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Increasing Mass Timber Consumption in the U.S. and Sustainable Timber Supply

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2888
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Comnick, Jeff
Rogers, Luke
Wheiler, Kent
Organization
University of Washington
Editor
Lauteri, Marco
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Mass Timber
Embodied Carbon
Sustainable Timber Supply
Forest Inventory
Reforestation
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Sustainability
Summary
Mass timber products are growing in popularity as a substitute for steel and concrete, reducing embodied carbon in the built environment. This trend has raised questions about the sustainability of the U.S. timber supply. Our research addresses concerns that rising demand for mass timber products may result in unsustainable levels of harvesting in coniferous forests in the United States. Using U.S. Department of Agriculture U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data, incremental U.S. softwood (coniferous) timber harvests were projected to supply a high-volume estimate of mass timber and dimensional lumber consumption in 2035. Growth in reserve forests and riparian zones was excluded, and low confidence intervals were used for timber growth estimates, compared with high confidence intervals for harvest and consumption estimates. Results were considered for the U.S. in total and by three geographic regions (North, South, and West). In total, forest inventory growth in America exceeds timber harvests including incremental mass timber volumes. Even the most optimistic projections of mass timber growth will not exceed the lowest expected annual increases in the nation’s harvestable coniferous timber inventory.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Projected Cross-Laminated Timber Demand and Lumber Supply Analysis

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2767
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Brandt, Kristin
Latta, Greg
Camenzind, Dane
Dolan, James Daniel
Bender, Donald
Wilson, Alex
Wolcott, Michael
Publisher
North Carolina State University
Year of Publication
2021
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Demand
Lumber Supply
Market Penetration
United States
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
BioResources
Summary
The use of cross-laminated lumber (CLT) for building construction has gained interest in the United States (US) and Canada. Although anecdotal market size claims exist, few quantitative studies have estimated the potential market size or discussed the impact of CLT on lumber supply. This paper presents a method to quantify CLT markets and lumber supplies based on data for the Northwest US. The western US was chosen for its early adoption of CLT combined with a long history of commercial timber construction. Structural designs of archetype buildings were combined with projected multifamily residential and commercial building construction to estimate the demand for CLT. These figures were reduced to account for assumptions that address market penetration and population density. In the case study for the Northwest, the total potential market is less than the existing CLT production in western North America. Thus, the demand region was expanded to include the US and Canada west of the Rocky Mountains, resulting in an estimated demand of 800,000 m3/yr by 2030. A regional lumber supply study suggests that the lumber supply will support the existing CLT industry, which utilizes approximately 2% of the selected lumber classifications, with an unknown impact on lumber cost and production.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Mass Timber Building Science Primer

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2797
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Design and Systems
Moisture
Fire
Acoustics and Vibration
General Information
Connections
Market and Adoption
Serviceability
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Kesik, Ted
Martin, Rosemary
Organization
Mass Timber Institute
RDH Building Science
Publisher
Mass Timber Institute
Year of Publication
2021
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Book/Guide
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Moisture
Fire
Acoustics and Vibration
General Information
Connections
Market and Adoption
Serviceability
Keywords
Mass Timber
Building Science
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The development of this primer commenced shortly after the 2018 launch of the Mass Timber Institute (MTI) centered at the University of Toronto. Funding for this publication was generously provided by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry. Although numerous jurisdictions have established design guides for tall mass timber buildings, architects and engineers often do not have access to the specialized building science knowledge required to deliver well performing mass timber buildings. MTI worked collaboratively with industry, design professionals, academia, researchers and code experts to develop the scope and content of this mass timber building science primer. Although provincially funded, the broader Canadian context underlying this publication was viewed as the most appropriate means of advancing Ontario’s nascent mass timber building industry. This publication also extends beyond Canada and is based on universally applicable principles of building science and how these principles may be used anywhere in all aspects of mass timber building technology. Specifically, these guidelines were developed to guide stakeholders in selecting and implementing appropriate building science practices and protocols to ensure the acceptable life cycle performance of mass timber buildings. It is essential that each representative stakeholder, developer/owner, architect/engineer, supplier, constructor, wood erector, building official, insurer, and facility manager, understand these principles and how to apply them during the design, procurement, construction and in-service phases before embarking on a mass timber building project. When mass timber building technology has enjoyed the same degree of penetration as steel and concrete, this primer will be long outdated and its constituent concepts will have been baked into the training and education of design professionals and all those who fabricate, construct, maintain and manage mass timber buildings. One of the most important reasons this publication was developed was to identify gaps in building science knowledge related to mass timber buildings and hopefully to address these gaps with appropriate research, development and demonstration programs. The mass timber building industry in Canada is still a collection of seedlings that continue to grow and as such they deserve the stewardship of the best available building science knowledge to sustain them until such time as they become a forest that can fend for itself.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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The impact of policy instruments on the first generation of Tall Wood Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2863
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Market and Adoption
Application
Industrial Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Wiegand, Eduardo
Ramage, Michael
Organization
University of Cambridge
Publisher
Taylor&Francis Group
Year of Publication
2021
Country of Publication
United Kingdom
Format
Journal Article
Application
Industrial Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Tall Wood Buildings
Policy Instruments
Research and Development
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Building Research & Information
Summary
In a context of environmental concern and limited urban land, the construction industry faces the challenge of providing solutions for the increasing urban population both efficiently and sustainably. Numerous innovations on engineered wood products for multistorey buildings arise as one of the most promising solutions. In this context, various policies have facilitated the development of Tall Wood Buildings (TWBs). Yet, few publications analyse these policies and their influence on specific projects. This research aims to examine the impact of Policy Instruments (PIs) on individual TWBs qualitatively. Data collection is based on documentary review and semi-structured interviews with policymakers and professionals involved in 37 projects across eight countries. This study reveals that numerous TWBs have been facilitated by policies, acting through diverse PIs applied combined or in isolation. Notably, while Regulatory Instruments allowed TWBs in the first place, Research and Development Tools supported their development and approval process. Often, Research and Development Tools subsidised demonstration projects through Economic Instruments, after competitions or applications (Voluntary Policy Tools). Moreover, many Information Tools (e.g. campaigns, technical assessments) complemented other PIs. Remarkably, while some TWBs have become legal and technological precedents, technical information resulting from their development has influenced proposed changes in building codes.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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An innovative resource-efficient timber-concrete-composite ceiling system: Feasibility and environmental performance

