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Analysis of Cost Comparison and Effects of Change Orders During Construction: Study of a Mass Timber and a Concrete Building Project

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2730
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Cost
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Ahmed, Shafayet
Arocho, Ingrid
Publisher
ScienceDirect
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Cost
Keywords
Concrete Building
Cost Assessment
Change Orders
Construction
Cost Comparative Analysis
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Journal of Building Engineering
Summary
In recent years, timber has been considered as an alternative source of building material because of its sustainability and design efficiency. However, the cost competitiveness of timber buildings is still under study due to the lack of available cost information. This paper presents a comprehensive cost comparative analysis of a mass timber building mainly developed with cross-laminated timber (CLT). The actual construction cost of the project is compared with the modeled cost of the same building designed as a concrete option. The result shows that the construction cost of timber building is 6.43% higher than the modeled concrete building. The study further investigated the change orders associated with the project and found that the total cost of change orders contributed 5.62% to the final construction cost of mass timber building. The study is helpful to provide insight into the construction cost of typical mass timber buildings. It also can be used as a guide for the project owners to make decisions regarding their initial investments on a mass timber project.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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The Economic and Emissions Benefits of Engineered Wood Products in a Low-Carbon Future

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2351
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Environmental Impact
Cost
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Other Materials
Application
Wood Building Systems

Environmental Impacts of Building Construction Using Cross-laminated Timber Panel Construction Method: A Case of the Research Building in Kyushu, Japan

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2412
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems

Highlighting the Unique Challenges and Differences of Building with Mass Timber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2731
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Richmond, Ryan
Publisher
California Polytechnic State University
Year of Publication
2020
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Construction
Research
Challenges
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
As the construction industry shifts towards sustainability and owners seek to construct buildings that are sustainable - built from natural and renewable materials, and pleasing for their occupants to work in - mass timber is becoming the popular alternative to traditional steel and concrete buildings. An abundance of information is available on mass timber products and their properties and applications, but little information on the process of actually building a mass timber project. This report seeks to extend practical knowledge on building with mass timber. In order to accomplish this, this research will highlight specific differences and challenges related to building with mass timber; create general guidelines and recommendations for contractors tasked with building a mass timber project; and identify new areas of research. Through interviews with two commercial contractors who have built mass timber projects in the California Bay Area, specific challenges have been identified. These challenges include longer project duration; increased preconstruction time and complexity; difficulties getting timely plan approvals; differing design and material procurement methods; necessity of MEP coordination at the beginning of the jobs; unique transportation, storage, and handling requirements; and different installation procedures and requirements.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Identifying Mass Timber Research Priorities, Barriers to Adoption and Engineering, Procurement and Construction Challenges In Canada

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2372
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Market and Adoption
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Syed, Taha
Publisher
University of Toronto
Year of Publication
2020
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Thesis
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Mass Timber
Barriers
Research Priorities
Challenges
Construction
Engineering
Procurement
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Mass timber construction in Canada is in the spotlight and emerging as a sustainable building system that offers an opportunity to optimize the value of every tree harvested and to revitalize a declining forest industry, while providing climate mitigation solutions. Little research has been conducted, however, to identify the mass timber research priorities of end users, barriers to adoption and engineering, procurement and construction challenges in Canada. This study helps bridge these gaps. The study also created an interactive, three-dimensional GIS map displaying mass timber projects across North America, as an attempt to offer a helpful tool to practitioners, researchers and students, and fill a gap in existing knowledge sharing. The study findings, based on a web-based survey of mass timber end users, suggest the need for more research on (a) total project cost comparisons with concrete and steel, (b) hybrid systems and (c) mass timber building construction methods and guidelines. The most important barriers for successful adoption are (a) misconceptions about mass timber with respect to fire and building longevity, (b) high and uncertain insurance premiums, (c) higher cost of mass timber products compared to concrete and steel, and (d) resistance to changing from concrete and steel. In terms of challenges: (a) building code compliance and regulations, (b) design permits and approvals, and (c) insufficient design experts in the market are rated by study participants as the most pressing “engineering” challenge. The top procurement challenges are (a) too few manufactures and suppliers, (b) long distance transportation, and (c) supply and demand gaps. The most important construction challenges are (a) inadequate skilled workforce, (b) inadequate specialized subcontractors, and (c) excessive moisture exposure during construction.
Online Access
Free
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Mass Timber Building Material in The U.S. Construction Industry: Determining the Existing Awareness Level, Construction-Related Challenges, and Recommendations to Increase its Current Acceptance Level

