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Behavior of Cross-Laminated Timber Diaphragm Panel-to-Panel Connections with Self-Tapping Screws

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1422
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Sullivan, Kyle
Organization
Oregon State University
Year of Publication
2017
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Seismic
Keywords
Lateral Load Resisting System
Monotonic Tests
Cyclic Tests
Strength
Stiffness
Self-Tapping Screws
International Building Code
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The goal of this project is to contribute to the development of design values for cross-laminated timber (CLT) diaphragms in the seismic load-resisting system for buildings. Monotonic and cyclic tests to determine strength and stiffness characteristics of 2.44 m (8 ft) long shear connections with common self-tapping screws were performed. Understanding and quantifying the behavior of these shear connections will aid in developing design provisions in the National Design Specification for Wood Construction and the International Building Code so structural engineers can use CLT more confidently in lateral force-resisting systems and extend the heights of wood buildings. Experimental strength-to-design strength ratios were in the range of 2.1 to 8.7. In the ASCE 41 acceptance criteria analysis, the m-factors for the Life Safety performance level in cyclic tests ranged from 1.6 to 1.8 for surface spline connections and from 0.9 to 1.7 for cyclic half-lap connections. The half-lap connections, where screws were installed in withdrawal, shear, shear, and withdrawal, performed exceptionally well with both high, linear-elastic, initial stiffness, and ductile, post-peak behavior.
Online Access
Free
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Calculating the Fire Resistance of Exposed Wood Members

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue220
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Organization
American Wood Council
Year of Publication
2015
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Charring
Codes
Standards
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The superior fire performance of timber can be attributed to the charring effect of wood. As wood members are exposed to fire, an insulating char layer is formed that protects the core of the section. Thus, beams and columns can be designed so that a sufficient cross section of wood remains to sustain the design loads for the required duration of fire exposure. A standard fire exposure is used for design purposes. In North America, this exposure is described in the standard fire resistance test ASTM E 119 [2]. Many other countries use a comparable test exposure found in ISO 834 [3]. In spite of the difference between standard dire resistance tests, experimental charring rates measured in various parts of the world appear to be consistent. This justifies the use of such data for design, regardless of origin.
Copyright
Courtesy, American Wood Council, Leesburg, VA
Online Access
Free
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Comparisons of the Production Standards for Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) in Europe versus USA

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1705
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Young, Timothy
Barbu, Marius
Hindman, Daniel
Weissensteiner, Josef
Tudor, Eugenia
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Europe
North America
Manufacturing
Standards
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 4412-4419
Summary
Cross laminated timber (CLT) is a new engineered wood product that has experienced rapid growth and market acceptance for residential and non-residential construction in western and central Europe. Potential exists for rapid market adoption in North America if manufacturing capacities are developed. Dissemination of information on CLT North America markets, manufacturing capabilities, and product standards are the next key steps for facilitating investment in CLT manufacturing capacities in North America. This paper compares standards for CLT between Europe and North America.
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Design and Dimensioning of a Complex Timber-Glass Hybrid Structure: The IFAM Pedestrian Bridge

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1797
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
Timber-Glass Composite
Application
Bridges and Spans
Hybrid Building Systems
Wood Building Systems
Author
Vallée, Till
Grunwald, Cordula
Milchert, Lena
Fecht, Simon
Publisher
Springer International Publishing
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Switzerland
Format
Journal Article
Material
Timber-Glass Composite
Application
Bridges and Spans
Hybrid Building Systems
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Joint
Bonding
Standards
Codes
Adhesive Connection
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Glass Structures & Engineering
ISSN
2363-5142
Online Access
Free
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Development of Southern Pine Cross-Laminated Timber for Building Code Acceptance

