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Lateral Load Resisting Systems for Engineered Wood Construction

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2637
Year of Publication
2009
Topic
Design and Systems
Wind
Seismic
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Frames
Author
Popovski, Marjan
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2009
Format
Report
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Frames
Topic
Design and Systems
Wind
Seismic
Keywords
Lateral Load Resisting System
Construction
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The main sources of lateral loads on buildings are either strong winds or earthquakes. These lateral forces are resisted by the buildings’ Lateral Load Resisting Systems (LLRSs). Adequate design of these systems is of paramount importance for the structural behaviour in general. Basic procedures for design of buildings subjected to lateral loads are provided in national and international model building codes. Additional lateral load design provisions can be found in national and international material design standards. The seismic and wind design provisions for engineered wood structures in Canada need to be enhanced to be compatible with those available for other materials such as steel and concrete. Such design provisions are of vital importance for ensuring a competitive position of timber structures relative to reinforced concrete and steel structures. In this project a new design Section on Lateral Load Resisting Systems was drafted and prepared for future implementation in CSA O86, the Canadian Standard for Engineering Design in Wood. The new Section was prepared based on gathering existing research information on the behaviour of various structural systems used in engineered wood construction around the world as well as developing in-house research information by conducting experimental tests and analytical studies on structural systems subjected to lateral loads. This section for the first time tried to link the system behaviour to that of the connections in the system. Although the developed Section could not have been implemented in CSA O86 in its entirety during the latest code cycle that ended in 2008, the information it contains will form the foundation for future development of technical polls for implementation in the upcoming editions of CSA O86. Some parts of the developed Section were implemented in the 2009 edition of CSA O86 as five separate technical polls. The most important technical poll was the one on Special Seismic Design Considerations for Shearwalls and Diaphragms. This technical poll for the first time in North America includes partial capacity design procedures for wood buildings, and represents a significant step forward towards implementing full capacity-based seismic design procedures for wood structures. Implementation of these design procedures also eliminated most of the confusion and hurdles related to the design of wood-based diaphragms according to 2005 National Building Code of Canada. In other polls, the limit for use of unblocked shearwalls in CSA O86 was raised to 4.8 m, and based on the test results conducted during the project, the NLGA SPS3 fingerjoined studs were allowed to be used as substitutes for regular dimension lumber studs in shearwall applications in engineered buildings in Canada. With the US being the largest export market for the Canadian forest products industry, participation at code development committees in the field of structural and wood engineering in the US is of paramount importance. As a result of extensive activities during this project, for the first time one of the AF&PA Special Design Provisions for Wind and Seismic includes design values for unblocked shearwalls that were implemented based on FPInnovations’ research results. In addition, the project leader was involved in various aspects related to the NEESWood project in the US, in part of which a full scale six-storey wood-frame building will be tested at the E-Defense shake table in Miki, Japan in July 2009. Apart from being built from lumber and glued-laminated timber provided from Canada, the building will also feature the innovative Midply wood wall system that was also invented in Canada. The tests are expected to provide further technical evidence for increasing the height limits for platform frame construction in North America. Building construction - Design Earthquakes, Effect on building construction Glued joints - Finger Grading - Lumber Wind loads
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Wind-Induced Vibration of Tall Wood Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1105
Year of Publication
2011
Topic
Wind
Connections
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Reynolds, Thomas
Chang, Wen-Shao
Harris, Richard
Organization
TRADA
Year of Publication
2011
Format
Report
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Wind
Connections
Keywords
Across-Wind Vibration
Turbulence
Along-Wind Vibration
Vortex Shedding
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Wind-induced vibration is an important design consideration in tall buildings in any structural material. The two main forms of wind-induced vibration - across-wind vibration due to vortex shedding and along-wind vibration due to turbulence - were taken into consideration when undertaking this study. Both types are addressed in Eurocode 1. This research summary discusses a study which, following a sensitivity study into the effect of stiffness and damping on wind-induced vibration, addresses a shortfall in current knowledge of stiffness in dowel-type connections. This type of connection is found in the glulam frame and CLT structures currently at the forefront of tall timber construction, and its behaviour was investigated by measuring and analysing stiffness and damping under oscillating loads representative of wind-induced vibration. This research summary covers a number of factors relating to wind-induced vibration which must be considered when constructing a tall timber building, such as how to assess connection stiffness under in-service vibration. The various conditions were then applied to a case study - the proposed Barentshaus building.
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Guide for Wind-Vibration Design of Wood-Frame Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue379
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Wind
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Hu, Lin
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2012
Format
Book/Guide
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Wind
Keywords
Mid-Rise
High-Rise
Dynamic Properties
Ambient Vibration Tests
Research Status
Complete
Summary
It is not surprising to see a rapid growth in the demand for mid- to high-rise buildings. Traditionally, these types of buildings have been dominated by steel and concrete. This trend creates a great opportunity for wood to expand its traditional single and low-rise multi-family building market to the growing mid- to high-rise building market. The significance and importance of wood construction to environmental conservation and the Canadian economy has been recognized by governments, the building industry, architects, design engineers, builders and clients. It is expected that more and more tall wood frame buildings of 6- to 8-storeys (or taller) will be constructed in Canada. Before we can push for use of wood in such applications, however, several barriers to wood success in its traditional and potential market places have to be removed. Lack of knowledge of the dynamic properties of mid- to high-rise wood and hybrid wood buildings and their responses to wind, and absence of current guidelines for wind vibration design of mid- to high-rise wood and hybrid wood buildings are examples of such barriers.
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Ambient and Forced Vibration Testing and Finite Element Model Updating of a Full-Scale Posttensioned Laminated Veneer Lumber Building

