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27 records – page 1 of 3.

Cyclic Response of Insulated Steel Angle Brackets Used for Cross-Laminated Timber Connections

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2765
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Seismic
Acoustics and Vibration
Connections
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Floors
Author
Kržan, Meta
Azinovic, Boris
Publisher
Springer
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Floors
Topic
Seismic
Acoustics and Vibration
Connections
Keywords
Angle Bracket
Sound Insulation
Insulation
Monotonic Test
Cyclic Tests
Wall-to-Floor
Stiffness
Load Bearing Capacity
Shear
Tensile
Research Status
Complete
Series
European Journal of Wood and Wood Products
Summary
In cross-laminated timber (CLT) buildings, in order to reduce the disturbing transmission of sound over the flanking parts, special insulation layers are used between the CLT walls and slabs, together with insulated angle-bracket connections. However, the influence of such CLT connections and insulation layers on the seismic resistance of CLT structures has not yet been studied. In this paper, experimental investigation on CLT panels installed on insulation bedding and fastened to the CLT floor using an innovative, insulated, steel angle bracket, are presented. The novelty of the investigated angle-bracket connection is, in addition to the sound insulation, its resistance to both shear as well as uplift forces as it is intended to be used instead of traditional angle brackets and hold-down connections to simplify the construction. Therefore, monotonic and cyclic tests on the CLT wall-to-floor connections were performed in shear and tensile/compressive load direction. Specimens with and without insulation under the angle bracket and between the CLT panels were studied and compared. Tests of insulated specimens have proved that the insulation has a marginal influence on the load-bearing capacity; however, it significantly influences the stiffness characteristics. In general, the experiments have shown that the connection could also be used for seismic resistant CLT structures, although some minor improvements should be made.
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Finite-Element-Based Prediction of Moisture-Induced Crack Patterns for Cross Sections of Solid Wood and Glued Laminated Timber Exposed to a Realistic Climate Condition

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2764
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Moisture
Serviceability
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Author
Autengruber, Maximilian
Lukacevic, Markus
Gröstlinger, Christof
Füssl, Josef
Publisher
ScienceDirect
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Moisture
Serviceability
Keywords
Eurocode 5
Finite Element Simulation
Finite Element Method (FEM)
Failure
Cracks
Load Bearing Capacity
Research Status
Complete
Series
Construction and Building Materials
Summary
Moisture may significantly influence the dimensions and behavior of wooden elements and, thus, it is important to consider within both serviceability as well as ultimate limit state designs. Dimensional changes, also called swelling (during wetting) and shrinkage (during drying), are non-uniform due to the direction-dependent expansion coefficients of wood and usually lead to eigenstresses. If these exceed certain strength values, cracking may occur, which reduces the resistance to external loads, especially to shear stresses. The current standard Eurocode 5 takes these circumstances very simplified into account, by so-called service classes, defined based on the surrounding climate and average moisture levels over the course of a year. Accordingly, reduction factors for strength values and cross section widths are assigned. For a better understanding of the climate-induced changes in wooden beams, we exposed 18 different beams with varying cross sections to a representative climate of Linz, Austria, within the framework of a finite element simulation and investigated the resulting moisture fields and crack patterns. For this purpose, expansions and linear-elastic stresses were simulated by using the thermal and moisture fields obtained in the first simulation step and expansion coefficients. Using a multisurface failure criterion, two critical points in time were determined for each cross section, at which advanced crack simulations were carried out using the extended finite element method. The resulting crack lengths showed that the Eurocode 5 assumption of a linear relationship between crack-free and total width could be verified for both drying and wetting cases. In future, the obtained crack patterns might also be used to investigate the actual reduction of load-bearing capacities of such cross sections, since the position of a crack and, for example, the maximum shear stress may not coincide. For the first time in this work, a consistent concept is presented to estimate the resulting crack formation in a wooden element from any moisture load based on a mechanical well-founded simulation concept. For this reason, this work is intended to lay a basis for a more accurate consideration of climate-related loads on wooden elements up to timber constructions.
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Structural Capacity of One-Way Spanning Large-Scale Cross-Laminated Timber Slabs in Standard and Natural Fires

