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2177 records – page 1 of 218.

Advanced Timber Construction Industry: A Review of 350 Multi-Storey Timber Projects from 2000–2021

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3006
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Market and Adoption
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Svatoš-Ražnjevic, Hana
Orozco, Luis
Menges, Achim
Organization
University of Stuttgart
Editor
Brandner, Reinhard
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Multi-storey Timber Construction
Timber Buildings
Mass Timber Construction
Survey
Typologies
Trends and Perspectives
Timber Morphologies
Research Status
Complete
Series
Buildings
Summary
Throughout the last two decades the timber building sector has experienced a steady growth in multi-storey construction. Although there has been a growing number of research focused on trends, benefits, and disadvantages in timber construction from various technical perspectives, so far there is no extensive literature on the trajectory of emerging architectural typologies. This paper presents an examination of architectural variety and spatial possibilities in current serial and modular multi-storey timber construction. It aims to draw a parallel between architectural characteristics and their relation to structural systems in timber. The research draws from a collection of 350 contemporary multi-storey timber building projects between 2000 and 2021. It consists of 300 built projects, 12 projects currently in construction, and 38 design proposals. The survey consists of quantitative and qualitative project data, as well as classification of the structural system, material, program, massing, and spatial organization of the projects. It then compares the different structural and design aspects to achieve a comprehensive overview of possibilities in timber construction. The outcome is an identification of the range of morphologies and a better understanding of the design space in current serial and modular multi-storey mass timber construction.
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Analysis and Tests of Lateral Resistance of Bolted and Screwed Connections of CLT

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2956
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Connections
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Huo, Liangliang
Zhu, Enchun
Niu, Shuang
Wu, Guofang
Organization
Harbin Institute of Technology
China Academy of Forestry
Editor
Ozarska, Barbara
Monaco, Angela
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Connections
Keywords
Lateral Resistance
European Yield Model
Bolt Connection
Screw Connectors
Emdedment Stress
Research Status
Complete
Series
Forests
Summary
The lateral resistance of dowel-type connections with CLT is related to its lay-up, species of the laminations and even the manufacture method. Treating the CLT as homogeneous material, current methods develop new equations through test results or make use of the existing equations for the embedment strength already used in design codes; thus, the lateral resistance of dowel-type connections of CLT can be calculated. This kind of approach does not take the embedment stress distribution into account, which may lead to inaccuracy in predicting the lateral resistance and yield mode of the dowel-type connections in CLT. In this study, tests of the bolted connections and the screwed connections of CLT were conducted by considering the effects of the orientation of the laminations, the thickness of the connected members, the fastener diameter and strength of the materials. The material properties including yield strength of the fasteners and embedment strength of the CLT laminations were also tested. Using analysis of the dowel-type connections of CLT by introducing the equivalent embedment stress distribution, equations for the lateral resistance of the connections based on the European Yield Model were developed. The predicted lateral resistance and yield modes were in good agreement with the test results; the correctness and the feasibility of the equations were thus validated.
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Analytical Procedure for Timber-Concrete Composite (TCC) System with Mechanical Connectors

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3119
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Floors
Author
Mirdad, Md Abdul Hamid
Khan, Rafid
Chui, Ying Hei
Organization
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign
University of Alberta
Editor
Tullini, Nerio
Publisher
MDPI
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Floors
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Mechanical Connectors
Progressive Yielding
Effective Bending Stiffness
Deflection
Vibration
Research Status
Complete
Series
Buildings
Summary
In the construction of modern multi-storey mass timber structures, a composite floor system commonly specified by structural engineers is the timber–concrete composite (TCC) system, where a mass timber beam or mass timber panel (MTP) is connected to a concrete slab with mechanical connectors. The design of TCC floor systems has not been addressed in timber design standards due to a lack of suitable analytical models for predicting the serviceability and safety performance of these systems. Moreover, the interlayer connection properties have a large influence on the structural performance of a TCC system. These connection properties are often generated by testing. In this paper, an analytical approach for designing a TCC floor system is proposed that incorporates connection models to predict connection properties from basic connection component properties such as embedment and withdrawal strength/stiffness of the connector, thereby circumventing the need to perform connection tests. The analytical approach leads to the calculation of effective bending stiffness, forces in the connectors, and extreme stresses in concrete and timber of the TCC system, and can be used in design to evaluate allowable floor spans under specific design loads and criteria. An extensive parametric analysis was also conducted following the analytical procedure to investigate the TCC connection and system behaviour. It was observed that the screw spacing and timber thickness remain the most important parameters which significantly influence the TCC system behaviour.
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An Experimental and Analytical Study on the Bending Performance of CFRP-Reinforced Glulam Beams

