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Very Tall Wooden Buildings with Cross Laminated Timber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1190
Year of Publication
2011
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Author
Van de Kuilen, Jan-Willem
Ceccotti, Ario
Xia, Zhouyan
He, Minjuan
Publisher
ScienceDirect
Year of Publication
2011
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Concrete Core
Multi-Storey
Research Status
Complete
Series
Procedia Engineering
Summary
Cross Laminated Timber (CLT, XLAM) is a product extremely well suited for multi-storey buildings because of its versatility. With lengths up to 16 meters and the possibility of extending with mechanical joints or glued connections, widths of up to 2.5 meters depending on manufacturer and thicknesses up to 500 mm, almost any necessary shape can be found on the market today. Developments are still going on rapidly and new possibilities and new applications far from being exhausted. One such new possibility is the use of CLT elements in a combination with a concrete core and structural outriggers in very high buildings, a ´wood-concrete skyscraper. CLT has already been shown to be very efficient in multi-storey buildings up to 10 storeys. In this paper, an analysis is given of how a concrete core and CLT walls can be used to design very tall buildings in the range of up to 150 meters, but for more than 80% made of timber products. Timber can become an alternative in rapidly expanding cities, where there is a need for high apartment buildings. The building layout uses outriggers at certain intervals, integrated tension cables and CLT structural wall elements in the facades. The design makes optimal use of the advantages of light-weight building elements with comparable structural performance as traditional concrete elements. Savings during the erection stage in terms of money and time are highlighted as well as the CO2 emissions of such a building in comparison with concrete. A concept of the building has been analysed for the location of Shanghai according to the Chinese wind load specifications.
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Wood-Steel Hybrid Seismic Force Resisting Systems: Seismic Ductility

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue330
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Author
Dickof, Carla
Stiemer, Siegfried
Tesfamariam, Solomon
Organization
University of British Columbia
Year of Publication
2012
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Timber-Steel Hybrid
Overstrength
Ductility
Stiffness
Seismic Force Resisting System
Pushover Response
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
July 15-19, 2012, Auckland, New Zealand
Summary
North American building codes currently provide strict limits on height of wood structures, where for example, in Canada wood structures are limited to 4 or 5 storeys. This paper examines wood-steel hybrid system to increase seismic force resistance beyond current limits, up to 10 storeys. The use wood-steel hybrid systems allows for the combination of high strength and ductility of steel with high stiffness and light weight of timber. This paper examines one type o wood and steel hybrid system: a steel moment frame with infill crossed Laminated Timber (CLT) shear walls. A detailed non-linear model of a 2D wood-steel hybrid seismic force resisting system was completed for 6, and 9 storeys; with two different steel frame designs, and four different placements of the infill walls. The static pushover response of this type of hybrid seismic force resisting system (SFRS) has been completed and compared for all cases. The results indicate that preliminary values for ductility (Rd) and overstrength (Ro) for this type of system are 2.0 and 1.7, respectively, similar to a plain wood wall system. Low ductility frames benefit the most from the addition of CLT shear walls as they do not lose the ductility in the system.
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Development of Steel-Wood Hybrid Systems for Buildings Under Dynamic Loads

