A systematic investigation is still lacking for tension out-of-plane in cross laminated timber (CLT), as a planar timber construction product. The objectives of the present study are the determination of the tensile properties of CLT made of Norway spruce, the identification of essential product-specific influencing parameters and a comparative analysis with glulam. For this purpose, seven test series were defined, which allowed the determination of the tensile properties on board segments and thereof produced glulam and CLT specimens by varying the number of layers, layer orientation and number of elements within a layer. The orthogonal laminated structure of CLT led to between 50% and 70% higher tensile properties out-of-plane, which is explained by the different stress distribution compared to glulam; the regulation of 30% higher properties than for glulam is suggested. In addition, the lognormal distribution turned out to be a more representative distribution model for characterizing the tensile strength out-of-plane than the Weibull distribution. This was also confirmed with regard to the investigated serial and parallel system effects, in which a clearly more homogeneous behavior was found in CLT compared to glulam, which in turn can be attributed again to the different stress distributions.
The research study focuses on different strengthening techniques for timber concrete composites (TCC) using different types of wire and wire mesh integrated with a layer of epoxy on a timber core embedded in concrete using experimental and analytical procedure. The impact of TCC on axial compression performance, modulus of elasticity, failure mode and post failure behavior and ductility were compared to reference concrete specimens. Different types of wire and wire mesh used in strengthening of the timber core, timber core size and reinforcement in the concrete cylinder were all parameters considered in this study. Timing of application of the epoxy on the wire strengthened timber core was very important. For structural applications, where the weight reduction and ductility as well as post failure endurance are essential, the development of this composite is recommended. The ratio of the ductility index to the weight is discussed. The light weight of the timber composite, and the increased ductility were noted in this study. An equation to estimate the axial compression capacity of the strengthened timber concrete composite was developed in this study. This study will pave the way for further applications for timber concrete composite aiming at reducing dead weight of concrete and the reducing the amount of concrete and steel in construction.
This review primarily describes nondestructive evaluation (NDE) work at Mississippi State University during the 2005–2020 time interval. Overall, NDE is becoming increasingly important as a mean of maximizing and optimizing the value (economic, engineering, utilitarian, etc.) of every tree that comes from the forest. For the most part, it focuses on southern pine structural lumber, but other species such as red pine, spruce, Douglas fir, red oak, and white oak and other products such as engineered composites, mass timber, non-structural lumber, and others are included where appropriate. Much of the work has been completed in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory as well as the Agricultural Research Service with the overall intent of improving lumber and wood products standards and valuation. To increase the future impacts and adoption of this NDE-related work, wherever possible graduate students have contributed to the research. As such, a stream of trained professionals is a secondary output of these works though it is not specifically detailed herein.
To explore the feasibility of hem-fir for CLT products, this work addressed the exploratory
and pilot plant studies of hem-fir cross-laminated timber (CLT) products through mechanical
tests. The hem-fir lumber was procured and then stress-graded based on dynamic modulus of
elasticity (MOE). The resulted 5-ply prototype CLT products were then tested non-destructively
and 3-ply pilot plant hem-fir CLT was tested destructively. The results showed that bending
performance of hem-fir CLT panel can be predicted. Considering cost-competitiveness and
end applications of hem-fir CLT products, the panel structure can be optimized based on the
stress-graded data of hem-fir lumber.
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is a class of engineered wood product with the ability to act as a flat plate floor system transferring loads in two-directions due to the orthogonally crossed layers. Currently, dimensional limitations from manufacturing and transportation limit the minor span to about 3.0 m. This results in under utilization of the bending properties of the cross-layers or the choice of a different product because of the common use of one-way bending support conditions such as drop beams simply supporting the ends of the longer span. This study investigates the performance of a newly developed edge connection system to maintain continuity in the minor direction span of CLT and promote two-way bending action. Three connections utilizing a tension splice fastened to the underside of the panel edges with self-tapping screws are investigated, with experimental results showing promise to maintain a high level of stiffness. This connection system was placed in the maximum moment location of the minor span - attaining a connected span modulus of elasticity up to 1.17 times the intact span modulus of elasticity, indicating a reinforcing effect created by the connection. Further, the minor direction span is additionally stiffened through the use of parallel-strand lumber rim beams fixed to the edges of the CLT in the minor direction span and hidden within the cross-section of the CLT. ANSYS finite element modelling calibrated and validated from the experimental results show the potential of this flat-plate system using 5-layer CLT to reach column spacing of 6.0 m by 6.0 m limited by deflection under a serviceability limit state uniformly distributed load of 3.25 kPa. This claim maintains a high degree of conservatism, as the boundary stress obtained from the minimum observed failure load is greater than 6 times the maximum stress at an ultimate limit state load of 4.67 kPa. This system has the ability to expand the flexibility for designers to utilize CLT more efficiently and create large open floor spaces uninhibited by drop-beams.