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1103
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Seismic
Wind
Acoustics and Vibration
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Shear Walls
Author
Worth, Margaret
Omenzetter, Piotr
Morris, Hugh
Year of Publication
2012
Format
Conference Paper
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Shear Walls
Topic
Seismic
Wind
Acoustics and Vibration
Keywords
Post-Tensioned
Full Scale
In Situ
Finite Element Model
Dynamic Performance
Conference
New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Conference
Research Status
Complete
Notes
April 13-15, 2012, Christchurch, New Zealand
Summary
The Nelson Marlborough Institute of Technology Arts and Media building was completed in 2011 and consists of three seismically separate complexes. This research focussed on the Arts building as it showcases the use of coupled post-tensioned timber shear walls. These are part of the innovative Expan system. Full-scale, in-situ dynamic testing of the novel building was combined with finite element modelling and updating to obtain an understanding of the structural dynamic performance within the linear range. Ambient testing was performed at three stages during construction and was combined with forced vibration testing for the final stage. This forms part of a larger instrumentation program developed to investigate the wind and seismic response and long term deformations of the building. A finite element model of the building was formulated and updated using experimental modal characteristics. It was shown that the addition of non-structural elements, such as cladding and the staircase, increased the natural frequency of the first mode and the second mode by 19% and 24%, respectively. The addition of the concrete floor topping as a structural diaphragm significantly increased the natural frequency of the first mode but not the second mode, with an increase of 123% and 18%, respectively. The elastic damping of the NMIT building at low-level vibrations was identified as being between 1.6% and 2.4%.
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Ambient Vibration Testing and Modal Analysis of Multi-Storey Cross Laminated Timber Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue237
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Wind
Serviceability
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Reynolds, Thomas
Bolmsvik, Åsa
Vessby, Johan
Chang, Wen-Shao
Harris, Richard
Bawcombe, Jonathan
Bregulla, Julie
Year of Publication
2014
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Wind
Serviceability
Keywords
Modal Properties
Multi-Storey
Damping
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 10-14, 2014, Quebec City, Canada
Summary
The ambient movement of three modern multi-storey timber buildings has been measured and used to determine modal properties. This information, obtained by a simple, unobtrusive series of tests, can give insights into the structural performance of these forms of building, as well as providing information for the design of future, taller timber buildings for dynamic loads. For two of the buildings, the natural frequency has been related to the lateral stiffness of the structure, and compared with that given by a simple calculation. In future tall timber buildings, a new design criterion is expected to become important: deflection and vibration serviceability under wind load. For multi-storey timber buildings there is currently no empirical basis to estimate damping for calculation of wind-induced vibration, and there is little information for stiffness under wind load. This study therefore presents a method to address those gaps in knowledge.
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Lateral Behavior Of Post-Tensioned Cross Laminated Timber Walls Using Finite Element Analysis

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue259
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Connections
Wind
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Van de Kuilen, Jan-Willem
Xia, Zhouyan
Year of Publication
2014
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Connections
Wind
Keywords
Finite Element Model
Lateral Loads
Post-Tensioning
Steel Bars
High-Rise
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 10-14, 2014, Quebec City, Canada
Summary
Cross laminated timber (CLT) has been rapidly developed and utilized for multi-rise constructions in recent years, even high-rise CLT buildings with 40 stories have been proposed and designed. A use of unbonded post-tensioning (PT) steel bars through over CLT walls of the high-rise CLT buildings to take up the tensile forces produced by wind load has been considered, following the regulations of unbonded post-tensioned (UPT) concrete walls. This paper introduces a finite element model to simulate the nonlinear lateral load behavior of the UPT high-rise CLT buildings with elastic connections between the CLT elements. The analysis results indicate that the unbonded PT bars can effectively reduce the lateral displacement of the high-rise CLT building. While compared with a theoretical full rigid CLT model, the advanced model is found to be more accurate for estimating the response of UPT high-rise CLT building under horizontal load.
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Wind-Induced Motion Of 'Treet' - A 14-Storey Timber Residential Building in Norway

