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34 records – page 1 of 4.

The Economic and Emissions Benefits of Engineered Wood Products in a Low-Carbon Future

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1460
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Environmental Impact
Cost
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Winchester, Niven
Reilly, John
Organization
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Environmental Impact
Cost
Keywords
US
Construction
CO2 Emissions
Economic Impact
Economy-Wide Model
Research Status
Complete
Series
MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change
Summary
There has been rapid growth in the use of engineered wood products in the construction sector in recent decades. We evaluate the economy-wide impacts of replacing carbon-intensive construction inputs, such as steel and cement, with lumber products in the US under an emissions constraint. We find that the ability to substitute lumber-based building materials increases production from the lumber and forestry sectors and decreases production from carbon-intensive sectors such as cement. Under a carbon cap-and-trade policy, the ability to substitute lumber products lowers the carbon price and the GDP cost of meeting the carbon cap, with more overall emissions abatement in the construction industry.
Online Access
Free
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Advanced Wood Product Manufacturing Study for Cross-Laminated Timber Acceleration in Oregon & SW Washington, 2017

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue715
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Organization
Oregon BEST
Year of Publication
2017
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Market
US
Economic Impact
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Oregon and southwest Washington are poised as a manufacturing hub for the emerging Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) market in the United States. The region is bountiful with luscious forestland, a large percentage of which is designated as working forests. Thirty million acres of forest span across Oregon alone. As a value add product that has environmental and social co-benefits, CLT is economically competitive as a structural framing product for multi-story, even high-rise building construction: a market previously dominated by concrete and steel. The research and outreach activities performed as part of this 2015-2017 study have played a vital role in continuing the advancement of the CLT market in Oregon & SW Washington. Eager regional stakeholders see CLT and other mass timber panel products as forest products capable of providing economic benefit to communities within our region that had grown around forest product industries.
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Free
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An Approach to CLT Diaphragm Modeling for Seismic Design with Application to a U.S. High-Rise Project

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1710
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Floors
Author
Breneman, Scott
McDonnell, Eric
Zimmerman, Reid
Organization
WoodWorks
Year of Publication
2017
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Floors
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Keywords
US
Model
Diaphragm
High-Rise
Research Status
Complete
Summary
A candidate cross-laminated timber (CLT) diaphragm analysis model approach is presented and evaluated as an engineering design tool motivated by the needs of seismic design in the United States. the modeling approach consists of explicitly modeling CLT panels as discrete orthotropic shell elements with connections between panels and connections from panels to structural framing modeled as two-point springs. The modeling approach has been compared to a developed CLT diapragm design example based on the US standards showing the ability to obtain matching deflection results. The sensitivity of the deflection calculations considering CLT panel-to-panel connection gap closure is investigated using a simple diaphragm example. the proposed modeling approach is also applied to the candidate floor diaphragm design for the Framework project, a winner of the US Tall Wood Building Prize Competition, currently under design. Observations from this effort are that the proposed method, while a more refined model than typically used during building design, shows promise to meet the needs of innovative CLT seismic designs where appropriate simpler diapragm models are not available.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Cradle-To-Gate Life-Cycle Assessment of Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) Produced in the Pacific Northwest Region of the United States

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue783
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Author
Bergman, Richard
Alanya-Rosenbaum, Sevda
Organization
Forest Products Laboratory
Year of Publication
2017
Format
Report
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Life-Cycle Assessment
US
Cradle-to-Gate
Production
Life-Cycle Inventory
Life-Cycle Impact Assessment
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The goal of this study was to update life-cycle assessment (LCA) data associated with laminated veneer lumber (LVL) production in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the United States from cradle-to-gate mill output. The authors collected primary mill data from LVL production facilities per Consortium on Research for Renewable Industrial Materials (CORRIM) Research Guidelines. Comparative assertions were not a goal of this study.
Online Access
Free
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Cradle-To-Gate Life-Cycle Assessment of Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL) Produced in the Southeast Region of the United States

