Skip header and navigation

Refine Results By

81 records – page 1 of 9.

Comparative Life Cycle Assessment of Mass Timber and Concrete Residential Buildings: A Case Study in China

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2884
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Chen, Cindy
Pierobon, Francesca
Jones, Susan
Maples, Ian
Gong, Yingchun
Ganguly, Indroneil
Organization
Portland State University
University of Washington
Editor
Caggiano, Antonio
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Mass Timber
Embodied Carbon
Climate Change
Built Environment
Life Cycle Analysis
Research Status
Complete
Series
Sustainability
Summary
As the population continues to grow in China’s urban settings, the building sector contributes to increasing levels of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Concrete and steel are the two most common construction materials used in China and account for 60% of the carbon emissions among all building components. Mass timber is recognized as an alternative building material to concrete and steel, characterized by better environmental performance and unique structural features. Nonetheless, research associated with mass timber buildings is still lacking in China. Quantifying the emission mitigation potentials of using mass timber in new buildings can help accelerate associated policy development and provide valuable references for developing more sustainable constructions in China. This study used a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach to compare the environmental impacts of a baseline concrete building and a functionally equivalent timber building that uses cross-laminated timber as the primary material. A cradle-to-gate LCA model was developed based on onsite interviews and surveys collected in China, existing publications, and geography-specific life cycle inventory data. The results show that the timber building achieved a 25% reduction in global warming potential compared to its concrete counterpart. The environmental performance of timber buildings can be further improved through local sourcing, enhanced logistics, and manufacturing optimizations.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Increasing Mass Timber Consumption in the U.S. and Sustainable Timber Supply

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2888
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Comnick, Jeff
Rogers, Luke
Wheiler, Kent
Organization
University of Washington
Editor
Lauteri, Marco
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Mass Timber
Embodied Carbon
Sustainable Timber Supply
Forest Inventory
Reforestation
Research Status
Complete
Series
Sustainability
Summary
Mass timber products are growing in popularity as a substitute for steel and concrete, reducing embodied carbon in the built environment. This trend has raised questions about the sustainability of the U.S. timber supply. Our research addresses concerns that rising demand for mass timber products may result in unsustainable levels of harvesting in coniferous forests in the United States. Using U.S. Department of Agriculture U.S. Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data, incremental U.S. softwood (coniferous) timber harvests were projected to supply a high-volume estimate of mass timber and dimensional lumber consumption in 2035. Growth in reserve forests and riparian zones was excluded, and low confidence intervals were used for timber growth estimates, compared with high confidence intervals for harvest and consumption estimates. Results were considered for the U.S. in total and by three geographic regions (North, South, and West). In total, forest inventory growth in America exceeds timber harvests including incremental mass timber volumes. Even the most optimistic projections of mass timber growth will not exceed the lowest expected annual increases in the nation’s harvestable coniferous timber inventory.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Large-scale compartment fires to develop a self-extinction design framework for mass timber—Part 1: Literature review and methodology

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2911
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Xu, Hangyu
Pope, Ian
Gupta, Vinny
Cadena, Jaime
Carrascal, Jeronimo
Lange, David
McLaggan, Martyn
Mendez, Julian
Osorio, Andrés
Solarte, Angela
Soriguer, Diana
Torero, Jose
Wiesner, Felix
Zaben, Abdulrahman
Hidalgo, Juan
Organization
The University of Queesland
University of College London
The University of Edinburgh
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Performance-based Design
Compartment Fires
Heat Transfer
Pretection of Wood
Large-scale
Mass Timber
Research Status
Complete
Series
Fire Safety Journal
Summary
Fire safety remains a major challenge for engineered timber buildings. Their combustible nature challenges the design principles of compartmentation and structural integrity beyond burnout, which are inherent to the fire resistance framework. Therefore, self-extinction is critical for the fire-safe design of timber buildings. This paper is the first of a three-part series that seeks to establish the fundamental principles underpinning a design framework for self-extinction of engineered timber. The paper comprises: a literature review introducing the body of work developed at material and compartment scales; and the design of a large-scale testing methodology which isolates the fundamental phenomena to enable the development and validation of the required design framework. Research at the material scale has consolidated engineering principles to quantify self-extinction using external heat flux as a surrogate of the critical mass loss rate, and mass transfer or Damköhler numbers. At the compartment scale, further interdependent, complex phenomena influencing self-extinction occurrence have been demonstrated. Time-dependent phenomena include encapsulation failure, fall-off of charred lamellae and the burning of the movable fuel load, while thermal feedback is time-independent. The design of the testing methodology is described in reference to these fundamental phenomena.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Life Cycle Assessment of Cross-Laminated Timber Transportation from Three Origin Points

