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Encapsulated Mass Timber Construction Char Rate Analysis

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2387
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Walls

Flame Spread in Concealed Mass Timber Spaces

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2529
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Fire
Application
Walls
Floors
Author
Ranger, Lindsay
Dagenais, Christian
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2020
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Application
Walls
Floors
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Floor Voids
Fire Tests
Mid-Rise
Concealed Spaces
Fire Performance
Mass Timber
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The overall objective of this work is to expand options for designers of mass timber buildings by reducing the dependence on concrete and gypsum board though the demonstration of adequate fire performance of mass timber assemblies. This work is intended to demonstrate that mass timber surfaces can be left exposed in concealed spaces, under certain conditions, while still performing well to control flame spread; this could result in significant savings in construction. Flame spread testing will be completed to compare the performance of mass timber assemblies and concealed space designs that are currently allowed by the NFPA 13 to be exempt from the installation ofsprinklers. Data is needed to support the use of exposed mass timber in concealed spaces by demonstrating limited flame spread in concealed mass timber void spaces. Flame spread testing has already shown that mass timber has lower flame spread ratings than typically found with thinner wood panels. This will lead the way in allowing unsprinklered 305 mm (12 in.) deep concealed spaces beneath mass timber assemblies or exposed mass timber in other concealed spaces such as hollow wood floor beams. The goal is to generate data to support the use of exposed mass timber in concealed spaces. This data could be used in an Alternative Solution to gain approval for this type of design. Ultimately, this could lead to changing the NBCC to allow exposed mass timber in concealed spaces.
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Encapsulation of Mass Timber Floor Surfaces

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2528
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Design and Systems
Fire
Material
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors

Numerical Modelling of Water Mist Systems in Protection of Mass Timber Residential Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2681
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Rooms
Author
Elsagan, Nour
Ko, Yoon
Publisher
National Research Council Canada
Year of Publication
2020
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Rooms
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Sprinklers
Fire Suppression
Exposed Timber
Water Mist Systems
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
"This report presents the findings from a simulation parametric study to investigate the use of water mist systems for a residential compartment fire involving exposed mass timber structures. The fire and suppression models were first validated against experimental data obtained from the NRC fire tests that were conducted under the same project. Seventeen simulations were conducted using Fire Dynamic Simulator (FDS) software. The following parameters were investigated: effect of fuel arrangement and location on fire severity in exposed wood compartment, effect of different finishing on fire severity in compartment, fire and suppression in open space vs compartment, effectiveness of water mist systems in fire suppression in compartments with different finishing. The results show the effectiveness of the water mist system in suppressing the fire in exposed wood compartments where a high heat release is expected due to the high fuel load"--Executive summary, page iv.
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Water Mist Systems for Protection of Mass Timber Structures - Phase 2 Residential Fire Suppression Tests

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2682
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Fire
Moisture
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Rooms
Author
Ko, Yoon
Elsagan, Nour
Gibbs, Eric
Publisher
National Research Council Canada
Year of Publication
2020
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Rooms
Topic
Fire
Moisture
Keywords
Sprinklers
Water Mist Systems
Fire Suppression
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
"As an alternative option to conventional sprinkler system, water mist systems are considered for the protection of timber buildings because they use much less amounts of water compared to sprinkler systems. The effectiveness of high pressure water mist (HPWM) and low pressure water mist (LPWM) systems was investigated in comparison to sprinkler systems for a residential fire scenario involving mass timber structures. The most distinct characteristic of the HPWM and LPWM systems was fine water droplets generated from the nozzles, which demonstrated effective smoke cooling in the room. Although the water spray rate of the HPWM was four times lower than that of the sprinkler system, the water mist systems effectively control the fire and maintained the room tenable. Most systems (HPWM, LPWM and sprinklers) tested in this study did not prevent fire damage on the CLT walls, but the HPWM system with a wide spray angle demonstrated rapid fire suppression and protection of the CLT walls. In all tests, a large water pool formed on the floor, which appeared proportional to the total water spray discharge in each test, and the moisture contents measured on the surface and bottom edges of the CLT panels indicated that water can penetrate into the interface between the floor and the wall in a typical CLT assembly"--Executive summary, page 1.
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Solutions for Upper Mid-Rise and High-Rise Mass Timber Construction: Fire Resistance of Mass Timber Laminated Elements