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue782
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Author
Bergman, Richard
Alanya-Rosenbaum, Sevda
Organization
Forest Products Laboratory
Year of Publication
2017
Format
Report
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Life-Cycle Impact Assessment
US
Production
Life-Cycle Assessment
Cradle-to-Gate
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The goal of the present study was to develop life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) data associated with gate-to-gate laminated veneer lumber (LVL) production in the southeast (SE) region of the U.S. with the ultimate aim of constructing an updated cradle-to-gate mill output life-cycle assessment (LCA). The authors collected primary (survey) mill data from LVL production facilities per Consortium on Research for Renewable Industrial Materials (CORRIM) Research Guidelines. Comparative assertions were not a goal of the present study.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Critical Factors in the Willingness to Adopt Innovative Wood-Based Building Materials in the Construction Industry: The Case of CLT

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1436
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Laguarda Mallo, Maria Fernanda
Organization
University of Minnesota
Year of Publication
2017
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
US
North American Market
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT), has increased the possibilities of building with wood. CLT consists of multi-layer panels, manufactured with lumber boards that are glued together, alternating the direction of their fibers for each layer. The successful introduction of CLT into the Canadian market indicates that there is potential for further market penetration in North America, and more specifically the United States. To increase the understanding of the market potential for CLT in the U.S., this dissertation aimed at identifying the critical factors influencing the willingness of U.S. construction professionals to adopt innovative wood-based construction materials, such as CLT. The overall objective was achieved by: (a) investigating the level of awareness, perceptions, and willingness to adopt CLT among structural engineers and construction firms; (b) developing a conceptual model including the most critical factors that influence the adoption of innovate wood-based construction materials among structural engineers and construction firms; and (c) identifying distinct market segments for CLT adoption in the U.S. The outcomes from this research help fill the gap in the knowledge about the market adoption process for innovative wood-based materials in the construction industry. This study also contributes to advance the development of the CLT industry in the U.S. by increasing the demand of wood-based construction materials and supporting the creation of employment in a sector of critical importance to the U.S. economy. Findings from this thesis provide useful information that will help these actors accelerate the adoption of CLT through well-designed educational programs, demonstration projects, marketing strategies, and policy incentives.
Online Access
Free
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Framework - A Tall Re-Centering Mass Timber Building in the United States

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue713
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Zimmerman, Reid
McDonnell, Eric
Year of Publication
2017
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Keywords
US
Mixed-Use Building
Tall Wood
Conference
New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Conference
Research Status
Complete
Notes
April 27-29, 2017, Wellington, New Zealand
Summary
Framework is a 12-story, 140ft (43m) tall mixed use building to be constructed almost entirely out of mass timber, including both the gravity and lateral forceresisting systems, in a region of high seismicity in the United States (Portland, Oregon). Utilizing performance-based seismic design and nonlinear response history analysis, the structure’s rocking/re-centering cross laminated timber walls were designed for enhanced, beyond-code-level seismic objectives. These enhanced objectives were targeted through more stringent criteria on deformation-controlled elements, design for replacement of energy dissipaters, limitations on residual drift, and a project-specific testing program completed at Oregon State University and Portland State University. The momentum behind construction of mass timber buildings in the United States provides an opportunity to promote resilient/low-damage design which is consistent with the sustainability goals of many of these projects. This also follows naturally from the inherent rocking/re-centering behavior of mass timber walls. Furthermore, extending rocking mass timber walls to taller buildings is feasible; however, it requires an additional level of thoughtful design, explicit analysis and testing, and careful detailing, including consideration of the effective shear modulus of CLT, wall shear amplification due to higher mode effects, deformation compatibility of gravity connections, and CLT diaphragms.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Mass Timber Rocking Panel Retrofit of a Four-Story Soft-Story Building with Full-Scale Shake Table Validation