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue845
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Seismic
Design and Systems
Serviceability
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Author
Stiemer, Siegfried
Tesfamariam, Solomon
Karacabeyli, Erol
Popovski, Marjan
Year of Publication
2012
Format
Conference Paper
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Seismic
Design and Systems
Serviceability
Keywords
Dynamic Loads
Timber-Steel Hybrid
Strength
Conference
International Specialty Conference on Behaviour of Steel Structures in Seismic Areas
Research Status
Complete
Notes
January 9-11, 2012, Santiago, Chile
Summary
A steel-wood hybrid system furnishes not only aesthetically pleasing and sustainable hybrid structures but is superior in seismic applications due to the light weight, high resistance, and adjustable ductility. Such hybrid structural systems are not covered by any material and structural design standards that hinder the general implementation. For light structures, a builder’s guide to hybrid wood and steel connection details already exists in North America. Despite the obvious advantages, however, today’s applications of steel-wood hybrid structures have been limited. Rare hybrid buildings with a concentrically braced frame used for lateral load resistance with a glulam timber floor slab have been built as prototypes. The use of glulam floor slab led to a substantially reduced self-weight, compared with the reinforced concrete slab option. The lighter structure behaves superior in seismic events and has made wind loads the governing design case. The next generation steel-wood hybrid structures should optimally utilize each material. This paper describes a research program of the next generation wood-steel hybrid structures should optimally utilize each material. In detail the following development issues will be addressed: innovative hybrid steel-wood building systems, technical tools to predict structural responses of hybrid systems, design principles underpinning the definition of key code provisions related to strength and serviceability performance of hybrid buildings. It will be highlighted that potential structural problems at the design stage result from material incompatibilities. The constitutive properties of each material, hybrid-material, and joint properties reported in the literature will be used, or supplemented by findings from experimental work.
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Fire Performance Requirements of Non-Load-Bearing Wood-Frame In-Fill Walls in Concrete/Steel Hybrid Buildings. Part 1 - Literature Review of International Building Code

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2621
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Fire
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Walls
Hybrid Building Systems
Author
Lu, Ling
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2013
Format
Report
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Walls
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Fire-Retardant-Treatment (FRT)
Fire Resistance Rating
Building Code
Construction
Exterior Wall
Non-Loadbearing
Concrete
Steel
Mid-Rise
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Related sections in the International Building Code (IBC) were reviewed regarding use of wood components in non-combustible buildings, and light-frame wood buildings or heavy timber buildings greater than 4-storeys in height. The highlights of this review are: a) Fire-retardant-treated (FRT) wood can be used in partitions when the required fire-resistance rating is not more than 2 hours. This includes all types and occupancy groups of Types I and II construction; b) FRT wood can be used in non-bearing exterior walls in Type I, II, III and IV construction; c) Wood components can be used in interior walls for Type III and IV construction; d) Wood components can be used in both interior and exterior walls for Type V construction. When a sprinkler system is installed according to NFPA 13 [1], it is possible to build a light-frame wood building or heavy timber building over 4-storeys according to the following provisions: a) Type IIIA 6-storey light-frame wood buildings using FRT wood for exterior walls for Occupancy group B (Business), H-4, and 5-storey light-frame wood buildings for Occupancy group F-2, H-3, I-1(Institutional), R (Residential), S-2; b) Type IIIB 5-storey light-frame wood buildings using FRT wood for exterior walls for Occupancy group R; c) Type IV (HT) 6-storeys timber buildings for Occupancy group B, F-2, H-4 and S-2; d) Type IV (HT) 5-storeys timber buildings for Occupancy group F-1, H-3, I-1, R, S-1 and U.
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Fire Performance Requirements of Non-Load-Bearing Wood-Frame In-Fill Walls in Concrete/Steel Hybrid Buildings. Part 2 - Review of the National Building Code of Canada

