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701 records – page 2 of 71.

Performance-Based Design of Tall Timber Buildings Under Earthquake and Wind Multi-Hazard Loads: Past, Present, and Future

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2970
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Tesfamariam, Solomon
Organization
University of British Columbia
Editor
Kopp, Gregory
Publisher
Frontiers
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Keywords
Multi-hazard Design
Tall-timber building
Damping
Multi-fidelity Models
Energy Dissipation Devices
Optimization
Research Status
Complete
Series
Frontiers in Built Environment
Summary
The rapid growth of the urban population and associated environmental concerns are challenging city planners and developers to consider sustainable and cost-efficient building systems. Timber-based buildings, such as sustainable systems, are increasingly used. The timber buildings, however, being lighter and flexible, can be vulnerable to earthquakes and wind loads. This paper gives a state-of-the-art review on performance-based design (PBD) considerations and future direction for timber and timber-based hybrid buildings. The PBD review covered both earthquake and wind loads and multi-hazard design considerations. The review also provided 1) current practice and future direction in consideration of hazard, response, and loss assessment within the multi-hazard PBD, 2) damping and energy dissipation devices, 3) optimization under uncertainty, and 4) future of surrogate and multi-fidelity modeling in PBD.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Differential Material Movement in Tall Mass Timber Structures

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2982
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Moisture
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Racine, Josephine
Lumpkin, Bryce
McLain, Richard
Organization
Fast + Epp
WoodWorks
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Report
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Moisture
Keywords
Column Movement
Vertical Movement
Creep
Settlement
Shrinkage
Crushing Perpendicular to Grain
Research Status
Complete
Summary
As the height of mass timber buildings continues to grow, a new set of design and detailing challenges arises, creating the need for new engineering solutions to achieve optimal building construction and performance. One necessary detailing consideration is vertical movement, which includes column shrinkage, joint settlement, and creep. The main concerns are the impact of deformations on vertical mechanical systems, exterior enclosures, and interior partitions, as well as differential vertical movement of timber framing systems relative to other building features such as concrete core walls and exterior façades.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Mass Timber Design Manual Vol. 2

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2992
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
General Information
Design and Systems
Application
Wood Building Systems
Publisher
Think Wood
WoodWorks
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Book/Guide
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
General Information
Design and Systems
Keywords
Mass Timber Products
Tall Timber Buildings
Sustainability
Research Status
Complete
Summary
From record-breaking timber towers to innovative examples of adaptive reuse, mass timber construction is on the rise. Stay current with Think Wood and WoodWorks’ newly updated, must-have Volume 2 of the popular Mass Timber Design Manual. Volume 2 features updated free and interactive resources to guide architects, developers, engineers, and anyone working on a mass timber project. This manual is helpful for experts and novices alike. Whether you’re new to mass timber or an early adopter you’ll benefit from its comprehensive summary of the most up to date resources on topics from mass timber products and applications to tall wood construction and sustainability. The manual’s content includes WoodWorks technical papers, Think Wood continuing education articles, case studies, expert Q&As, technical guides and other helpful tools. Click through to view each individual resource or download the master resource folder for all files in one handy location. For your convenience, this book will be updated regularly as mass timber product development and the market are quickly evolving.
Online Access
Free
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Idaho Central Credit Union Arena – Soaring Roof Demonstrates Mass Timber’s Long-Span Possibilities

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2994
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
General Information
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Publisher
WoodWorks
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Report
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
General Information
Keywords
Case Study
Long Span
Soaring Roof
Life Cycle Assessment
Fire Modeling
Research Status
Complete
Summary
While taller mass timber buildings continue to capture worldwide attention, the University of Idaho chose to pursue a different type of innovation with the Idaho Central Credit Union Arena by showcasing wood’s impressive long-span capabilities. Inspired by the rolling hills of the nearby Palouse, the undulating wood roof of this sports and events facility soars over the open space below, creating a visually stunning structure not typically associated with large arenas. This project is also unique in that it was built through a collaboration of Idaho stakeholders, using wood harvested from the University of Idaho’s Experimental Forest, made into glue-laminated timber (glulam) beams by Idaho manufacturers. “The complex structure makes a strong statement, not only for what mass timber can do, but also for what Idaho’s timber industry can do,” said Lucas Epp, Vice President and Head of Engineering for StructureCraft.
Online Access
Free
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Advanced Timber Construction Industry: A Review of 350 Multi-Storey Timber Projects from 2000–2021

