In this study, flexuralbehaviors of glue laminated timber beams manufactured from Pinussylvestristree were investigated by comparing the results with those of massive timber beams. The main variables considered in the study were number of laminations, types of adhesive materials and reinforcement nets used in the lamination surfaces. In scope of the experimental study, glue laminated beams with 5 and 3 lamination layers were manufactured with 90 x 90 mm beam sections. In the lamination process epoxy and polyurethane glue were used. Morever, in order to improve the bond strength at the lamination surface, aluminium, fiberglass and steel wire nets were used at the lamination surfaces. Load–displacement responses, ultimate capacities, ductility ratios, initial stiffness, energy dissipation capacities and failure mechanisms of glue laminated beams were compared with those of massive beams. It was observed that the general bending responses of glue laminated beams were better than those of massive beams. In addition to that the use of reinforcement nets at the lamination surfaces increased the ultimate load capacities of the tested beams. The highest ultimate load capacities were oberved from the tests of glue laminated beams manufactured using five laminated layers and retrofitted with polyurethane glue using steel wire reinforcement nets, in the direction normal to the lamination surface. Finally, the finite element simulations of some test specimens were performed to observe the accuracy of finite element technology in the estimation of ultimate capacities of glue laminated timber beams.
This report presents bending tests performed on composite beams made from glulam beams and cross laminated timber (CLT) panels. The composite beam, with a T-cross section, represents a section of a floor element in a multi-storey CLT construction system. The shear connections used were made either of doublesided punched metal plate fasteners, either of inclined screws, or of a combination of both fastener types. The screws are used to secure the shear connection with double-sided nail plates with respect to possible separation forces between the glulam and the CLT. An additional test with a screw glued connection was made for comparison as the upper bound case in terms of composite action. The results show the beams with double-sided nail plates (with or without screws) achieved a very high level of composite action and an overall satisfactory behaviour. Almost full composite action was achieved for the screw-glued composite beam. A detailed design example of the beam element according to the Eurocode 5 and Finnish National Annex is presented.
The mechanical behaviour of timber-to-timber connections with internal panels of densified veneer wood (DVW) and fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) dowels was experimentally assessed and a design method, based on EN 1995-1-1, was developed. Embedment tests on DVW plates and bending/shear tests on FRP dowels were performed to characterise these components, followed by full-scale tests of connections assembled with these materials. The results show that these connections exhibit a mechanical behaviour compatible with structural applications, regarding both load-carrying capacity and ductility. The proposed design model is based on EN 1995-1-1’s expressions for connections with dowel-type fasteners and gives good predictions of the experimental load-carrying capacities.
The existing models for the prediction of the splitting failure of dowel-type connections loaded perpendicular to grain are determined generally based on crack growth of the entire member cross-section. These models can be appropriate for stocky or rigid fasteners installed through the full thickness of the wood member. However, for slender dowel-type fasteners such as timber rivets, particularly when the penetration depth of the fastener does not cover the whole member thickness, the crack formation is different. Observations from current tests in thick members show that the crack growth across the grain occurs to a depth corresponding to the effective embedment depth of the fastener and propagates along the grain until it reaches its unstable condition. The design method presented in this paper to predict the connection splitting capacity takes into account the observed two possible failure modes of wood: either partial or full width splitting. In the proposed method, the effect of geometry parameters such as connection width and length, fastener penetration depth, loaded and unloaded edge distances, end distance, and member thickness as observed by others are considered. Results of the tests undertaken with laminated veneer lumber (LVL) and glulam manufactured from New Zealand Radiata Pine (RP) and data available from literature confirm the validity of this new method and show that the proposed design approach can be used advantageously in comparison to other existing models for timber rivet connections under transverse loading.
In existing wood strength prediction models for parallel to grain failure in timber connections using dowel-type fasteners, different methods consider the minimum, maximum, or summation of the tensile and shear capacities of the failed wood block planes. It is postulated that these methods are not appropriate since the stiffness of the adjacent wood loading the tensile and shear planes differs, and this leads to uneven load distribution among the resisting planes. A closed-form analytical method to determine the load-carrying capacity of wood under parallel-to-grain loading in small-dowel-type connections in timber products is thus proposed. For the wood strength, the stiffness of the adjacent loading volumes and strength of the failure planes subjected to nonuniform shear and tension stresses are considered. The effective wood thickness for the brittle failure mode is derived and related to the elastic deformation of the fastener. A mixed failure mode is also defined (a mixture of brittle and ductile) and depends on the governing ductile failure mode of the fastener. To help the designer, an algorithm is presented that allows the designer to calculate the resistances associated with predictions of the different possible brittle, ductile, and mixed failure modes. The proposed stiffness-based model has already been verified in brittle and mixed failure modes of timber rivet connections. In the research reported in this paper, an extended application is proposed for other small-dowel-type fasteners such as nails and screws. Results of nailed joint tests on laminated veneer lumber (LVL) and the test data available from the literature on glulam confirm the validity of this new method, and show that it can be used as a design provision for wood load-carrying capacity prediction of small-dowel-type timber connections.
This paper examines the embedment behaviour of single-dowel connections in Scandinavian Spruce Glulam by means of experimental and numerical investigations. First, the experimental results of a series of single-dowel tests on samples of different geometry and grain directions are presented. The evolution of local strain concentrations around the fastener at increasing levels of bearing deformation, is reported in detail by means of non-contact field strain measurements and its implications are discussed. Detailed finite element simulations are also carried out and subsequently employed to highlight the main features of the response of doweled connections in glulam. A foundation model, initially developed for Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) timber, is upgraded and adapted for Scandinavian Spruce Glulam (Picea abies) elements subjected to loads acting perpendicular and parallel to the grain direction. The proposed model is based on the definition of equivalent material parameters for the crushing region around the dowel hole. To this end, relationships for the estimation of material characteristics as a function of the crushing volume are suggested. The validity and accuracy of the proposed modified foundation models are examined against the experimental results. It is shown the improved foundation model is able to simulate the embedment stiffness, capacity and inelastic behaviour of single-dowel connections on glulam with reasonable accuracy for strains of up to 8 %, and can therefore be used for design and assessment purposes.