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62 records – page 1 of 7.

An Application of the CEN/TC350 Standards to an Energy and Carbon LCA of Timber Used in Construction, and the Effect of End-of-Life Scenarios

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2376
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Energy Performance
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Symons, Katie
Moncaster, Alice
Symons, Digby
Year of Publication
2013
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Energy Performance
Keywords
Embodied Carbon
Life-Cycle Assessment
Built Environment
End of Life
LCA
Europe
Conference
Australian Life Cycle Assessment Society conference
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The use of timber construction products and their environmental impacts is growing in Europe. This paper examines the LCA approach adopted in the European CEN/TC350 standards, which are expected to improve the comparability and availability of Environmental Product Declarations (EPDs). The embodied energy and carbon (EE and EC) of timber products is discussed quantitatively, with a case study of the Forte building illustrating the significance of End-of-Life (EoL) impacts. The relative importance of timber in the context of all construction materials is analysed using a new LCA tool, Butterfly. The tool calculates EE and EC at each life cycle stage, and results show that timber products are likely to account for the bulk of the EoL impacts for a typical UK domestic building.
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Free
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Assessing Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) as an Alternative Material for Mid-Rise Residential Buildings in Cold Regions in China—A Life-Cycle Assessment Approach

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1209
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Energy Performance
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Liu, Ying
Guo, Haibo
Sun, Cheng
Chang, Wen-Shao
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2016
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Energy Performance
Keywords
Life-Cycle Assessment
Cradle-to-Grave
China
Cold Regions
Severe Cold Regions
Energy Consumption
Mid-Rise
Residential
Research Status
Complete
Series
Sustainability
Summary
Timber building has gained more and more attention worldwide due to it being a generic renewable material and having low environmental impact. It is widely accepted that the use of timber may be able to reduce the embodied energy of a building. However, the development of timber buildings in China is not as rapid as in some other countries. This may be because of the limitations of building regulations and technological development. Several new policies have been or are being implemented in China in order to encourage the use of timber in building construction and this could lead to a revolutionary change in the building industry in China. This paper is the first one to examine the feasibility of using Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) as an alternative solution to concrete by means of a cradle-to-grave life-cycle assessment in China. A seven-storey reference concrete building in Xi’an was selected as a case study in comparison with a redesigned CLT building. Two cities in China, in cold and severe cold regions (Xi’an and Harbin), were selected for this research. The assessment includes three different stages of the life span of a building: materialisation, operation, and end-of-life. The inventory data used in the materialisation stage was mostly local, in order to ensure that the assessment appropriately reflects the situation in China. Energy consumption in the operation stage was obtained from simulation by commercialised software IESTM, and different scenarios for recycling of timber material in the end-of-life are discussed in this paper. The results from this paper show that using CLT to replace conventional carbon intensive material would reduce energy consumption by more than 30% and reduce CO2 emission by more than 40% in both cities. This paper supports, and has shown the potential of, CLT being used in cold regions with proper detailing to minimise environmental impact.
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Assessing Life-Cycle Environmental Impacts of CLT Mass Timber Buildings in the U.S. Northeast Region

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2535
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Organization
Forest Products Laboratory
The Nature Conservancy
University of Washington
Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials
Atelierjones
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Life-Cycle Assessment
GHG emission reduction
Research Status
In Progress
Notes
Project contact is Hongmei Gu at the Forest Products Laboratory
Summary
The FPL team is in charge of developing a full comparative LCA study for three multiple-story mass timber buildings and their concrete alternatives in the U.S. Northeast region, with Boston as the point location. Using these three comparative LCAs, this research will determine the GHG emissions reduction potential from mass timber use in the building sector for the U.S. region. This may increase potential for growth in wood utilization, timber harvest, and forest management practices through the market demands.
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Assessment of Carbon Footprint of Laminated Veneer Lumber Elements in a Six Story Housing - Comparison to a Steel and Concrete Solution

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2135
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Environmental Impact
Design and Systems
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems

Brock Commons Tallwood House, University of British Columbia: An Environmental Building Declaration According to EN 15978 Standard

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2158
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Hybrid Building Systems

Carbon Footprint Benchmarking of BC Multi-Unit Residential Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2159
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
Application
Hybrid Building Systems

A Case Study to Investigate the Life Cycle Carbon Emissions and Carbon Storage Capacity of a Cross Laminated Timber, Multi-Storey Residential Building

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2139
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems

A Comparative Cradle-To-Gate Life Cycle Assessment of Mid-Rise Office Building Construction Alternatives: Laminated Timber or Reinforced Concrete