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3006
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Market and Adoption
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Svatoš-Ražnjevic, Hana
Orozco, Luis
Menges, Achim
Organization
University of Stuttgart
Editor
Brandner, Reinhard
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Multi-storey Timber Construction
Timber Buildings
Mass Timber Construction
Survey
Typologies
Trends and Perspectives
Timber Morphologies
Research Status
Complete
Series
Buildings
Summary
Throughout the last two decades the timber building sector has experienced a steady growth in multi-storey construction. Although there has been a growing number of research focused on trends, benefits, and disadvantages in timber construction from various technical perspectives, so far there is no extensive literature on the trajectory of emerging architectural typologies. This paper presents an examination of architectural variety and spatial possibilities in current serial and modular multi-storey timber construction. It aims to draw a parallel between architectural characteristics and their relation to structural systems in timber. The research draws from a collection of 350 contemporary multi-storey timber building projects between 2000 and 2021. It consists of 300 built projects, 12 projects currently in construction, and 38 design proposals. The survey consists of quantitative and qualitative project data, as well as classification of the structural system, material, program, massing, and spatial organization of the projects. It then compares the different structural and design aspects to achieve a comprehensive overview of possibilities in timber construction. The outcome is an identification of the range of morphologies and a better understanding of the design space in current serial and modular multi-storey mass timber construction.
Online Access
Free
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A Review of the Performance and Benefits of Mass Timber as an Alternative to Concrete and Steel for Improving the Sustainability of Structures

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3024
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
General Information
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Abed, Joseph
Rayburg, Scott
Rodwell, John
Neave, Melissa
Organization
Swinburne University of Technology
RMIT University
Editor
Lokaj, Antonín
Vavrušová, Kristýna
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
General Information
Keywords
Mass Timber Construction
Engineered Timber
Green Buildings
Tall Timber Buildings
Sustainable Design
Renewable Materials
Research Status
Complete
Series
Sustainability
Summary
The construction industry represents one of the greatest contributors to atmospheric emissions of CO2 and anthropogenic climate change, largely resulting from the production of commonly used building materials such as steel and concrete. It is well understood that the extraction and manufacture of these products generates significant volumes of greenhouse gases and, therefore, this industry represents an important target for reducing emissions. One possibility is to replace emissions-intensive, non-renewable materials with more environmentally friendly alternatives that minimise resource depletion and lower emissions. Although timber has not been widely used in mid- to high-rise buildings since the industrial revolution, recent advances in manufacturing have reintroduced wood as a viable product for larger and more complex structures. One of the main advantages of the resurgence of wood is its environmental performance; however, there is still uncertainty about how mass timber works and its suitability relative to key performance criteria for construction material selection. Consequently, the aim of this study is to help guide decision making in the construction sector by providing a comprehensive review of the research on mass timber. Key performance criteria for mass timber are reviewed, using existing literature, and compared with those for typical concrete construction. The review concludes that mass timber is superior to concrete and steel when taking into consideration all performance factors, and posits that the construction industry should, where appropriate, transition to mass timber as the low-carbon, high performance building material of the future.
Online Access
Free
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Technical Guide for the Design and Construction of Tall Wood Buildings in Canada

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3034
Edition
Second Edition
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Design and Systems
Application
Wood Building Systems
Organization
FPInnovations
Editor
Karacabeyli, Erol
Lum, Conroy
Edition
Second Edition
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Book/Guide
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Engineered Wood Products
Mass Timber Construction
Tall Wood Buildings
Hybrid Tall Wood Buildings
Cost
Sustainability
Serviceability
Seismic
Fire Safety
Building Enclosure
Prefabrication
Monitoring
Maintenance
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Since the publication of the first edition of this guide, substantial regulatory changes have been implemented in the 2020 edition of the National Building Code of Canada: the addition of encapsulated mass timber construction up to 12 storeys, and the early adoption of the related provisions by several provinces are the most notable ones. The 2022 edition of this guide brings together, under one cover, the experience gained from recently built tall wood projects, highlights from the most recent building codes and standards, and research findings to help achieve the best environmental, structural, fire, and durability performance of mass timber products and systems, including their health benefits. The approaches to maximizing the benefits of prefabrication and building information modelling, which collectively result in fast, clean, and quiet project delivery, are discussed. Methods for addressing limitations controlled by fire requirements (through an Alternative Solution) or seismic requirements (through a hybrid solution using an Acceptable Solution in steel or concrete) are included. How best to build with mass timber to meet the higher performance requirements of the Energy Step Codes is also discussed. What makes building in wood a positive contribution toward tackling climate change is discussed so that design teams, in collaboration with building owners, can take the steps necessary to meet either regulatory or market requirements.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Recycling Potential Comparison of Mass Timber Constructions and Concrete Buildings: A Case Study in China