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2923
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Hemmati, Mahboobeh
Messadi, Tahar
Gu, Hongmei
Organization
University of Arkansas
USDA Forest Service Forest Products Laboratory
Editor
D’Acierno, Luca
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Life-Cycle Assessment
Mass Timber
Global Warming Potential
Transportation
Research Status
Complete
Series
Sustainability
Summary
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) used in the U.S. is mainly imported from abroad. In the existing literature, however, there are data on domestic transportation, but little understanding exists about the environmental impacts from the CLT import. Most studies use travel distances to the site based on domestic supply origins. The new Adohi Hall building at the University of Arkansas campus, Fayetteville, AR, presents the opportunity to address the multimodal transportation with overseas origin, and to use real data gathered from transporters and manufacturers. The comparison targets the environmental impacts of CLT from an overseas transportation route (Austria-Fayetteville, AR) to two other local transportation lines. The global warming potential (GWP) impact, from various transportation systems, constitutes the assessment metric. The findings demonstrate that transportation by water results in the least greenhouse gas (GHG) emission compared with freight transportation by rail and road. Transportation by rail is the second most efficient, and by road the least environmentally efficient. On the other hand, the comparison of the life cycle assessment (LCA) tools, SimaPro (Ecoinvent database) and Tally (GaBi database), used in this research, indicate a remarkable difference in GWP characterization impact factors per tonne.km (tkm), primarily due to the different database used by each software.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Experimental and numerical study on the bending response of a prefabricated composite CLT-steel floor module

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3047
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Steel-Timber Composite
Application
Floors
Author
Owolabi, David
Loss, Cristiano
Organization
University of British Columbia
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Steel-Timber Composite
Application
Floors
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Composite Floors
Hybrid Construction
Mass Timber
Cross-laminated Timber
Prefabricated Construction
Low-Carbon Structures
Bending Stiffness
Research Status
Complete
Series
Engineering Structures
Summary
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is one of the most widely utilized mass timber products for floor construction given its sustainability, widespread availability, ease of fabrication and installation. Composite CLT-based assemblies are emerging alternatives to provide flooring systems with efficient design and optimal structural performance. In this paper, a novel prefabricated CLT-steel composite floor module is investigated. Its structural response to out-of-plane static loads is assessed via 6-point bending tests and 3D finite-element computational analysis. For simply supported conditions, the results of the investigation demonstrate that the floor attains a high level of composite efficiency (98%), and its bending stiffness is about 2.5 times those of its components combined. Within the design load range, the strain diagrams are linear and not affected by the discontinuous arrangement and variable spacing of the shear connectors. The composite floor module can reach large deflection without premature failure in the elements or shear connectors, with plasticity developed in the cold-formed steel beams and a maximum attained load 3.8 times its ultimate limit state design load. The gravity design of the composite module is shown to be governed by its serviceability deflection requirements. However, knowledge gaps still exist on the vibration, fire, and long-term behaviour of this composite CLT-steel floor system.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