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue459
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Wind
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Bjertnæs, Magne
Arne Malo, Kjell
Year of Publication
2014
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Wind
Keywords
Multi-Storey
Comfort Properties
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 10-14, 2014, Quebec City, Canada
Summary
This paper deals with the comfort properties in a planned 14-storey timber apartment building in Bergen, Norway. The building will be one of the tallest timber buildings in the world. The building consists of load-carrying glulam trusses with two intermediate strengthened levels. The truss carries prefabricated building modules. Herein, the evaluation with respect to dynamic behaviour of the building is described with emphasis on the horizontal acceleration due to wind forces. "Treet" is a relatively high building with low structural weight. Its natural frequencies lie in the domain where wind can cause annoying motions or nausea. The stiffness and mass properties for glulam and concrete are well known, but poorly described for complex, complete building modules. To get better knowledge of dynamic behaviour of the prefabricated building modules, testing was needed. Based on the structural design and the module testing a FEM analysis model was generated in order to calculate the building's natural frequencies and modal mass. These parameters were used to determine the windinduced accelerations of "Treet".
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Mid-Rise Wood Constructions: Investigation of Water Penetration Through Cladding and Deficiencies

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue756
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Moisture
Wind
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Saber, Hamed
Lacasse, Michael
Moore, Travis
Nicholls, Mike
Organization
National Research Council of Canada
Year of Publication
2014
Format
Report
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Moisture
Wind
Keywords
Mid-Rise
Water Penetration
Cladding
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The objectives of this work include the following: · Conduct a series of water entry tests over a wide range of simulated wind pressure and WDR loads to measure the water entry rate passing the cladding through deficiencies located in a fibre cement cladding system; A1-100035-03.3 2 · Use the test results to develop correlations for determining the percentage of water entry rate through deficiencies as a function of pressure difference across the assembly and water spray rate onto the cladding surface; · Analyze the water entry data for the NBC stucco cladding for high wind pressures obtained in a previous study and applicable for mid-rise and taller buildings and thereafter develop a correlation to determine the percentage of water entry rate as a function of wind pressure and WDR for absorptive claddings.
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Wind-Induced Dynamic Response of a 22-Storey Timber Building: Options for Structural Design of the Hallonbergen Project

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue64
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Design and Systems
Wind
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Tjernberg, Frida
Organization
KTH royal institute of technology
Year of Publication
2015
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Wind
Keywords
Residential
Tall Wood
Wind Load
High-Rise
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Folkhem is a Swedish company exclusively building timber residential buildings in the Stockholm area. The company is currently in the planning stages of what would be the world’s tallest timber building, a 22-storey timber residential buiding in Hallonbergen, Sundbyberg. In this master thesis, this proposed building has been analyzed with regards to its wind-induced dynamic response. The work includes studies of stabilization of tall structures, case studies of existing buildings and developed systems for tall timber construction and analyzed options for structural design of the Hallonbergen project. Eleven different structural systems have been investigated with regards to their displacement at the top and their peak acceleration when subject to wind loading. The peak acceleration has been calculated using both Eurocode and ISO 4354. The values have been assessed against ISO 6897 and ISO 10137. The results indicate that it is possible to construct the Hallonbergen project without risk of unacceptable dynamic response, using any of the following options: The Martinson’s system with 259 mm CLT plates The Kauffmann system The structural system presented in “The Case for Tall Wood Buildings” The structural system presented in “The Timber Tower Research Project”
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Free
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Building Higher with Light-Weight Timber Structures: The Effect of Wind Induced Vibrations

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue89
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Wind
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Johansson, Marie
Linderholt, Andreas
Bolmsvik, Åsa
Jarnerö, Kirsi
Olsson, Jörgen
Reynolds, Thomas
Organization
Inter-noise
Year of Publication
2015
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Wind
Keywords
Mid-Rise
High-Rise
Vibration Properties
Conference
Inter-noise 2015
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 9-12, 2015, San Francisco, California, USA
Summary
During the last years the interest in multi-storey timber buildings has increased and several medium-to-high-rise buildings with light-weight timber structure have been designed and built. Examples of such are the 8-storey building Limnologen in Växjö, Sweden, the 9- storey Stadthaus in London, UK and being constructed at the moment, the 14-storey building Treet in Bergen, Norway. These are all light-weight and flexible structures which raise questions regarding the wind induced vibrations. For the building in Norway, the calculated vibration properties of the top floor are on the limit of being acceptable according to the ISO 101371 vibration criteria for human comfort. This paper will give a review of building systems for medium-to-high-rise timber buildings. Measured vibration properties for some medium-to-high-rise timber buildings will also be presented. These data have been used for calculating the peak acceleration values for two example buildings for comparison with the ISO standards. An analysis of the acceleration levels for a building with double the height has also been performed showing that designing for wind induced vibrations in higher timber buildings is going to be very important and that more research into this area is needed.
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44 records – page 1 of 5.