Le présent rapport décrit une partie des activités de recherche et développement (R&D) en lien avec la démonstration de la résistance au feu ainsi que les études sur la performance acoustique effectuées dans le cadre de la construction du bâtiment Origine. Ce bâtiment est la tour résidentielle en bois massif la plus haute au Québec. Sa réalisation a débuté en 2015 à la suite des analyses préliminaires de faisabilité technique-économique qui se sont étalées pendant toute l’année 2014. La construction et l’installation se sont finalisées vers la fin de 2017.
En premier lieu, le rapport présente les démarches liées à la réalisation d’un exercice de démonstration d’incendie pour une cage d’escaliers/ascenseur avec une chambre d’habitation adjacente, l’analyse de résultats et les principales conclusions en lien avec la pertinence de l’utilisation du bois massif pour des édifices de grande hauteur. En ce qui concerne la performance acoustique, le rapport présente la méthodologie d’étude et d’analyse des résultats des tests acoustiques pour des assemblages de mur et de plancher utilisés dans le projet Origine. De plus, ce rapport facilite la compréhension des activités réalisées et permet de montrer objectivement la capacité des produits en bois massif à offrir un environnement sécuritaire et confortable aux occupants de bâtiments multi-étagés.
Les principaux résultats indiquent que les cages d’escaliers/ascenseur faites en bois massif, conçues pour une résistance au feu équivalente à celle faites en béton, peuvent offrir une excellente performance et servent d’alternatives adéquates pour les bâtiments multi-étagés. En ce qui concerne le développement d’assemblages acoustiques pour les murs et les planchers en bois massif, il a été prouvé qu’une approche multicritère permet d’offrir des solutions performantes à des coûts raisonnables.
Finalement, il est clair que ce projet constitue un jalon très important dans le chemin d’acceptation des bâtiments multi-étagés en bois massif au Québec et au Canada. Sa construction, faite presque entièrement en bois, a nécessité de nombreux efforts économiques, de R&D, de conception et d’installation. De plus, les activités réalisées pour l’acceptation de ce type de construction ont permis de mettre en place de nouvelles technologies et des techniques de conception qui faciliteront la réplication de ce type de projet partout en Amérique du Nord.
The use of engineered timber products such as cross-laminated timber (CLT) is of increasing interest to architects and designers due to their desirable aesthetic, environmental, and structural properties. A key factor preventing widespread uptake of these materials is the uncertainty regarding their performance in fire. Currently, the predominant approach to quantifying the structural fire resistance of timber elements is the charring rate, which allows estimation of residual cross-section and hence strength. The charring rate is usually determined by testing timber specimens in a furnace by exposure to a ‘standard fire’. However, it is recognized that the resulting charring rates are not necessarily appropriate for non-standard fire exposures or for characterizing the structural response in a real timber building. The effect of heating rate on the charring rate of CLT samples is investigated. The charring rate resulting from three heating scenarios (constant, simulated ‘standard fire’ and quadratically increasing) was calculated using interpolation of in-depth temperature measurements during exposure to heating from a mobile array of radiant panels, or in a Fire Propagation Apparatus (FPA). Charring rate is shown to vary both spatially and temporally, and as a function of heating rate within the range 0.36–0.79 mm/min. The charring rate for tests carried out under simulated ‘standard fire’ exposures were shown to agree with the available literature, thus partially verifying the new testing approach; however under other heating scenarios the Eurocode charring rate guidance was found to be unconservative for some of the heat flux exposures in this study. A novel charring rate model is presented based on the experimental results. The potential implications of this study for structural fire resistance analysis and design of timber structures are discussed. The analysis demonstrates that heating rate, sample size and orientation, and test setup have significant effects on charring rate and the overall pyrolysis, and thus need to be further evaluated to further facilitate the use of structural timber in design.