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3050
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Environmental Impact
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Sun, Qiming
Huang, Qiong
Duan, Zhuocheng
Zhang, Anxiao
Organization
Tianjin University
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Mass Timber Construction
Recycling Potential
Material Recycling
Zero Waste
Concrete Buildings
Research Status
Complete
Series
Sustainability
Summary
The recycling potential (RP) indicates the ability of building materials to form a closed-loop material flow, that is, the material efficiency during its whole life cycle. Mass timber constructions and concrete buildings vary widely in RP, but the differences are difficult to calculate. This paper proposed a level-based scheme to compare the RP of mass timber and concrete buildings, and a BIM-Eco2soft-MS Excel workflow coupling Material Cycle Database and digital design tools were established to obtain information on building materials, resource consumption, and environmental impact for the RP calculation. Taking a residential building as an example, the difference in RP between mass timber and concrete at the material-level is firstly discussed. Then at the component-level, the RP of the wood structure component and concrete component is compared, and the optimization methods are proposed. Finally, the difference in RP between the mass timber building and reinforced concrete building at the building-level are illustrated. The results show that the RP of mass timber building is higher, and the disassembly ability is better. Within a 100-year service life, the RP of mass timber buildings is 73% and that of the reinforced concrete building is 34%. The total amount of material consumption and waste of the Variant CLT is 837,030 kg and 267,237 kg respectively, which is less than one-third of that of concrete buildings (3,458,488 kg; 958,145 kg). The Global Warming potential (GWP) of these two variants is -174.0 kgCO2/m2 and 221.0 kgCO2/m2 separately, indicating that the Variant CLT can realize negative carbon emissions and gain ecological benefits. A sensitivity analysis is conducted to explore the potential impacts of certain parameters on GWP and RP of buildings. The research can provide the reference for material selection, component design, and RP optimization of mass timber buildings. In addition, new ideas for assessing the potential of circularity as a design tool are proposed to support the transition towards a circular construction industry and to realize carbon neutrality.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Bayesian updating of tall timber building model using modal data

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3140
Year of Publication
2022
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Kurent, Blaž
Friedman, Noemi
Ao, Wai Kei
Brank, Boštjan
Organization
University of Ljubljana
University of Exeter
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Keywords
Bayesian Model Updating
Tall CLT Building
Polynomial Chaos Surrogate
Uncertainty Quantification
Mode Pairing
Modal Data
Research Status
Complete
Series
Engineering Structures
Summary
A framework for the probabilistic finite element model updating based on measured modal data is presented. The described framework is applied to a seven-storey building made of cross-laminated timber panels. The experimental estimates based on the forced vibration test are used in the process of model updating. First, a generalized Polynomial Chaos surrogate model is derived representing the map from the model parameters to the eigenfrequencies and the eigenvectors. To overcome the difficulties caused by mode switching, we propose a novel approach to mode tracking based on partitioning an extended and low-rank representation of the mode shapes resulting from different setups of the finite element model into clusters by the k-means clustering algorithm. Second, the surrogate model derived with the help of mode pairing is used to efficiently perform sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification of the first five frequencies and the corresponding mode shapes. Finally, the surrogate-based Bayesian update of the model parameters is efficiently performed, providing engineers not only with a finite element model that gives a good fit to the experimental modal data, but also a stochastic model that represents the uncertainties originating from the initial model and the uncertainties of measuring modal properties.
Online Access
Free
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Effects of Ground Motion Duration on the Seismic Performance of a Two-Storey Balloon-Type CLT Building

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3154
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Jafari, Maral
Pan, Yuxin
Shahnewaz, Md
Tannert, Thomas
Organization
University of Northern British Columbia
Fast + Epp
Editor
Bento, Rita
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Seismic
Keywords
Ground Motion
Collapse Capacity
Dynamic Analysis
Research Status
Complete
Series
Buildings
Summary
The effects of long duration ground motions on the seismic performance of a newly constructed two-storey balloon-type cross-laminated timber (CLT) building located in Vancouver, Canada, was studied. A three-dimensional numerical model of the building was developed in OpenSees. The connection and shear wall models were validated with test data. Twenty-four pairs of long and short duration records with approximately the same amplitude, frequency content, and rate of energy build-up were used for nonlinear dynamic analyses. Fragility curves were developed based on the results of incremental dynamic analysis to assess the building’s collapse capacity. At design intensity level, ground motion duration was shown not to be a critical factor as the difference in inter-storey drift ratio between the two sets of records was negligible. However, due to the larger number of inelastic cycles, the long duration motions increased the median probability of collapse by 9% when compared with the short duration motions. Further research is required to evaluate the duration effects on taller and platform-type CLT buildings.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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701 records – page 2 of 71.