A Circular Approach for the Fire Safety Design in Mass Timber Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3095
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Siri, Qvist
Organization
Delft University of Technology
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Mass Timber
Fire Safety Design
Circular Design
Fire Risk
Fire Resilience
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The building industry consumes a lot of material, which causes depletion of material stocks, toxic emissions, and waste. Circular building design can help to reduce this impact, by moving from a linear to a circular design approach. To reach a circular build environment, all disciplines should be involved, including fire safety design. However, there is a contradiction between the objectives of circular and fire safety design, either affecting the aim of protection of material sources, or protection against fire risk. Timber is a material that has high potential in contributing to a circular building industry, as it is renewable, recyclable and can store CO2. However, timber is combustible, which increases the risk of fire. Therefore, mass timber building design has traditionally been restricted by building regulations. To enhance mass timber building design research on timber buildings has increased, to allow understanding of the risks. However, yet general guidelines or understanding on the fire behaviour and risk in timber buildings is lacking. This is a problem for the fire safety design and the potentials of timber contributing to a circular building industry. Until now, there was no specific method available that quantifies this relation between material use and fire risk in mass timber buildings. This limits the possibility of fire safety design and mass timber design to contribute to a more circular building industry. By creating a method that allows comparison between the economic and environmental impact of material use and fire risk, a well-founded choice of building materials is easier to make. The design tool created in this research quantifies the impact on material use for fire safety measures relating to CLT, encapsulation and sprinkler availability and their effect on the fire risk in mass timber buildings. This way insight is provided between the balance of material use and fire risk. By the sum of the impact on material use and fire risk, the total “circular fire safety impact” value is calculated. This value represents the total economic and environmental impact of the design based on the choice of building materials. By changing the fire safety design, the most optimal design variant can be determined. This is the variant with the lowest total impact value. This way, a circular design approach is used to steer fire safety design in mass timber buildings towards a design solution that does not only provide sufficient safety for people, but also provides maximum economic and environmental safety from a material point of view.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Performance and failure modes of mass timber buckling-restrained braces under cyclic loading

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3159
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Author
Takeuchi, Toru
Terazawa, Yuki
Komuro, Shogo
Kurata, Takashi
Sitler, Ben
Organization
Tokyo Institute of Technology
Nippon Steel Engineering
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Buckling-restrained Brace
Mass Timber
Cyclic Loading Test
Bulging
Design Criteria
Research Status
Complete
Series
Engineering Structures
Summary
Buckling-restrained braces with mass timber restrainers (MT-BRBs) have recently been investigated by several researchers. However, timber restrainers exhibit brittle failure modes and have lower stiffness and strength than their composite and steel counterparts. Previous experiments have demonstrated that timber restrainers are particularly susceptible to local bulging and that this is a brittle failure resulting in a near total loss of strength. Nevertheless, local bulging and global stability design methods have not yet been established for BRBs with timber restrainers. This paper presents cyclic loading tests of MT-BRBs featuring different bolted restrainer compositions, core plate clearances, reinforcing plate arrangements, connections and boundary conditions. These tests produced a variety of weak- and strong-axis bulging and global buckling failure modes. Design methods were developed to prevent each failure mode and then used to design full-scale MT-BRBs that were successfully tested and exhibited excellent performance.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Mass Timber Design Manual

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2780
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Connections
Cost
Design and Systems
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Fire
General Information
Moisture
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Organization
WoodWorks
Think Wood
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Book/Guide
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Connections
Cost
Design and Systems
Energy Performance
Environmental Impact
Fire
General Information
Moisture
Keywords
Mass Timber
United States
Building Systems
Tall Wood
Sustainability
IBC
Applications
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This manual is helpful for experts and novices alike. Whether you’re new to mass timber or an early adopter you’ll benefit from its comprehensive summary of the most up to date resources on topics from mass timber products and applications to tall wood construction and sustainability. The manual’s content includes WoodWorks technical papers, Think Wood continuing education articles, case studies, expert Q&As, technical guides and other helpful tools. Click through to view each individual resource or download the master resource folder for all files in one handy location. For your convenience, this book will be updated annually as mass timber product development and the market are quickly evolving.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Mass Timber Building Science Primer

