway in lighter, flexible buildings. This paper presents vibration tests and reductions of a detailed FE-model of a truss with dowel-type connections leading to models that will be useful for structural engineers. The models also enable further investigations about the parameters of the slotted-in steel plates and dowels connections governing the dynamical response of timber trusses.
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Free
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In-Situ performance testing of a six-storey wood-frame building in Victoria: building vibration, and sound insulation

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3036
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Mazloomi, Mohammad-Sadegh
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Report
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Keywords
Wood-Frame Building
Ambient Vibration Testing
Acoustic Testing
Apparent Sound Transmission Class
Apparent Impact Insulation Performance
Natural Frequency
Damping Ratio
Research Status
Complete
Summary
FPInnovations has been conducting a series of field testing on mid-rise and tall-wood buildings including this 6-storey wood-frame building in Victoria to measure their dynamic performance.The general objectives of the field measurements of the building wind-induced vibrations and sound insulation performance are: to develop improved knowledge and assemble a database of wind-induced vibration and sound insulation performance of mid-rise and tall-wood buildings, especially prefabricated wood construction; to verify the application of the NBCC design method for wind-induced vibration control for wood construction; and to verify the design tools used by designers for controlling the wind-induced vibrations and noise in mid-rise and tall-wood buildings.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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