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2736
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Market and Adoption
Author
Ahmed, Shafayet
Arocho, Ingrid
Publisher
ScienceDirect
Year of Publication
2020
Format
Journal Article
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Construction Difficulties
Awareness
Acceptability
Industry Practitioners
Mass Timber
Construction
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Cleaner Engineering and Technology
Summary
Timber has been considered as a promising building material because of its structural rigidity, environmental sustainability, and renewability nature. In Europe and Australia, timber materials have been used for many different types of construction such as residential, commercial, education, and industrial. However, in the U.S., the familiarity of timber products is gaining momentum. The construction practitioners are still reluctant to consider mass timber as a mainstream building material. A limited number of case study projects make it difficult for industry personnel to evaluate the actual construction feasibility of mass timber. As a result, a significant knowledge gap has been created that hindering the progress of mass timber material in the U.S. construction industry. To help solve the problem, this study aims to identify the existing awareness level among the U.S. building constructors regarding mass timber building materials. It further determines some of the major construction-related difficulties of mass timber buildings and recommendations overcome those difficulties to increase the acceptance of this material. The study performed a semi-structured questionnaire survey to carry out statistical analysis regarding mass timber building material. Analysis of descriptive statistics suggested that the level of awareness and involvement by the U.S. construction practitioners in mass timber building is still significantly low as 55% of the participants indicated no experience on mass timber building construction projects. Qualitative data analysis suggested that lack of experience in timber construction, poor coordination among the project parties, design-related difficulties, and high cost of mass timber panels are the biggest construction-related barriers to adopt this product. To overcome the existing difficulties, the study proposed an increasing number of timber building projects and manufacturing plants, effective early collaboration among the project parties, developing skilled workers, and a nation-wide promotion by the owners and the architects. The outcomes of this study will be helpful for the industry practitioners and the owners to adopt mass timber as a mainstream building material. The study will further increase the acceptance of this material in the U.S. construction industry.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Mass Timber Buildings and the IBC

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2614
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Organization
American Wood Council
International Code Council
Publisher
ICC
Year of Publication
2020
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Building Code
Mass Timber
Structural
Fire Protection
Construction
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
ISBN
978-1-952468-02-5
Summary
Developed by ICC and American Wood Council, this first edition provides an overview of requirements for mass timber construction as found in the 2021 International Building Code® (IBC®). The document reviews the 2015 IBC’s recognition of cross-laminated timber (CLT), the reorganization of heavy timber provisions in the 2018 IBC, followed by the historic changes in the 2021 IBC and International Fire Code® (IFC®) for tall mass timber construction. The 2021 IBC and IFC include important changes in material technologies and their expanded use as proposed by the ICC Ad Hoc Committee on Tall Wood Buildings. Three new types of construction (Types IV-A, IV-B and IV-C) defined and included in the 2021 codes allow the use of mass timber for buildings of taller heights, more stories above grade, and greater allowable areas compared to existing provisions for heavy timber buildings. Features: More than 100 full-color photos, illustrations and tables enhance comprehension and help users visualize requirements Content accurately reflects mass timber provisions in the 2015, 2018 and 2021 IBC, and 2021 IFC “Change Significance” topics reinforce the content and offer helpful background regarding code provisions Results are provided for five fire tests in a fully furnished structure constructed to simulate Types IV-A, IV-B and IV-C Detailed examples facilitate comprehension of code application and methods of determining code compliance Application of energy, sound transmission, structural loads, and other code provisions to mass timber construction 50 practice questions to help users prepare for ICC certification exams This is an incredibly valuable and time-saving reference for architects, engineers, building/fire officials and inspectors.
Online Access
Payment Required
Resource Link
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Mass-Timber Construction in Australia: Is CLT the Only Answer?

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2727
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
MPP (Mass Plywood Panel)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
McGavin, Robert
Dakin, Tony
Shanks, Jon
Publisher
North Carolina State University
Year of Publication
2020
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
MPP (Mass Plywood Panel)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Veneer
Mass Panel
Mass Plywood
Construction
Australia
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
BioResources
Summary
Wood-based mass-panels (WBMP) are emerging as an attractive construction product for large-scale residential and commercial construction. Australia is following the lead of Europe and North America with several recent projects being completed using predominately cross-laminated timber panels (CLT). These sawn timber-based panels offer some key advantages to the construction and sawmilling industry. However, veneer-based mass-panel (VBMP) systems could offer additional benefits including the more efficient use of the available forest resources to produce WBMPs that have equivalent to superior performance to CLT. Research to confirm the expected technical viability of veneer-based systems is required. VBMPs could provide a valuable contribution, alongside CLT, to the Australian timber products market.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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A Methodological Approach for Structural Health Monitoring of Mass-Timber Buildings Under Construction

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2519
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Serviceability
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
MPP (Mass Plywood Panel)
Application
Wood Building Systems

National Fire Code Requirements - Course of Construction: Tall Wood Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2759
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Fire
Application
Wood Building Systems
Organization
Canadian Wood Council
Year of Publication
2020
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Book/Guide
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
National Building Code of Canada
Construction
Fire Safety
Fire Protection
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The vulnerability of any building, regardless of the material used, in a fire situation is higher during the construction phase when compared to the susceptibility of the building after it has been completed and occupied. This is because the risks and hazards found on a construction site differ both in nature and potential impact from those in a completed building; and these risks are occurring at a time when the fire prevention elements that are designed to be part of the completed building are not yet in place. For these reasons, construction site fire safety includes some unique challenges. Developing an understanding of these hazards and their potential risks is the first step towards fire prevention and mitigation during the course of construction (CoC).
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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54 records – page 1 of 6.