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2088
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Fire
Application
Walls
Floors
Wood Building Systems
Author
Ranger, Lindsay
Dagenais, Christian
Bénichou, Noureddine
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2019
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Application
Walls
Floors
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Fire Resistance
Mid-Rise
High-Rise
Charring
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This project assesses the fire resistance of laminated timber structural systems as wall and floor assemblies. Full-scale tests were conducted to assess structural fire resistance and charring behaviour. This research could be used to expand current fire design provisions and support inclusion of these types of assemblies into Annex B of CSA O86.
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Solutions for Upper Mid-Rise and High-Rise Mass Timber Construction: Rehabilitation of Mass Timber Following Fire and Sprinkler Activation

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2089
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Fire
Moisture
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Ranger, Lindsay
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2019
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Moisture
Keywords
Mid-Rise
High-Rise
Damage
Repairs
Sprinklers
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The intent of this project is to research evaluation and rehabilitation methods that are applicable to mass timber structures following a fire. This includes addressing both fire damage and water damage from sprinkler activation and/or the use of firefighting hoses. This report provides an overview of the type of damage that might be expected following a fire and methods that might reduce potential damage (including design elements and firefighting tactics). Current and existing rehabilitation methods for wood construction will be reviewed and their applicability to mass timber structures will be discussed. This includes the ability to conduct condition assessments and repairs on building elements that can be done in place. The overall objective is to reduce uncertainty related to mass timber construction, which ultimately would allow for more accurate risk evaluation by insurance companies.
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Mass Timber in High-Rise Buildings: Modular Design and Construction

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2390
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Design and Systems
Fire
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Dorrah, Dalia
Publisher
Sidewalk Labs Toronto
Year of Publication
2019
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Fire
Keywords
Modularization
Fire Safety
Construction Risks
Case Study
Modular Construction
Challenges
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The costs of mass timber may be higher, but the added premium on their prices make them economically feasible. Beyond the economics, mass timber structures present a unique opportunity to develop and test the resiliency of the owner organization and its capacity to innovate. A collective effort to strengthen the supply chain in Ontario (especially the manufacturing stage) is one of the key tools to reduce costs. Having a dedicated fire consulting firm and the early engagement of regulatory bodies and consecrators are some of the key means to control risks in this domain. Earlier projects relied on covering/insulating mass timber sections to achieve the required fire requirements. Increasingly, charring is becoming an acceptable means for fire protection. Using Integrated Project Delivery system (IPD) and Building Information Modeling (BIM) can provide the contractual and technical platforms to boost coordination and promote collaborative design and construction.
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Encapsulated Mass Timber Construction: Guidelines for Encapsulation Details and Techniques

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2600
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Design and Systems
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Ranger, Lindsay
Geraghty, Simon
Jeske, Judy
Rahmani, Alma
Dorsey, Cheryl
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2019
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Guide
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Fire
Keywords
Encapsulated Mass Timber Construction
EMTC
Fire Protection
Construction Safety
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The purpose of this guide is to provide an introduction to the concept of encapsulated mass timber construction. This guide provides an overview of encapsulation techniques for mass timber construction, and other related fire protection measures, and summarizes some approved encapsulation materials and application methods and identifies additional requirements for safety during construction. This guide is intended to help architects, engineers and designers by reducing uncertainty and allowing for more confidence in design, as well as providing authorities having jurisdiction and inspectors with a reference for simple design review.
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Free
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Solutions for Upper Mid-Rise and High-Rise Mass Timber Construction: Infrared Imaging for Fire Risks

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2090
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Fire
Site Construction Management
Application
Wood Building Systems

