Cross-laminated timber (CLT) has recently emerged as a new wood product that utilizes a large quantity of domestic lumber. This study aims to analyze the effects of width and lay-ups on the tensile strength of CLT. To this end, the elastic modulus of sugi CLT with different lay-ups was measured by dynamic and static methods. Moreover, tensile tests were conducted for different widths and lay-ups of CLT. Results indicate that the apparent bending Young’s modulus, as calculated using the dynamic method, is directly proportional to the measured Young’s modulus in static method for each lay-up. Furthermore, there was no significant effect of width on the tensile strength in the range of 150, 300, and 600 mm. However, the variations in lay-ups affected the tensile strength as follows: CLT with larger ratio of the major strength direction lamina along the cross-section and with higher grade of lamina in the major strength direction showed higher tensile strength. The estimated tensile strength of CLT, as calculated using the Young’s modulus of the lamina of each layer, and the tensile strength of lamina as simple substance was found to be in good agreement with the measured tensile strength of CLT.
For a cross-laminated timber (CLT) manufactured using Sugi, a digging test was performed by changing the number of layers, the laminar configuration, the direction of the outer layer laminar with respect to the direction of the pressure plate, and the arrangement of the test piece with respect to the load direction, and each combination was performed. In addition to clarifying the sunk strength performance of CLT, a method for easily evaluating the sunk strength performance was examined. As a result of the sinking test, it was found that the parameters that determine the sinking strength performance are the direction of the outer layer laminar and the arrangement of the test piece, and the number of layers and the laminar configuration do not contribute much to the sinking strength performance. When the proportional limit stress of CLT was estimated using the proportional limit stress of each laminar, the estimated value and the measured value were in relatively good agreement.
As timber tends to be weak against the load perpendicular to grains, it can be important to study the consequences of applying loads perpendicular to larch cross-laminated (CLT) composed of multiple larch laminae. Compressions tests were conducted perpendicular to the in-plane and out-of-plane grains of Japanese larch CLT. Out-of-pane average compressive strenth, average yield strength, and average compressive stiffness perpendicular to the grain of the larch CLT were 11.94 N.mm2, 7.30 N/mm2, and 7.30 N/mm2, respectively, whereas the in-plane average compressive strength, average yield strength, and average compressive stiffness perpendicular to the grain of the CLT larch were 21.48 N/mm2, 21.18 N/mm2, and 18.72 N/mm2, respectively. The in-plane compressive strength and yield strength showed a statistically significant relationship with the density fo the CLT, the modulus of elasticity measured by longitudinal vibration (MOElv), and the average MOElv of the laminae constructing the cross-laminated timber. The in-plane yield strength was affected by the MOWlv of the outer laminae and the average MOElv of the larch cross-laminated timber. The compressive strength properties were most affected by the loading surface of the CLT. The variation between the moisture content and compressive strength properties of the CLT, however, was not statistically significant.
The present paper evaluate slaminatedcarbonbi-wove fibers Reinforced with vinyl ester composites. Vinyl ester was used as a matrix to prepare composites by in situ polymerization technique. Four planar layers were made simultaneously by keeping one over the other and each layer made sure to be weighed off by 15% which was maintained in all layers with different orientations. Pre-assumed Layer-1 is (50/50)50%,0º; Layer-2 is (35/35/30) 35% 0º, 35% +45º,30%,0;Layer-3is (25/50/25) 25% 0º, 50%+45º,25-45º; and Layer-4is (25/25/25/25) (25% 0º, 25% +45º,25% -45º,25% 90º.The composite was prepared with the help of hand layup technique. Test ready specimens were tested with the help of shearing machine in accordance with ASTM Standards .It was observed that vinyl ester made good interface with parent fiber material. Flexural strength and Tensile strength have improved up to 3rd layer and decreased afterwards whereas Flexural modulus and Tensile modulus have linearly increased up to 4th layer. Thermal stability and Glass transition temperature have also been found to be satisfactory for all the laminated layers. Chemical resistance was good for the entire chemicals except sodium hydroxide.