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue833
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Bahmani, Pouria
van de Lindt, John
Iqbal, Asif
Rammer, Douglas
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2017
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Seismic
Keywords
FEMA
Full Scale
Retrofit
Seismic
Shake Table Test
Soft-Story
US
Research Status
Complete
Series
Buildings
Summary
Soft-story wood-frame buildings have been recognized as a disaster preparedness problem for decades. There are tens of thousands of these multi-family three- and four-story structures throughout California and other cities in the United States. The majority were constructed between 1920 and 1970, with many being prevalent in the San Francisco Bay Area in California. The NEES-Soft project was a five-university multi-industry effort that culminated in a series of full-scale soft-story wood-frame building tests to validate retrofit philosophies proposed by (1) the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) P-807 guidelines and (2) a performance-based seismic retrofit (PBSR) approach developed within the project. Four different retrofit designs were developed and validated at full-scale, each with specified performance objectives, which were typically not the same. This paper focuses on the retrofit design using cross laminated timber (CLT) rocking panels and presents the experimental results of the full-scale shake table test of a four-story 370 m2 (4000 ft2) soft-story test building with that FEMA P-807 focused retrofit in place. The building was subjected to the 1989 Loma Prieta and 1992 Cape Mendocino ground motions scaled to 5% damped spectral accelerations ranging from 0.2 to 0.9 g.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Pres-Lam in the US: The Seismic Design of the Peavy Building at Oregon State University

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1475
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Design and Systems
Mechanical Properties
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Author
Sarti, Francesco
Smith, Tobias
Danzig, Ilana
Karsh, Eric
Year of Publication
2017
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Mechanical Properties
Seismic
Keywords
Pres-Lam
Load Carrying Capacity
US
Codes
Nonlinear Time History Analysis
Conference
New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Conference
Research Status
Complete
Notes
April 27-29, 2017, Wellington, New Zealand
Summary
Pres-Lam is a post-tensioned rocking timber technology that has been developed over the last decade at the University of Canterbury. Pres-Lam overcomes a major challenge in timber construction, the development of a high strength moment connection, by tying mass timber elements together with high-strength steel post-tensioned tendons. In seismic areas, additional reinforcing can be added to the system increasing capacity as well as providing hysteretic damping. In 2010 Pres-Lam moved from laboratory testing to onsite implementation and has now been used in the construction of numerous building in New Zealand and around the world. This paper will present the lateral load design of the first Pres-Lam structure to be built in the United States: the Peavy Building at Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon. Peavy is a three-storey mass timber building within the College of Forestry. A glulam and CLT gravity structure support the timber-concrete-composite floor, which is made up of CLT panels spanning between glulam beams. The lateral load carrying capacity is provided in the two orthogonal directions by Pres-Lam walls fabricated from Cross Laminated Timber (CLT). The paper will present an overview of the design philosophy and the main motivations for the use of the Pres-Lam system, discuss the requirements for U.S. code compliance, and review the nonlinear time-history analysis of the Pres-Lam structure.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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An Approach to CLT Diaphragm Modeling for Seismic Design with Application to a U.S. High Rise Project

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1671
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Seismic
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Wood Building Systems
Author
Breneman, Scott
McDonnell, Eric
Zimmerman, Reid
Year of Publication
2016
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Seismic
Design and Systems
Keywords
US
Diaphragm
Model
High-Rise
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 3844-3852
Summary
A candidate CLT diaphragm analysis model approach is presented and evaluated as an engineering design tool motivated by the needs of seismic design in the United States. The modeling approach consists of explicitly modeling CLT panels as discrete orthotropic shell elements with connections between panels and connections from panels to structural framing modelled as two-point springs. The modeling approach has been compared to a developed CLT diaphragm design example based on U.S. standards showing the ability to obtain matching deflection results. The sensitivity of the deflection calculations to considering CLT panel-to-panel connection gap closure is investigated using a simple diaphragm example. The proposed modeling approach is also applied to the candidate floor diaphragm design for the Framework project, one of the two U.S. Tall Wood Building Prize Competition winners, currently under design. Observations from this effort are that the proposed method, while a more refined model than typically used during building design, shows promise to meet the needs of innovative CLT seismic designs where appropriate simpler diaphragm models are not available.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

34 records – page 1 of 4.