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2622
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Fire
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Walls
Hybrid Building Systems
Author
Lu, Ling
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2013
Format
Report
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Walls
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Non-Loadbearing
Fire Resistance
Concrete
Steel
Building Code
Fire Performance
Exterior Wall
Sprinklers
Mid-Rise
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This project evaluates the National Building Codes of Canada (NBCC) clauses relevant to fire performance and performance requirements of non-load-bearing wood-frame in-fill walls in concrete/steel hybrid buildings. Related clauses in NBCC are reviewed regarding the use of wood components and non-load bearing wall systems in non-combustible buildings. The highlights of this review are: § An exterior non-loadbearing wall assembly with combustible components is allowed in non-combustible construction if: a) Building height is not more than 3 storeys or has a sprinkler system throughout ; b) The interior surfaces of the wall assembly are protected by a thermal barrier ; and c) The wall assembly satisfied the testing criteria for CAN/ULC S134 ; § Combustible interior wall finishes, other than foamed plastics, are allowed in non-combustible construction if the thickness is not greater than 25 mm and their flame spread rating (FSR) is not more than 150 ; § Combustible insulation, other than foamed plastics, is allowed in non-combustible construction if the flame-spread rating not more than 25 ; § Combustible insulation with a FSR not less than 25 and not more than 500 is allowed in exterior and interior walls of non-combustible construction if the building is non-sprinklered and not more than 18 m or sprinklered and protected by a thermal barrier ; § There are no obstacles for using wood-frame in-fill wall systems for interior partition walls in hybrid buildings: a) For non-sprinklered buildings not greater than 3 storeys or a floor area not greater than 600 m2 ; b) For sprinklered buildings. § Non-combustible construction allows combustible elements in partition walls in the following instances: a) Solid lumber partitions located in a fire compartment area are permitted in a non-sprinklered floor area not greater than 600 m2 with restrictions ; b) Solid lumber partitions not less than 38 mm thick and partitions that contain wood framing are permitted with restrictions. § Combustible cladding can be used under the following circumstances: a) When a wall assembly with exposing building face is between 10 to 25% tested by CAN/ULC-S134 and complies with Article 3.1.5.5 ; b) When a wall assembly with exposing building face is between 25 to 50%, is sprinklered throughout, installed on a gypsum board sheathing, and has a FSR not more than 25 (with restrictions) ; c) When a wall assembly with exposing building face is between 50 to 100%, cladding can be combustible for group A, B, C, D, E, F. § When a building is required to be of non-combustible construction, combustible elements are limited to the requirements in Subsection 3.1.5 on non-combustible construction ; § When comparing the NBCC with the International Building Code (IBC), the IBC is more in favour of using FRT wood frame in-fill walls with one more storey.
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Experimental Investigation of Connection for the FFTT, A Timber-Steel Hybrid System

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue269
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Connections
Design and Systems
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Author
Bhat, Pooja
Organization
University of British Columbia
Year of Publication
2013
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Connections
Design and Systems
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
FFTT
Quasi-Static
Monotonic Testing
Reverse Cyclic Testing
Embedment Depth
Embedment Length
Strong-column Weak-beam Failure
Cross-Section Reduction
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This thesis fills the existing knowledge gap between detailed design and global behaviour of hybrid systems through an experimental study on an innovative timber-steel hybrid system called “FFTT”. The FFTT system relies on wall panels of mass timber such as CLT for gravity and lateral load resistance and embedded steel sections for ductility under the earthquake loads. An important step towards the practical application of the FFTT system is obtaining the proof that the connections facilitate the desired ductile failure mode. The experimental investigation was carried out at the facility of FPInnovations, Vancouver. The testing program consisted of quasi-static monotonic and reverse cyclic tests on the timber-steel hybrid system with different configurations. The two beam profiles, wide flange I-sections and hollow rectangular sections were tested. The interaction between the steel beams and CLT panels and the effect of the embedment depth, cross-section reduction and embedment length were closely examined. The study demonstrated that when using an appropriate steel section, the desired ‘Strong Column–Weak Beam’ failure mechanism was initiated and excessive wood crushing was avoided. While wide-flange I-sections were stiffer and stronger, the hollow sections displayed better post-yield behaviour with higher energy dissipation capacity through several cycles of deformation under cyclic loads. The out-of-plane buckling at the point of yielding was the major setback of the embedment of wide-flange I-sections. This research served as a precursor for providing design guidance for the FFTT system as one option for tall wood buildings in high seismic regions.
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Dynamic Analysis of Large-Scale Wooden Structures with a Core of Reinforced Concrete and Considering Wooden Diaphragm Stiffness : Part2 Results of Response Analysis and Studies