Solutions for Upper Mid-Rise and High-Rise Mass Timber Construction: Fire Performance of Cross-Laminated Timber with Adhesives Conforming to 2018 edition of ANSI/APA PRG-320

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2091
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Dagenais, Christian
Ranger, Lindsay
Bénichou, Noureddine
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2019
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Mid-Rise
High-Rise
Adhesives
Temperature
Charring Rate
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The objective of this research is to evaluate CLT face-bonded with adhesives that meet the new 2018 ANSI/APA PRG 320 with respect to elevated temperature requirements and their effects on the resulting charring rates when exposed to the standard time-temperature curve of CAN/ULC S101 (similar exposure to ASTM E119)...
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Risk Analysis and Alternative Solution for Three- and Four-Storey Schools of Mass Timber and/or Wood-Frame Construction

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2374
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Design and Systems
Market and Adoption
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Other Materials
Application
Wood Building Systems
Organization
GHL Consultants Ltd.
Year of Publication
2019
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Other Materials
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Market and Adoption
Fire
Keywords
Building Code
Education
School Buildings
Multi-Storey
Fire Test
Fire Safety
Technical Risk
Process Risk
Mass Timber
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This report explores the building code related considerations of wood construction for school buildings that are up to four storeys in height. Though wood construction offers a viable structural material option for these buildings, the British Columbia Building Code (BCBC 2018) currently limits schools comprised of wood construction to a maximum of two storeys. Three- and four-storey schools and larger floor areas in wood construction require an Alternative Solution. The report identifies key fire safety features offered by combustible construction materials including tested and currently widely available engineered mass timber products, such as glued-laminated timber and cross-laminated timber. A risk analysis identifies the risk areas defined by the objectives of the British Columbia Building Code (BCBC 2018) and evaluates the level of performance of the Building Code solutions for assembly occupancies vis-à-vis the level of performance offered by the proposed schools up to four storeys in building height. As land values continue to rise, particularly in higher-density urban environments, schools with smaller footprints will become increasingly more necessary to satisfy enrollment demands. There are currently a number of planned new school projects throughout British Columbia that anticipate requiring either three-or four-storey buildings, and it is forecasted that the demand for school buildings of this size will continue to rise. This report is closely related to the study Design Options for Three-and Four-Storey Wood School Buildings in British Columbia, which illustrates the range of possible timber construction approaches for school buildings that are up to four storeys in height.
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Mass Timber Buildings and the IBC

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2614
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Organization
American Wood Council
International Code Council
Publisher
ICC
Year of Publication
2020
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Building Code
Mass Timber
Structural
Fire Protection
Construction
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
ISBN
978-1-952468-02-5
Summary
Developed by ICC and American Wood Council, this first edition provides an overview of requirements for mass timber construction as found in the 2021 International Building Code® (IBC®). The document reviews the 2015 IBC’s recognition of cross-laminated timber (CLT), the reorganization of heavy timber provisions in the 2018 IBC, followed by the historic changes in the 2021 IBC and International Fire Code® (IFC®) for tall mass timber construction. The 2021 IBC and IFC include important changes in material technologies and their expanded use as proposed by the ICC Ad Hoc Committee on Tall Wood Buildings. Three new types of construction (Types IV-A, IV-B and IV-C) defined and included in the 2021 codes allow the use of mass timber for buildings of taller heights, more stories above grade, and greater allowable areas compared to existing provisions for heavy timber buildings. Features: More than 100 full-color photos, illustrations and tables enhance comprehension and help users visualize requirements Content accurately reflects mass timber provisions in the 2015, 2018 and 2021 IBC, and 2021 IFC “Change Significance” topics reinforce the content and offer helpful background regarding code provisions Results are provided for five fire tests in a fully furnished structure constructed to simulate Types IV-A, IV-B and IV-C Detailed examples facilitate comprehension of code application and methods of determining code compliance Application of energy, sound transmission, structural loads, and other code provisions to mass timber construction 50 practice questions to help users prepare for ICC certification exams This is an incredibly valuable and time-saving reference for architects, engineers, building/fire officials and inspectors.
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Compartment Fire Testing of a Two-Story Mass Timber Building