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2972
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Author
He, Minjuan
Wang, Yuxuan
Li, Zheng
Zhou, Lina
Tong, Yichang
Sun, Xiaofeng
Organization
Tongji University
University of Victoria
Editor
Tam, Lik-ho
Publisher
Frontiers
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
CFRP Sheet
Four-point Bending Test
Numerical Model
Theoretical Analysis
Research Status
Complete
Series
Frontiers in Materials
Summary
The fiber-reinforced polymer is one kind of composite material made of synthetic fiber and resin, which has attracted research interests for the reinforcement of timber elements. In this study, 18 glued-laminated (glulam) beams, unreinforced or reinforced with internally embedded carbon fiber–reinforced polymer (CFRP) sheets, were tested under four-point bending loads. For the reinforced glulam beams, the influences of the strengthening ratio, the modulus of elasticity of the CFRP, and the CFRP arrangement on their bending performance were experimentally investigated. Subsequently, a finite element model developed was verified with the experimental results; furthermore, a general theoretical model considering the typical tensile failure mode was employed to predict the bending–resisting capacities of the reinforced glulam beams. It is found that the reinforced glulam beams are featured with relatively ductile bending failure, compared to the brittle tensile failure of the unreinforced ones. Besides, the compressive properties of the uppermost grain of the glulam can be fully utilized in the CFRP-reinforced beams. For the beams with a 0.040% strengthening ratio, the bending–resisting capacity and the maximum deflection can be enhanced approximately by 6.51 and 12.02%, respectively. The difference between the experimental results and the numerical results and that between the experimental results and analytical results are within 20 and 10%, respectively.
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An experimental and modeling study on apparent bending moduli of cross-laminated bamboo and timber (CLBT) in orthogonal strength directions

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2914
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Li, Hao
Wang, Brad
Wang, Libin
Wei, Yang
Organization
Nanjing Forestry University
Southwest Forestry University
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Bending Performance
Modeling Analysis
Cross-laminated Bamboo and Timber
Research Status
Complete
Series
Case Study in Construction Materials
Summary
In this paper, the bending properties of a 3-ply cross-laminated bamboo and timber (CLBT), prefabricated with the bamboo mat-curtain panel and hem-fir lumber, were examined in the major and minor strength directions, and a 3-ply hem-fir cross-laminated timber (CLT) was taken as a control group. The analytical model for the sum of the orthogonal apparent bending moduli with the two types of layer classifications were proposed, and the two kinds of contribution models were developed to analyze the apparent bending modulus variation behavior of the CLBT and CLT panels in the major and minor strength directions. The experimental results showed that since the CLBT group had more internal orthogonal structures, its difference in the bending properties between the major and minor strength directions was lower than that of the CLT group. Furthermore, the proposed contribution models quantitatively analyzed the relationship between the apparent bending moduli of the CLBT and CLT panels and the corresponding composition layer characteristics. The contribution model to characterize the apparent bending modulus in major and minor strength directions demonstrated good agreement with the test results. Based on this model interpreted by three-dimensional figures, the contribution variation characteristics in the major and minor strength directions were revealed.
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Behavior of timber-concrete composite with defects in adhesive connection