This paper presents a study on evaluating rolling shear (RS) strength properties of cross laminated timber (CLT) using torsional shear tests and bending tests. The CLT plates were manufactured with Spruce-Pine-Fir boards and glued with polyurethane adhesive. Two types of layups (3-layer and 5-layer) and two clamping pressures (0.1 MPa and 0.4 MPa) were studied. For the torsional shear tests, small shear block specimens were sampled from the CLT plates and the cross layers were processed to have an annular cross section. Strip specimens were simply sampled from the CLT plates for the bending tests. Based on the failure loads, RS strength properties were evaluated by torsional shear formula, composite beam formulae as well as detailed finite element models, respectively. It was found that the two different test methods yielded different average RS strength value for the same type of CLT specimens. The test results showed that the CLT specimens pressed with the higher clamping pressure had slightly higher average RS strength. The specimens with thinner cross layers also had higher RS strength than the specimens with thicker cross layers.
A cross-laminated timber (CLT) wall plays the role of resisting shear stress induced by lateral forces as well as vertical load. Due to the press size, CLT panels have a limitation in size. To minimize the initial investment, some glulam manufactures wanted to make a shear wall element with small-size CLT panels and panel-to-panel connections and wanted to know whether the shear wall would have equivalent shear performance with the wall made of a single CLT panel. In this study, this was investigated by experiments and kinematic model analysis. Two shear walls made of small CLT panels were tested. The model showed a good agreement with test results in the envelope curve. Even though the shear walls were made of small panels, the global peak load did not decrease significantly compared with the wall made of a single CLT panel, but the global displacement showed a large increase. From this analysis, it was concluded that the shear wall can be designed with small CLT panels, but displacement should be designed carefully.
This paper presents an experimental study on rolling shear (RS) strength properties of non-edge-glued cross-laminated timber (CLT) made out of New Zealand Radiata pine (Pinus radiata) structural timber. CLT specimens with 35 and 20 mm thick laminations were studied to evaluate the influence of lamination thickness on the RS strength of CLT. Short-span three-point bending tests were used to introduce high RS stresses in cross layers of CLT specimens and facilitate the RS failure mechanism. Modified planar shear tests from the conventional two-plate planar shear tests were also used to evaluate the RS strength properties. It was found that two test methods yielded comparable RS strength properties and the lamination thickness significantly affected RS strength of the CLT specimens. The test results also indicated that the recommended characteristic RS strength values of CLT products in Europe and Canada might be over conservative. Also, it might be more efficient to specify different RS strength values for CLT with different lamination thickness given the minimum width-to-depth ratio of laminations is satisfied.
Dowel-laminated timber (DLT) elements consist of lamellae arranged side-by-side that are connected with beech dowels. Due to the glue-free DLT element layup, joints and shear walls potentially suffer from considerable reduction of stiffness and load carrying capacity as metal fasteners inserted perpendicular to the element plane may be...
The rolling shear modulus is very low, leading to rolling shear failure in the cross layer of cross-laminated timber (CLT). The overall objective of this thesis work was to develop an appropriate methodology for measuring the rolling shear properties of CL T. This research consists of three article format chapters, which were aimed at: 1) obtaining a better understanding of advantages and disadvantages of using the bending test and twoplate shear test for determining the rolling shear properties of 3-layer CLT, 2) investigating the influence of growth ring orientation and laminates thickness of cross layer on the rolling shear properties, and 3) verifying the feasibility of two-plate shear test method for measuring the rolling shear properties of 3-layer CL T beam. It is recommended that the two-plate shear test be used as a testing method for measuring the rolling shear modulus of a cross layer, which can be used to calculate the deflection of a 3-layer CLT beam using the shear analogy method at a given span-to-depth ratio ranging from 6 to 50. An adjustment factor (a) was proposed to predict the deflection under the centre-point bending test at various span-to-depth ratios. The two-plate shear test method can also be used to measure the rolling shear strength, and can provide a reasonable estimate of the load-carrying capacity of 3-layer CLT beam at a relatively large span-to-depth ratio, but a conservative estimate at a small span-to-depth ratio. In summary, it shall be feasible to adopt the two-plate shear test for determining the rolling shear modulus and strength of cross layer in CLT.