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2797
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Design and Systems
Moisture
Fire
Acoustics and Vibration
General Information
Connections
Market and Adoption
Serviceability
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Kesik, Ted
Martin, Rosemary
Organization
Mass Timber Institute
RDH Building Science
Publisher
Mass Timber Institute
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Book/Guide
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Moisture
Fire
Acoustics and Vibration
General Information
Connections
Market and Adoption
Serviceability
Keywords
Mass Timber
Building Science
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The development of this primer commenced shortly after the 2018 launch of the Mass Timber Institute (MTI) centered at the University of Toronto. Funding for this publication was generously provided by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources and Forestry. Although numerous jurisdictions have established design guides for tall mass timber buildings, architects and engineers often do not have access to the specialized building science knowledge required to deliver well performing mass timber buildings. MTI worked collaboratively with industry, design professionals, academia, researchers and code experts to develop the scope and content of this mass timber building science primer. Although provincially funded, the broader Canadian context underlying this publication was viewed as the most appropriate means of advancing Ontario’s nascent mass timber building industry. This publication also extends beyond Canada and is based on universally applicable principles of building science and how these principles may be used anywhere in all aspects of mass timber building technology. Specifically, these guidelines were developed to guide stakeholders in selecting and implementing appropriate building science practices and protocols to ensure the acceptable life cycle performance of mass timber buildings. It is essential that each representative stakeholder, developer/owner, architect/engineer, supplier, constructor, wood erector, building official, insurer, and facility manager, understand these principles and how to apply them during the design, procurement, construction and in-service phases before embarking on a mass timber building project. When mass timber building technology has enjoyed the same degree of penetration as steel and concrete, this primer will be long outdated and its constituent concepts will have been baked into the training and education of design professionals and all those who fabricate, construct, maintain and manage mass timber buildings. One of the most important reasons this publication was developed was to identify gaps in building science knowledge related to mass timber buildings and hopefully to address these gaps with appropriate research, development and demonstration programs. The mass timber building industry in Canada is still a collection of seedlings that continue to grow and as such they deserve the stewardship of the best available building science knowledge to sustain them until such time as they become a forest that can fend for itself.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Sustainability Assessment of Modern High-Rise Timber Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2820
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Wood Building Systems
Author
Tupenaite, Laura
Zilenaite, Viktorija
Kanapeckiene, Loreta
Gecys, Tomas
Geipele, Ineta
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Environmental Impact
Keywords
High-Rise
Sustainability
Multi-criteria assessment
Indicators
Mass Timber
Research Status
Complete
Series
Sustainability
Summary
As woodworking and construction technologies improve, the construction of multi-storey timber buildings is gaining popularity worldwide. There is a need to look at the design of existing buildings and assess their sustainability. The aim of the present study is to assess the sustainability of modern high-rise timber buildings using multi-criteria assessment methods. The paper presents a hierarchical system of sustainability indicators and an assessment framework, developed by the authors. Based on this framework, the tallest timber buildings in different countries, i.e., Mjøstårnet in Norway, Brock Commons in Canada, Treet in Norway, Forte in Australia, Strandparken in Sweden and Stadthaus in UK, were compared across the three dimensions of sustainability (environmental, economic/technological, and social). Research has revealed that none of the buildings is leading in all dimensions of sustainability. However, each building is unique and has its own strengths. Overall multi-criteria assessment of the buildings revealed that the Brock Commons building in Canada has received the highest rank in all dimensions of sustainability. The paper contributes to the theory and practice of sustainability assessment and extends the knowledge about high-rise timber buildings. The proposed sustainability assessment framework can be used by both academics and practitioners for assessment of high-rise timber buildings.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

81 records – page 1 of 9.