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3108
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Floors
Author
Buka-Vaivade, Karina
Serdjuks, Dmitrijs
Organization
Riga Technical University
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Floors
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Adhesive Connection
Rigid Connection
Conference
ICSI 2021 The 4th International Conference on Structural Integrity
Research Status
Complete
Series
Procedia Structural Integrity
Summary
Rigid timber to concrete connection is the most effective solution for timber-concrete composite members subjected to the flexure which provides full composite action and better structural behaviour. One of the most used technologies to produce glued connection of the timber-concrete composite is “dry” method, which includes gluing together of timber and precast concrete slab. This technique has high risk of forming a poor-quality rigid connection in timber-concrete composite, and there are difficulties in controlling the quality of the glued connection. The effect of the non-glued areas in connection between composite layers on the shear stresses and energy absorption were investigated by finite element method and laboratorian experiment. Three timber-concrete composite panels in combination with carbon fibre reinforced plastic composite tapes in the tension zone with the span 1.8 m were statically loaded till the failure by the scheme of three-point bending. Mid-span displacements were measured in the bending test. One specimen was produced by dry method, by gluing together cross-laminated timber panel and prefabricated concrete panel. Timber-concrete qualitative connection of the other two specimens was provided by the granite chips, which were glued on the surface of the cross-laminated timber by epoxy, and then wet concrete was placed. Dimensions of the crushed granite pieces changes within the limits from 16 to 25 mm. The investigated panel with different amount and sizes of non-glued areas in the timber to concrete connection was numerically modelled. Obtained results shown, that the increase of shear stresses is influenced not so much by a total amount of non-glued areas, but by the size of the individual defective areas. Moreover, large non-glued areas significantly reduce the energy absorption of elements subjected to the flexure, which was observed experimentally for defective panel produced by the classical dry method with almost 4 times larger mid-span displacements than for panel with full composite action provided by the proposed production technology of the timber to concrete rigid connection. So, the proposed technology based on the use of granite chips, provides a high-quality connection between timber and concrete layers, with insignificant ration between possible defect and total connection surface area, which is equal to the area of one granite chips edge.
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Brittle failure of laterally loaded self-tapping screw connections for cross-laminated timber structures

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3120
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Connections
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Azinovic, Boris
Cabrero, José Manuel
Danielsson, Henrik
Pazlar, Tomaž
Organization
Slovenian National Building and Civil Engineering Institute
University of Navarra
Lund University
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Connections
Keywords
Brittle Failure
Analytical Model
Overstrength
Research Status
Complete
Series
Engineering Structures
Summary
The performance of structural timber connections is of utmost importance since they control the global response of the building. A ductile failure mechanism on the global scale is desirable, especially in the design of structures in seismic areas, where dissipative components in which ductile failure modes need to be ensured are considered. Therefore, the knowledge of possible brittle failure modes of connections is crucial. The paper investigates the brittle failures of laterally loaded dowel-type connections in cross-laminated timber subjected to tensile load in a lap joint configuration through experimental investigations and analytical estimations. A set of 13 different test series has been performed with fully threaded self-tapping screws of 8 mm diameter and different lengths (40 to 100 mm) in cross-laminated timber composed of 3 or 5 layers (layer thickness range from 20 to 40 mm), giving rise to the activation of different brittle failure modes at different depths. Plug shear was among the most typically observed failure modes. A previously proposed model for the brittle capacity was applied to the tested connections at the characteristic level. As shown by the performed statistical analysis, the existing model is not reliable and mainly unconservative. A very low performance is observed (CCC = 0.299), but with a good correlation (c = 0.750) for the tests in the parallel direction. Further research work is required to improve the current model predictions and to gain a better understanding of the underlying resisting mechanisms.
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A Circular Approach for the Fire Safety Design in Mass Timber Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue3095
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Siri, Qvist
Organization
Delft University of Technology
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Mass Timber
Fire Safety Design
Circular Design
Fire Risk
Fire Resilience
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The building industry consumes a lot of material, which causes depletion of material stocks, toxic emissions, and waste. Circular building design can help to reduce this impact, by moving from a linear to a circular design approach. To reach a circular build environment, all disciplines should be involved, including fire safety design. However, there is a contradiction between the objectives of circular and fire safety design, either affecting the aim of protection of material sources, or protection against fire risk. Timber is a material that has high potential in contributing to a circular building industry, as it is renewable, recyclable and can store CO2. However, timber is combustible, which increases the risk of fire. Therefore, mass timber building design has traditionally been restricted by building regulations. To enhance mass timber building design research on timber buildings has increased, to allow understanding of the risks. However, yet general guidelines or understanding on the fire behaviour and risk in timber buildings is lacking. This is a problem for the fire safety design and the potentials of timber contributing to a circular building industry. Until now, there was no specific method available that quantifies this relation between material use and fire risk in mass timber buildings. This limits the possibility of fire safety design and mass timber design to contribute to a more circular building industry. By creating a method that allows comparison between the economic and environmental impact of material use and fire risk, a well-founded choice of building materials is easier to make. The design tool created in this research quantifies the impact on material use for fire safety measures relating to CLT, encapsulation and sprinkler availability and their effect on the fire risk in mass timber buildings. This way insight is provided between the balance of material use and fire risk. By the sum of the impact on material use and fire risk, the total “circular fire safety impact” value is calculated. This value represents the total economic and environmental impact of the design based on the choice of building materials. By changing the fire safety design, the most optimal design variant can be determined. This is the variant with the lowest total impact value. This way, a circular design approach is used to steer fire safety design in mass timber buildings towards a design solution that does not only provide sufficient safety for people, but also provides maximum economic and environmental safety from a material point of view.
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CLT Diaphragm Design for Wind and Seismic Resistance