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue474
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Fire
Mechanical Properties
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Hindman, Daniel
Bouldin, John
Year of Publication
2014
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Fire
Mechanical Properties
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Southern Pine
Fire Performance
Acoustical Performance
International Building Code
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 10-14, 2014, Quebec City, Canada
Summary
The current interest and growth of cross laminated timber (CLT) products has spurred interest in the manufacture of CLTs in the United States. The purpose of this paper is to explore the development of CLT materials from southern pine lumber commonly available in Virginia. A 5-layer CLT panel has been constructed using No. 2 southern pine lumber. Evaluation of mechanical properties, fire performance and acoustical performance were conducted. Results of these evaluations can guide the development and acceptance of CLT products in the International Building Code.
Online Access
Free
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Fire Safe Implementation of Visible Mass Timber in Tall Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2632
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Hybrid Building Systems
Organization
American Wood Council
Country of Publication
United States
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Exposed Mass Timber Elements
International Building Code
Compartment Fire Test
Research Status
In Progress
Notes
Project contact is Kuma Sumathipala at the American Wood Council
Summary
The United States has a vast supply of forest biomass, which provides an abundant resource suitable for the manufacturing of mass timber products. Recent research has shown that these mass timber products can be safely implemented in tall buildings. In 2018 and 2019, this research led to changes allowing the construction of 18 story buildings with mass timber structures in the 2021 International Building Code (IBC). Although this development has created opportunities, it does not respond to recent architectural trends, as the new regulations do not allow for visible mass timber in buildings exceeding 12 stories in height and only allow for limited areas of visible Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) surface in buildings from 9 to 12 stories in height. The strict limitation on the area of visible mass timber in 2021 IBC was based partially on fire performance of CLT manufactured to an earlier edition (2012) of ANSI/APA PRG 320. New adhesive qualification requirements in the 2018 standard have significantly improved the fire performance of CLT. This improved fire performance represents an opportunity to justify increases to code-prescribed limits on exposed mass timber areas which would respond to current, and likely future, architectural aesthetic demands, allowing for an expansion of the market for tall mass timber buildings. In order to justify these increases in allowable exposed mass timber areas, compartment fire tests will be designed and performed to demonstrate that the fire performance of increased exposed mass timber surfaces are consistent with the (newly-recognized) International Building Code safety criterion. In addition, fire safe solutions for the intersections between exposed mass timber members and restoration of fire-damaged exposed mass timber are needed to be developed and tested. Test results and other findings will be used to develop and justify new requirements for U.S. model building codes, thereby enabling more innovative utilization of renewable U.S. forest resources in construction.
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The North American Product Standard for Cross-Laminated Timber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue760
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Yeh, Borjen
Gagnon, Sylvain
Williamson, Tom
Pirvu, Ciprian
Lum, Conroy
Kretschmann, David
Publisher
Forest Products Society
Year of Publication
2012
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
International Building Code
North America
Standards
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Wood Design Focus
Summary
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is a prefabricated solid engineered wood product made of at least three orthogonally bonded layers of solid-sawn lumber or structural composite lumber that are laminated by gluing of longitudinal and transverse layers with structural adhesives to form a solid rectangular-shaped, straight, and plane timber intended for roof, floor, or wall applications. While this engineered wood product has been used in Europe for over 15 years, the production of CLT and design of CLT structural systems have just begun in North America. For the acceptance of new construction materials or systems in North America, such as CLT, a consensus-based product standard is essential to the designers and regulatory bodies. This paper describes and documents the background information and some key issues that were considered during the development of the ANSI/APA PRG 320 Standard for Performance-Rated Cross Laminated Timber. This standard was developed based on the consensus standard development process of APA-The Engineered Wood Association as a standards developer accredited by the American National Standards lnstitute (ANSI). The CLT stress classes incorporated in this product standard are also discussed. The ANSI/APA PRG 320 standard has been approved by the Structural Committee of the lnternational Code Council (lCC) for the 20'15 lnternational Building Code (lBC).
Online Access
Free
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Optimizing Bonding Conditions for Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) Panels Using Low Density Hybrid Poplar

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1424
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Weidman, Aaron
Organization
Oregon State University
Year of Publication
2015
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Bond Integrity
Poplar
Standards
Non-Structural Lumber
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) technology has been growing in the EU and Canada since the early 1990's and utilizes the mechanical properties of structural grade lumber to create a strong panel product for use in floor, ceiling and wall systems. The hypothesis of this project was that CLT panels made from non-structural lumber from lightweight species could also meet the performance criteria of the CLT product Standard. The objective of this project was to compare bond integrity in an optimized hybrid poplar CLT panel with standard CLT performance criteria Standard bond integrity tests were performed on CLT samples constructed using two adhesive types and three clamping pressure levels in order to find combinations that may pass the CLT product standard requirements. A lightweight structural CLT product made from hybrid poplar could be used as a model for other low density CLT products made from other less utilized resources.
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Free
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Transferability of 2021 International Building Code Tall Wood Building Provisions to the National Building Code of Canada

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2806
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Fire
Design and Systems
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Other Materials
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Wood Building Systems
Organization
GHL Consultants Ltd.
Fast + Epp
Year of Publication
2021
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Other Materials
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Design and Systems
Seismic
Keywords
National Building Code of Canada
International Building Code
Building Code
Encapsulated Mass Timber Construction
Encapsulation
Exposed Mass Timber Elements
Building Height
Building Area
Fire Resistance Rating
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The acceptable solutions in Division B of the anticipated 2020 NBCC limit the height of Groups C and D buildings of sprinklered encapsulated mass timber construction (EMTC) to 12 storeys in building height, and a measured building height of 42m. The recently published 2021 IBC contains provisions to permit buildings of mass timber construction under the IBC Type IV construction, surpassing the NBCC provisions by maximum building height, building area, occupancy groups, and interior exposed timber. The IBC mass timber buildings are permitted to have a building height of maximum 18 storeys, depending on the occupancy group. Within Type IV construction, four subdivisions are described to have varying maximum permissible building height, area, fire resistance rating (FRR), and interior exposed timber. Through a comparison of mass timber provisions of both Codes, relevant research reports, test reports, industry standards, this report documents the consequential and inconsequential differences and developed conclusions on whether the NBCC can adopt the IBC provisions, and with what modifications so that the new provisions may fit the NBCC context.
Online Access
Free
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Two-step analysis procedure for seismic design of timber structures on reinforced concrete podium

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2915
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Author
Chen, Zhiyong
Ni, Chun
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2021
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Topic
Seismic
Keywords
Standards
Seismic Design
Concrete Podium
Design Criterion
Nonlinear Time-history Dynamic Analysis
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
InfoNote
Summary
In the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC) and American Society of Civil Engineering (ASCE) standard (ASCE7) , different criteria for a two-step analysis procedure to design podium buildings are provided. However, nonlinear time-history dynamic analysis results show that such designed buildings may not meet the intended seismic performance. A new criterion has been developed at FPInnovations (Chen&Ni,2017&2020). Analysis results show that when the normalized stiffness ratio is at least 10 times greater than the normalized mass ratio, the buildings designed by the two-step analysis procedure can meet the performancere quirement. This InfoNote briefly reviews the two-step analysis procedure, demonstrates the shortcoming of the NBCC and ASCE criteria, and introduces the developed criterion.
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10 records – page 1 of 1.