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2872
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Environmental Impact
Market and Adoption
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Ceilings
Author
Kromoser, Benjamin
Holzhaider, Philipp
Organization
University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences
Publisher
Wiley Online Library
Year of Publication
2021
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Journal Article
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Ceilings
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Environmental Impact
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Resource-Efficient Structural Engineering
Structural Optimization
Life Cycle Analysis
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Civil Engineering Design
Summary
Timber-concrete composite (TCC) ceilings build on the idea of making use of the advantageous properties of both materials symbiotically. While concrete, as the upper layer, is used to absorb the compression forces, wood is used in the lower layer to absorb the tensile forces. Many systems have been developed with special attention paid to solutions with both a continuous concrete and wood layer. This article introduces a new system developed with the primary focus set on the most efficient material use by introducing a free space between the concrete and the wood layer using special vault shaped moldings. The first part of the paper contains an introduction including a short overview of different embodiments of TCC floor systems. The second part focuses on the design of the new system and gives an overview of the estimated structural performance. In the third part the environmental performance of the new system is discussed in comparison to chosen existing systems focusing at the the whole life-cycle including a re-use (A-D).
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Insurance for Mass Timber Construction: Assessing Risk and Providing Answers

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2875
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
General Information
Market and Adoption
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
McLain, Richard
Brodahl, Susan
Organization
WoodWorks
Year of Publication
2021
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Book/Guide
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
General Information
Market and Adoption
Fire
Keywords
Insurance
Fire Risk
Water Damage Mitigation
Site Security
Construction Schedule
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This paper is intended for developers and owners seeking to purchase insurance for mass timber buildings, for design/construction teams looking to make their designs and installation processes more insurable, and for insurance industry professionals looking to alleviate their concerns about safety and performance. For developers, owners and design/construction teams, it provides an overview of the insurance industry, including its history, what affects premiums, how risks are analyzed, and how project teams can navigate coverage for mass timber buildings. Insurance in general can seem like a mystery—what determines premium fluctuations, impacts of a strong vs. weak economy, and the varying roles of brokers, agents and underwriters. This paper will explain all of those aspects, focusing on the unique considerations of mass timber projects and steps that can be taken to make these buildings more insurable. For insurance brokers, underwriters and others in the industry, this paper provides an introduction to mass timber, including its growing use, code recognition and common project typologies. It also covers available information on fire performance and post-fire remediation, moisture impacts on building longevity, and items to watch for when reviewing specific projects.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Effects on Global Forests and Wood Product Markets of Increased Demand for Mass Timber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2886
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Market and Adoption
Author
Nepal, Prakash
Johnston, Craig
Ganguly, Indroneil
Organization
Forest Products Laboratory
University of Washington
Editor
Rosen, Marc
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2021
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Journal Article
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Timber Price
Timber Harvest
Forest Stock
Production
Consumption
Trade
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Sustainability
Summary
This study evaluated the effects on forest resources and forest product markets of three contrasting mass timber demand scenarios (Conservative, Optimistic, and Extreme), up to 2060, in twelve selected countries in Asia, Europe, North America, and South America. Analyses were carried out by utilizing the FOrest Resource Outlook Model, a partial market equilibrium model of the global forest sector. The findings suggest increases in global softwood lumber production of 8, 23, and 53 million m3 per year by 2060, under the Conservative, Optimistic, and Extreme scenarios, respectively, leading to world price increases of 2%, 7%, and 23%, respectively. This projected price increase is relative to the projected price in the reference scenario, altering prices, production, consumption, trade of forest products, timber harvest, forest growth, and forest stock in individual countries. An increase in softwood lumber prices due to increased mass timber demand would lead to the reduced consumption of softwood lumber for traditional end-use (e.g., light-frame construction), suggesting a likely strong market competition for softwood lumber between the mass timber and traditional construction industries. In contrast, the projected effect on global forest stock was relatively small based on the relatively fast projected biomass growth in stands assumed to be regenerated after harvest.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Eco-Sustainable Wood Waste Panels for Building Applications: Influence of Different Species and Assembling Techniques on Thermal, Acoustic, and Environmental Performance