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1825
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Fire
Application
Wood Building Systems

Fire Testing of Rooms with Exposed Wood Surfaces in Encapsulated Mass Timber Construction

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1867
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Su, Joseph
Leroux, Patrice
Lafrance, Pier-Simon
Berzins, Robert
Gibbs, Eric
Weinfurter, Mark
Organization
National Research Council of Canada
Publisher
National Research Council Canada. Construction
Year of Publication
2018
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Encapsulated
Mass Timber
Fire Tests
Fire Performance
Char Layer
Fire Regrowth
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Client Report (National Research Council Canada. Construction)
Online Access
Free
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Identifying Mass Timber Research Priorities, Barriers to Adoption and Engineering, Procurement and Construction Challenges In Canada

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2372
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Market and Adoption
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Syed, Taha
Publisher
University of Toronto
Year of Publication
2020
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Thesis
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Mass Timber
Barriers
Research Priorities
Challenges
Construction
Engineering
Procurement
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Mass timber construction in Canada is in the spotlight and emerging as a sustainable building system that offers an opportunity to optimize the value of every tree harvested and to revitalize a declining forest industry, while providing climate mitigation solutions. Little research has been conducted, however, to identify the mass timber research priorities of end users, barriers to adoption and engineering, procurement and construction challenges in Canada. This study helps bridge these gaps. The study also created an interactive, three-dimensional GIS map displaying mass timber projects across North America, as an attempt to offer a helpful tool to practitioners, researchers and students, and fill a gap in existing knowledge sharing. The study findings, based on a web-based survey of mass timber end users, suggest the need for more research on (a) total project cost comparisons with concrete and steel, (b) hybrid systems and (c) mass timber building construction methods and guidelines. The most important barriers for successful adoption are (a) misconceptions about mass timber with respect to fire and building longevity, (b) high and uncertain insurance premiums, (c) higher cost of mass timber products compared to concrete and steel, and (d) resistance to changing from concrete and steel. In terms of challenges: (a) building code compliance and regulations, (b) design permits and approvals, and (c) insufficient design experts in the market are rated by study participants as the most pressing “engineering” challenge. The top procurement challenges are (a) too few manufactures and suppliers, (b) long distance transportation, and (c) supply and demand gaps. The most important construction challenges are (a) inadequate skilled workforce, (b) inadequate specialized subcontractors, and (c) excessive moisture exposure during construction.
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Review and Discussion of North American Building Codes and Fire Performance Design Criteria for Mass Timber with Focus on CLT

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1878
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems

Research Needs Assessment for the Mass Timber Industry: Proceedings of the 2nd North American Mass Timber Research Needs Workshop

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2164
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
General Information
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Shear Walls
Walls
Wood Building Systems
Floors
Columns
Bridges and Spans

Heat Transfer Through Mass Timber Connections

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1769
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Connections
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Lawton, Andrea
Emberley, Richard
Torero, José
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Connections
Fire
Keywords
Heat Transfer
Boundary Conditions
Finite Element Model
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 5284-5293
Summary
The advance in mass timber products has allowed buildings to be revolutionised. Medium rise buildings can utilise these panels as the main structural components achieving suitable strength and rigidity. Structural connections often pose the weakest element in timber construction...
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Delamination Occurrence in Engineered Mass Timber Products at Elevated Temperatures

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1770
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Emberley, Richard
Yu, Zeyu
Fernando, Dilum
Torero, José
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Thermal Penetration Depths
Heat Flux
Shear Tests
Temperature
Delamination
Failure Modes
Charring
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 5294-5301
Summary
An experimental study was conducted to elucidate the effects of thermal penetration on delamination and the potential changes in failure mode of CLT. The first test series studied thermal penetration depths at various heat fluxes. The second test series consisted of single lap shear tests at homogeneous elevated temperatures followed by a...
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37 records – page 1 of 2.