Timber buildings made with Cross-laminated Timber (CLT) panels are becoming wide spread in Europe. The fire resistance of CLT panels depends upon several parameters, including the number of layers and their thickness. At the present, EN 1995-1-2:2004 does not provide specific information on the fire design of CLT panels. Several fire resistance tests of CLT panels were performed in different scales by furnace testing using the standard fire curve according to ISO 834-1:1999, however the large number of possible combination of CLT products makes testing too complicated and expensive as a tool for the verification of the fire resistance of several combinations. In this report are presented nine small-scale tests carried-out at SP Wood Technology (Technical Research Institute of Sweden). The tests consisted in specimens of CLT and massive timber exposed at a two steps of constant heat flux in a cone calorimeter (50 and 75 kW/m2). Some specimens were exposed with two different types of fire protection (gypsum plasterboard type F and plywood) and some were tested unprotected. Later, thermal simulations with the same set-up of tests were implemented on the finite element software package in Safir 2007, with the time-temperature curve given by ISO 834 as input; also the analytical calculation of the charring depth following the Eurocode 5 part 1-2 was done. The target of this thesis is to compare performed CLT furnace tests with the smallscale cone calorimeter tests carried out, the numerical results of the thermal model and the analytical results obtained.
Fire tests on a double egress fire door installed in two Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) wall panels were conducted. The purpose of the testing was to identify design consideration for detailing the interface between a 90 min. listed door assembly and a CLT wall with a 2-hr fire resistance. See also QAI Laboratories test reports: T895-6a Rev.2, and T895-6b Rev. 1
Cross-laminated lumber (CLT), a relatively new construction system for which construction interest in North America is growing, is helping to define a new class of solid wood products. . CLT is a very promising wood-based structural component with high potential to provide cost-effective building solutions for residential, commercial and institutional buildings...
Project contact is Christopher Higgins at Oregon State University
This project will optimize the strength, stiffness, vibration characteristics, acoustic qualities and fire resistance of cross-laminated floor systems utilizing a composite concrete and cross-laminated timber product. This project includes development, testing and optimization of an economical shear connector (to connect the CLT panel to the concrete slab) that will be compared with existing screw and steel plate solutions. The resulting prototype floor system will be tested at full scale.
The Fire Test Laboratory of NGC Testing Services (NGCTS) conducted testing for American Wood Council (AWC) on a load-bearing, Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) and gypsum board wall assembly to evaluate its fire resistance properties when exposed to fire acco...
As part of its research work on wood buildings, FPInnovations has recently launched a Design Guide for Timber-Concrete Composite Floors in Canada. This technique, far from being new, could prove to be a cost-competitive solution for floors with longer-span since the mechanical properties of the two materials act in complementarity. Timber-concrete systems consist of two distinct layers, a timber layer and a concrete layer (on top), joined together by shear connectors. The properties of both materials are then better exploited since tension forces from bending are mainly resisted by the timber, while compression forces from bending are resisted by the concrete. This guide, which contains numerous illustrations and formulas to help users better plan their projects, addresses many aspects of the design of timber-concrete composite floors, for example shear connection systems, ultimate limit state design, vibration and fire resistance of floors, and much more.
The fire-resistance rating of a building element in an assembly has traditionally been assessed by subjecting a replicate of that assembly to the standard fire-resistance test ULC S101 in Canada, ASTM E119 in the USA and ISO 834 in most other countries. This paper presents two (2) calculation procedures for determining the fire-resistance of massive timber members in an attempt to develop a suitable calculation method that would provide accurate fire-resistance predictions when compared to test data and potentially be an alternative design method to conducting fire-resistance tests in compliance with ULC S101 and to the current Appendix D-2.11 of the National Building Code of Canada. Comparisons between the proposed methodologies and the experimental data for beams, columns and tension members show generally good agreement. Predicted failure times have been compared to experimental data that are publicly available.
The fire resistance of cross-laminated timber (CLT) could be improved by treating the lamina with fire retardants. The major issues with this technology are the reduced bondability of the treated lamina with commercial adhesives. This study assessed several surface preparation methods that could improve the bondability and bond durability of fire-retardant treated wood with two commercial adhesives. Four surface preparation methods, including moisture/heat/pressure, surface planing, surface chemical treatment, and surface plasma treatment were assessed for their impact on the bondability and bond durability of lodgepole pine lamina. The block shear test results indicated that all surface preparation methods were somewhat effective in improving bond performance of fire-retardant treated wood compared to the untreated control wood samples, depending on the types of fire retardants and wood adhesives applied in the treatment process and bonding process. The selection of surface preparation, fire retardant, and wood adhesive should be considered interactively to obtain the best bond properties and fire performance. It may be possible to effectively bond the treated lamina with PUR adhesive without any additional surface preparation for the fire retardant used in the treatment at FPInnovations.