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2892
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
Other Materials
Author
Merli, Francesca
Belloni, Elisa
Buratti, Cinzia
Organization
University of Perugia
Editor
Tannert, Thomas
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2021
Country of Publication
Italy
Format
Journal Article
Material
Other Materials
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Recycled Wood Waste
Eco-sustainable Panels
Thermal Properties
Acoustic Characteristics
Life-Cycle Assessment
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Buildings
Summary
Multiple high quality wood waste from a window manufacturer is identified and collected. Eco-sustainable panels, with promising acoustic and thermal insulating performance, were then fabricated. The available wood is of different tree species (pine, oak, and mahogany) and size (pieces of wood, mixed coarse chips, and mixed fine chips). Moreover, scraps of olive tree pruning from local areas were collected for reuse. The aim of the research is to assembly panels (300 × 300 mm2) both with different techniques (hand-made and hot-pressed) and type of adhesive (vinyl and flour glues) and to evaluate their thermal, acoustic, and environmental performance. All the panels present thermal and acoustic performance comparable with the similar ones available in the literature or with commercial solutions. The thermal conductivity varies in the 0.071 to 0.084 W/mK range at an average temperature of 10 °C, depending on the tree species, the assembly technique, and regardless of the type of adhesive used. Oak wood panels are characterized by both better sound absorption (a peak value of 0.9, similar to pine pressed sample with flour glue) and insulation (transmission loss up to 11 dB at 1700 Hz) properties. However, their added value is the low environmental impact assessed through life cycle analysis in compliance with ISO 14040, especially for panels assembled with natural glue.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

North American Mass Timber: State of the Industry

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1963
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems

Identifying Mass Timber Research Priorities, Barriers to Adoption and Engineering, Procurement and Construction Challenges In Canada

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2372
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Market and Adoption
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Syed, Taha
Publisher
University of Toronto
Year of Publication
2020
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Thesis
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Mass Timber
Barriers
Research Priorities
Challenges
Construction
Engineering
Procurement
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Mass timber construction in Canada is in the spotlight and emerging as a sustainable building system that offers an opportunity to optimize the value of every tree harvested and to revitalize a declining forest industry, while providing climate mitigation solutions. Little research has been conducted, however, to identify the mass timber research priorities of end users, barriers to adoption and engineering, procurement and construction challenges in Canada. This study helps bridge these gaps. The study also created an interactive, three-dimensional GIS map displaying mass timber projects across North America, as an attempt to offer a helpful tool to practitioners, researchers and students, and fill a gap in existing knowledge sharing. The study findings, based on a web-based survey of mass timber end users, suggest the need for more research on (a) total project cost comparisons with concrete and steel, (b) hybrid systems and (c) mass timber building construction methods and guidelines. The most important barriers for successful adoption are (a) misconceptions about mass timber with respect to fire and building longevity, (b) high and uncertain insurance premiums, (c) higher cost of mass timber products compared to concrete and steel, and (d) resistance to changing from concrete and steel. In terms of challenges: (a) building code compliance and regulations, (b) design permits and approvals, and (c) insufficient design experts in the market are rated by study participants as the most pressing “engineering” challenge. The top procurement challenges are (a) too few manufactures and suppliers, (b) long distance transportation, and (c) supply and demand gaps. The most important construction challenges are (a) inadequate skilled workforce, (b) inadequate specialized subcontractors, and (c) excessive moisture exposure during construction.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

105 records – page 1 of 11.