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2967
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Author
Breneman, Scott
McDonnell, Eric
Tremayne, Donovan
Houston, Jonas
Gu, Mengzhe
Zimmerman, Reid
Montgomery, Graham
Organization
WoodWorks
Holmes
KPFF Consulting Engineers
Timberlab
Publisher
WoodWorks
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Topic
Seismic
Keywords
Diaphragm
Shear Capacity
Diaphragm Flexibility
Panel-to-Panel Connections
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) has become increasingly prominent in building construction and can be seen in buildings throughout the world. Specifically, the use of CLT floor and roof panels as a primary gravity force-resisting component has become relatively commonplace. Now, with availability of the 2021 Special Design Provisions for Wind and Seismic (SDPWS 2021) from the American Wood Council (AWC), U.S. designers have a standardized path to utilize CLT floor and roof panels as a structural diaphragm. Prior to publication of this document, projects typically had to receive approval to use CLT as a structural diaphragm on a case-by-case basis from the local Authority Having Jurisdiction (AHJ). This paper highlights important provisions of SDPWS 2021 for CLT diaphragm design and recommendations developed by the authors in the upcoming CLT Diaphragm Design Guide, based on SDPWS 2021.
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Comparative life cycle assessment of cross laminated timber building and concrete building with special focus on biogenic carbon

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2913
Year of Publication
2022
Topic
Environmental Impact
Energy Performance
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Andersen, Julie
Rasmussen, Nana
Ryberg, Morten
Organization
Technical University of Denmark
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2022
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Environmental Impact
Energy Performance
Keywords
Life-Cycle Assessment
Biogenic Carbon
Forest Transformation
Research Status
Complete
Series
Energy and Buildings
Summary
This study conducted a consequential Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) on two similar mid-rise apartment buildings applying either concrete or cross laminated timber (CLT) as the main structural material. The study further investigated inclusion of biogenic carbon and how this affects environmental impacts related to Global warming. Thus, two assessment scenarios were applied: A Base scenario, without accounting for biogenic carbon and a Biogenic carbon scenario that include a GWPbio factor to account for the use of biogenic carbon. The CLT building had the lowest impact score in 11 of 18 impact categories including Global warming. Operational energy use was the main contributor to the total impact with some variation across impact scores, but closely followed by impacts embodied in materials (incl. End-of-Life). An evaluation of the potential forest transformations required for fulfilling future projections for new building construction in 2060 showed that about 3% of current global forest area would be needed. This share was essentially independent of the selected building material as the main driver for forest transformation was found to be energy use during building operation. Thus, focus should primarily be on reducing deforestation related to energy generation rather than deforestation from production of building materials.
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2177 records – page 1 of 218.