This report provides an overview of major changes occurred in the recent decade to design and construction of the building envelope of wood and wood-hybrid construction. It also covers some new or unique considerations required to improve building envelope performance, due to evolutions of structural systems, architectural design, energy efficiency requirements, or use of new materials. It primarily aims to help practicioners better understand wood-based building envelope systems to improve design and construction practices. The information provided should also be useful to the wood industry to better understand the demands for wood products in the market place. Gaps in research are identified and summarized at the end of this report.
Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers - Construction Materials
Novel cross-laminated bamboo panels comprising three and five layers (G-XLam3 and G-XLam5) were tested in compression along the main (0°) and the transverse (90°) directions. Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) and non-contact three-dimensional digital image correlation (DIC) measuring techniques were used separately to measure deformation in the elastic region, and the elastic moduli, Ep C,0 and Ep C,90, were derived. Mean elastic modulus values obtained using LVDTs exhibited a good match with analytically predicted values. In contrast, the elastic values obtained by the DIC method were considerably higher and presented a considerable scatter of results. For instance, the Ep C,0 for G-XLam3 and G-XLam5 panels were 17·22 and 15·67 GPa, and 14·86 and 12·48 GPa, using the DIC and LVDT methods, respectively. In general, G-XLam panels with a fifth of the cross-sectional thickness and twice the density of analogous cross-laminated timber exhibited an approximately two-fold increase in Ep C,0 and Ep C,90. Overall, this research provides guidelines for the assessment and standardisation of the testing procedures for similar engineered bamboo products using contact and non-contact methods and highlights the potential of using G-XLam panels in stiffness-driven applications and in combination with wood for structural purposes.
This document outlines the basis of design for the performance-based design and nonlinear response history analysis of the Framework Project in Portland, OR. It is intended to be a living document that will be modified and revised as the project develops and in response to peer review comments.
Performance-based design is pursued for this project because the proposed lateral force-resisting system, consisting of post-tensioned rocking cross-laminated timber (CLT) walls is not included in ASCE/SEI 7-10 Table 12.2-1. Lateral force-resisting systems included in ASCE/SEI 7-10 Table 12.2-1 may be designed for earthquake effects using the prescriptive provisions in ASCE/SEI 7- 10. Lateral force-resisting systems not included are still permitted but must be demonstrated to have performance not less than that expected for included systems. This option is available via the performance-based procedures of ASCE/SEI 7-10 Section 184.108.40.206. Note that lateral forceresisting systems for wind effects are not restricted in ASCE/SEI 7-10. Therefore, design for wind effects will still be approached within the performance-based design framework but in a more state-of-the-practice manner.
A. Fire Test Results Summary
B. Test 1a (Test 1): Beam-Exterior Column Connection Report
C. Test 1a (Test 2): Beam-Exterior Column Connection Report
D. Test 1a (Test 3): Beam-Exterior Column Connection Report
E. Test 1a (Test 4): Beam-Exterior Column Connection Report
F. Test 1b (Test 1): CLT Deck to Beam Report
G. Test 1b (Test 2): CLT Deck to Beam Report
H. Test 1b (Test 3): CLT Deck to Beam Report
I. Test 1c: Penetrations Fire Resistance Rating Report (TBD)
J. Test 1d: Wall Fire Resistance Rating Report
A. Shop Drawings and Details for Tests
B. Sound and Impact Test Results Summary
C. Test 1: Sound and Impact Transmission Test - CLT
D. Test 2: Sound and Impact Transmission Test - Concrete Topping
E. Test 3a: Sound and Impact Transmission Test - Marmoleum
F. Test 3b: Sound and Impact Transmission Test - Marmoleum
G. Test 4: Sound and Impact Transmission Test - Carpet
H. Test 5a: Sound and Impact Transmission Test - Luxury Vinyl Plank
I. Test 5b: Sound and Impact Transmission Test - Luxury Vinyl Plank
J. Test 6: Sound and Impact Transmission Test - Mechanical Roof
The work was performed at Martinsons Såg in Bygdsiljum, Sweden. Martinsons is Sweden’s largest producer of cross-laminated timber, crosslam. The staff is divided into two shifts with nine workers each. The production consists of three sections, gluing, CNC and shipping. The\ factory was expanded in early 2017 but did not achieve planned output. The last section, the shipping, is a bottleneck. The object of this thesis is to find a layout that solves the bottleneck and improve the working conditions in the shipping, and the pace of the system should be determined by the first process, the pressing.
The results from the examination of the system showed that the real bottleneck in the system was the crane. It was slow and is also used in the waste flows. Two packaging stations for the litteras cannot be used because of the flow of the sawdust, lowering the capacity and flexibility in the packaging. Summarised, the crane could not deal with the demands from the rest of the system. The ergonomic problems consisted of bent and twisted backs while the workers pack the littera.
This thesis proposes an investment plan to solve these problems. It consists of two investments that expand the building and expand conveyors, thus removing much of the lifting much lifting with the crane. The waste and littera flows are separated to allow the crane to focus on the main flow of littera
This study examined the thermal conductivity as a function of specific gracity and moisture content for laminated strand lumber (LSL) and red spruce. As part of a larger study of heat and mass transfer in cross-laminated timber panels using laminate comprised of both LSL and spruce, the authors measured the thermal conductivity at four moisture content levels. The results showed that the LSL had a higher thermal conductivity value across the entire moisture content range tested. The average difference was just over 8% and the range for both LSL and spruce was from 0.081 W /m-K to 0.126 W /m-K. Comparisons with published solid wood thermal conductivity values across the range were good. There were no reported values of LSL thermal conductivity at various moisture content levels.
Sustainable, safe, durable, cost-effective and efficient; wood is used across Canada in occupancy classes such as business, residential, commercial and assembly. In the United States, many mixed-use buildings have been designed as “podium” buildings; a wood structure bearing on a podium of noncombustible construction. The International Building Code includes provisions that allow wood buildings, often housing residential or business occupancies, to be constructed over a podium of noncombustible construction accommodating mercantile or assembly occupancies.
The concept of a horizontal fire separation, acting to a certain degree as a “horizontal firewall”, was introduced in the International Building Code in the mid-2000s, allowing the podium to be considered a separate and distinct building from the wood structure that sits overtop. Since podium structures are becoming increasingly “à la mode” in the construction industry, integrating the horizontal fire separation concept into the National Building Code of Canada would allow the industry to benefit from the advantages of wood construction in mixed-use buildings
At the request of FPInnovations, this technical report has been prepared as a guideline for the implementation of design provisions for wood podium buildings into the National Building Code of Canada. Various strategies, special considerations, and possible risks for fire safety in this type of building are explored.