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2734
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Fire
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Ceilings
Author
Wiesner, Felix
Bartlett, Alastair
Mohaine, Siyimane
Robert, Fabienne
McNamee, Robert
Mindeguia, Jean-Christophe
Bisby, Luke
Organization
University of Queensland
The University of Edinburgh
CERIB Fire Testing Centre
Brandskyddslaget
University of Bordeaux
Publisher
Springer
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Ceilings
Topic
Fire
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Deflection
Temperature
Load Bearing Capacity
Ventilation
Fire Safety
Research Status
Complete
Series
Fire Technology
Summary
This paper describes selected observations, measurements, and analysis from a series of large-scale experiments on cross-laminated timber (CLT) slabs that were exposed to fire from below, using four different heating scenarios, with a sustained mechanical loading of 6.3 kN m per metre width of slab. The deflection response and in-depth timber temperatures are used to compare the experimental response against a relatively simple structural fire model to assess the load bearing capacity of CLT elements in fire, including during the decay phase of natural fires. It is demonstrated that the ventilation conditions in experiments with a fixed fuel load are important in achieving burnout of the contents before structural collapse occurs. A mechanics-based structural fire model is shown to provide reasonably accurate predictions of structural failure (or lack thereof) for the experiments presented herein. The results confirm the importance of the ventilation conditions on the fire dynamics, burning duration, and the achievement of functional fire safety objectives (i.e. maintaining stability and compartmentation), in compartments with exposed CLT.
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Three-Dimensional Numerical Calculation Model for Static Behavior Simulation of Cross-Laminated Timber Plates under Thermal Environment

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2766
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Fire
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Hu, Wenliang
Hou, Wei
Zhu, Zhao
Huang, Xuhui
Publisher
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Fire
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Finite Element Method (FEM)
Thermal Behaviour
Thermal Environment
Deformation
Load Bearing Capacity
Research Status
Complete
Series
Mathematical Problems in Engineering
Summary
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is well known as an interesting technical and economical product for modern wood structures. The use of CLT for modern construction industry has become increasingly popular in particular for residential timber buildings. Analyzing the CLT behavior in high thermal environment has attracted scholars’ attention. Thermal environment greatly influences the CLT properties and load bearing capacity of CLT, and the investigation can form the basis for predicting the structural response of such CLT-based structures. In the present work, the finite element method (FEM) is employed to analyze the thermal influence on the deformation of CLT. Furthermore, several factors were taken into consideration, including board layer number, hole conformation, and hole position, respectively. In order to determine the influence, several numerical models for different calculation were established. The calculation process was validated by comparing with published data. The performance is quantified by demonstrating the temperature distribution and structural deformation.
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Effect of Inclined Self-Tapping Screws Connecting Laminated Veneer Lumber on the Shear Resistance

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2479
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Connections
Mechanical Properties
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)

Glued-in Rods in Cross Laminated Timber – Numerical Simulations and Parametric Studies

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2231
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Connections
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)

Structural Capacity in Fire of Laminated Timber Elements in Compartments with Exposed Timber Surfaces

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2105
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Fire
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Rooms

Compressive Behavior of Glulam Columns with Initial Cracks Under Eccentric Loads

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1463
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Columns
Author
Zhang, Jing
He, Minjuan
Li, Zheng
Publisher
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Journal Article
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Columns
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Cracks
Compression Loads
Failure Modes
Load Bearing Capacity
Numerical Model
Research Status
Complete
Series
International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering
Summary
This paper investigates the mechanical performance of longitudinally cracked glulam columns under eccentric compression loads. Experimental investigation was conducted to explore the influence of initial cracks on the failure modes and load bearing capacity of glulam columns. Two different crack patterns named DC and IC, and two column lengths (i.e. 600 and 1100 mm) were considered in the experiments. It was indicated that these two crack patterns reduced the capacity of slender glulam columns and the difference of failure modes was observed between glulam columns with and without initial cracks. Further, a numerical model was developed and validated by the test results. With the application of cohesive zone material model, the propagation of initial cracks could be considered in the numerical modeling. A parametric study was carried out by the verified model and the influence of crack lengths and crack locations was further investigated. From the numerical analysis, it was found that through cracks reduced the capacity of glulam columns significantly. Also, crack location impacts the capacity of glulam columns and the extent of impact relates to the slenderness ratio of the columns, while cracks with different lengths have similar influence on the capacity of columns.
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Experiments with Tension and Shear Reinforced Glulam Beams

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2209
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams

Interlocking Shear Wall Connections

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2076
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Connections
Mechanical Properties
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Shear Walls
Author
Claus, Timo
Riehle, Tobias
Seim, Werner
Götz, Tobias
Organization
University of Kassel
Year of Publication
2018
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Shear Walls
Topic
Connections
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Timber-to-Timber
Interlocking
Load Bearing Capacity
Failure Modes
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Summary
A new type of interlocking timber-to-timber connection was designed to simplify the structural details and the mounting conditions between wall elements and ceilings or floor panels in timber frame constructions. An experimental test series on different connector geometries was performed due to the unclear component behaviour and failure mechanism in mode II. The connection types achieved sufficient capacity but do not reach the predicted loads according to EC5. Thus, a mixed mode failure of mode I and II obviously occurs. A design approach is provided recognising all influences on the load-bearing capacity.
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27 records – page 1 of 3.