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue875
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Design and Systems
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Author
Kano, Daisuke
Asakawa, Takeshi
Organization
Architectural Institute of Japan
Year of Publication
2013
Format
Journal Article
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Mid-Rise
Timber-Concrete Hybrid
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The purpose of this paper is to outline the foundation for the research by presenting the underlying design philosophy and resulting design framework that will serve as the basis for the emerging design methodology. In this way, context will be provided for the technical papers to follow and the eventual design methodology at the project’s conclusion. A companion paper, “Seismic Design Methodology for Precast Concrete Diaphragms—Part 2: Research Program,” describes the specific analytical and experimental activities taking place in the research.
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Dynamic Analysis of Large-Scale Wooden Structures with a Core of Reinforced Concrete and Considering Wooden Diaphragm Stiffness : Part1. Background and Analysis Models

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue876
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Design and Systems
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Author
Asakawa, Takeshi
Kano, Daisuke
Organization
Architectural Institute of Japan
Year of Publication
2013
Format
Journal Article
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Mid-Rise
Timber-Concrete Hybrid
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The purpose of this paper is to outline the foundation for the research by presenting the underlying design philosophy and resulting design framework that will serve as the basis for the emerging design methodology. In this way, context will be provided for the technical papers to follow and the eventual design methodology at the project’s conclusion. A companion paper, “Seismic Design Methodology for Precast Concrete Diaphragms—Part 2: Research Program,” describes the specific analytical and experimental activities taking place in the research.
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Wood Infill Walls in Reinforced Concrete Frame Structures: A Wood/Concrete Construction Niche

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1591
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Author
Blaylock, Jeffrey
Bartlett, Michael
Organization
University of Western Ontario
Year of Publication
2013
Format
Thesis
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Mid-Rise
High-Rise
Deflection
Serviceability Limit States
Ultimate Limit States
Reinforced Concrete
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This thesis investigated light-frame wood/concrete hybrid construction as part of the NSERC Strategic Network on Innovative Wood products and Building Systems (NEWBuildS). A review of eight wood/concrete niche areas identified three with potential to be used in mid- to high-rise structures. Light-frame wood structures of seven or more storeys with wood/concrete hybrid flooring seem to have little feasibility unless a concrete lateral-load-resisting system is provided and material incompatibilities are solved. Non-load-bearing light-frame wood infill walls in reinforced concrete frame structures were recognized to have potential feasibility in mid- to high-rise structures. A full-scale, single frame test apparatus was successfully designed and constructed at the Insurance Research Lab for Better Homes. The frame is statically loaded to accurately replicates realistic horizontal sway and vertical racking deformations of a typical eight storey reinforced concrete frame structure at SLS and ULS. A linear-elastic analysis of the test apparatus was generally able to predict the results during testing. The 2.4m x 4.8m (8 ft. x 16 ft.) infill wall specimen did not satisfy serviceability deflection limitations of L/360 when subjected to representative out-of-plane wind pressures of +1.44/-0.9 kPa. The out-of-plane response was not significantly affected by horizontal sway deflections of +/-7.2mm or vertical racking deflections of +9.6mm. Although a nominal 20mm gap was provided to isolate the wall from the surrounding frame, insulation foam sprayed in the gap facilitated load transfer between them.
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Seismic Shaking Table Testing of Glass-Timber Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue22
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Hybrid Building Systems
Author
Ber, Boštjan
Dujic, Bruno
Sustersic, Iztok
Jancar, Jurij
Premrov, Miroslav
Year of Publication
2014
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Seismic
Keywords
Design
Ductility
Failure
Shake Table Test
Timber-glass
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 10-14, 2014, Quebec City, Canada
Summary
This paper deals with the seismic behaviour of timber-glass systems. A series of experiments was performed on the shaking table of the IZIIS institute in Skopje, Macedonia. One and two story full scale structures were subjected to a series of ground motions. All together 8 different setups were tested. The chosen combination of glass-timber walls exhibited a rocking type of behaviour, resulting in a desirable ductile failure of steel hold-downs and not brittle failure of the glazing or the timber frame.
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87 records – page 1 of 9.