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue52
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Author
Robertson, Adam
Lam, Frank
Cole, Raymond
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2012
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Concrete
Embodied Carbon
Life-Cycle Assessment
Mid-Rise
National Building Code of Canada
NBCC
North America
Office Buildings
Research Status
Complete
Series
Buildings
Summary
The objective of this project was to quantify and compare the environmental impacts associated with alternative designs for a typical North American mid-rise office building. Two scenarios were considered; a traditional cast-in-place, reinforced concrete frame and a laminated timber hybrid design, which utilized engineered wood products (cross-laminated timber (CLT) and glulam). The boundary of the quantitative analysis was cradle-to-construction site gate and encompassed the structural support system and the building enclosure. Floor plans, elevations, material quantities, and structural loads associated with a five-storey concrete-framed building design were obtained from issued-for-construction drawings. A functionally equivalent, laminated timber hybrid design was conceived, based on Canadian Building Code requirements. Design values for locally produced CLT panels were established from in-house material testing. Primary data collected from a pilot-scale manufacturing facility was used to develop the life cycle inventory for CLT, whereas secondary sources were referenced for other construction materials. The TRACI characterization methodology was employed to translate inventory flows into impact indicators. The results indicated that the laminated timber building design offered a lower environmental impact in 10 of 11 assessment categories. The cradle-to-gate process energy was found to be nearly identical in both design scenarios (3.5 GJ/m2), whereas the cumulative embodied energy (feedstock plus process) of construction materials was estimated to be 8.2 and 4.6 GJ/m2 for the timber and concrete designs, respectively; which indicated an increased availability of readily accessible potential energy stored within the building materials of the timber alternative.
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Comparative Cradle-to-Grave Life Cycle Assessment of Low and Mid-Rise Mass Timber Buildings with Equivalent Structural Steel Alternatives

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2880
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Allan, Kevin
Phillips, Adam
Organization
Washington State University
Editor
Bakolas, Asterios
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Steel
Sustainability
Life-Cycle Assessment
Life-Cycle Impact Assessment
Research Status
Complete
Series
Sustainability
Summary
The objective of this paper was to quantify and compare the environmental impacts associated with alternative designs of typical North American low and mid-rise buildings. Two scenarios were considered: a traditional structural steel frame or an all-wood mass timber design, utilizing engineered wood products for both gravity and lateral load resistance. The boundary of the quantitative analysis was cradle-to-grave with considerations taken to discuss end-of-life and material reuse scenarios. The TRACI methodology was followed to conduct a Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) analysis that translates building quantities to environmental impact indicators using the Athena Impact Estimator for Buildings Life Cycle analysis software tool and Athena’s Life Cycle Inventory database. The results of the analysis show that mass timber buildings have an advantage with respect to several environmental impact categories, including eutrophication potential, human health particulate, and global warming potential where a 31% to 41% reduction was found from mass timber to steel designs, neglecting potential carbon sequestration benefits from the timber products. However, it was also found that the steel buildings have a lower impact with respect to the environmental impact categories of smog potential, acidification potential, and ozone depletion potential, where a 48% to 58% reduction was found from the steel to the mass timber building designs.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Comparative LCAs of Conventional and Mass Timber Buildings in Regions with Potential for Mass Timber Penetration

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2885
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Environmental Impact
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Puettmann, Maureen
Pierobon, Francesca
Ganguly, Indroneil
Gu, Hongmei
Chen, Cindy
Liang, Shaobo
Jones, Susan
Maples, Ian
Wishnie, Mark
Organization
University of Washington
Forest Products Laboratory
Portland State University
Editor
Borghi, Adriana Del
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Mass Timber
Life-Cycle Assessment
Embodied Carbon
Embodied Energy
Research Status
Complete
Series
Sustainability
Summary
Manufacturing of building materials and construction of buildings make up 11% of the global greenhouse gas emission by sector. Mass timber construction has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by moving wood into buildings with designs that have traditionally been dominated by steel and concrete. The environmental impacts of mass timber buildings were compared against those of functionally equivalent conventional buildings. Three pairs of buildings were designed for the Pacific Northwest, Northeast and Southeast regions in the United States to conform to mass timber building types with 8, 12, or 18 stories. Conventional buildings constructed with concrete and steel were designed for comparisons with the mass timber buildings. Over all regions and building heights, the mass timber buildings exhibited a reduction in the embodied carbon varying between 22% and 50% compared to the concrete buildings. Embodied carbon per unit of area increased with building height as the quantity of concrete, metals, and other nonrenewable materials increased. Total embodied energy to produce, transport, and construct A1–A5 materials was higher in all mass timber buildings compared to equivalent concrete. Further research is needed to predict the long-term carbon emissions and carbon mitigation potential of mass timber buildings to conventional building materials.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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62 records – page 1 of 7.