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Performance Based Design and Force Modification Factors for CLT Structures

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue928
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Seismic
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Walls
Author
Pei, Shiling
Popovski, Marjan
van de Lindt, John
Year of Publication
2012
Country of Publication
Sweden
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Walls
Topic
Seismic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Quasi-Static Tests
R-factors
Performance-Based Seismic Design
US
Canada
Language
English
Conference
CIB-W18 Meeting
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 27-30, 2012, Växjö, Sweden p.293-304
Summary
In this paper, a performance-based seismic design (PBSD) of a CLT building was conducted and the seismic response of the CLT building was compared to that of a wood-frame structure tested during the NEESWood project. The results from the quasi-static tests on CLT walls performed at FPInnovations were used as input information for modelling of the CLT walls, the main lateral load resisting elements of the structure. Once the satisfactory design of the CLT mid-rise structure was established through PBSD, a force-based design was developed with varying R-factors and that design was compared to the PBSD result. In this way, suitable R-factors were calibrated so that they can yield equivalent seismic performance of the CLT building when designed using the traditional force-based design methods. Based on the results of this study it is recommended that a value of Rd=2.5 and Ro=1.5 can be assigned for structures with symmetrical floor plans in the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC). In the US an R=4.3 can be used for symmetrical CLT structures designed according to ASCE 7. These values can be assigned provided that the design values for CLT walls considered (and implemented in the material design standards) are similar to the values determined in this study using the kinematics model developed that includes the influence of the hold-downs in the CLT wall resistance. Design of the CLT building with those R-factors using the equivalent static procedures in the US and Canada will result in the CLT building having similar seismic performance to that of the tested wood-frame NEESWood building, which had only minor non-structural damage during a rare earthquake event.
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Technical Guide for Evaluation of Seismic Force Resisting Systems and Their Force Modification Factors for Use in the National Building Code of Canada with Concepts Illustrated Using a Cantilevered Wood CLT Shear Wall Example

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2804
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Author
DeVall, Ron
Popovski, Marjan
McFadden, Jasmine
Organization
National Research Council Canada, Canadian Construction Materials Centre
Publisher
National Research Council Canada
Year of Publication
2021
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Topic
Seismic
Keywords
Seismic Force Resisting System
Force Modification Factor
Ductility Factor
Overstrength
Non-linear Dynamic Analysis
National Building Code of Canada
Alternative Design Solution
Shear Walls
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
ISBN
978-0-660-39263-9
Summary
The objective of this guideline is to provide a simple, systematic, and sufficient procedure for evaluating the performance of Seismic Force Resisting Systems (SFRSs) and to determine the appropriate ductilityrelated (Rd) and over-strength related (Ro) force modification factors for implementation in the National Building Code of Canada (NBC). The procedure relies on the application of non-linear dynamic analysis for quantification of the seismic performance of the SFRS. Note that the procedure is also suitable for assessing force modification factors (RdRo values) of systems already implemented in the NBC. The audience for this guideline are those (called the “project study team” in this document) who submit proposals for new SFRSs with defined RdRo values to the NBC for inclusion in Subsection 4.1.8., Earthquake Loads and Effects, of Division B of the NBC. This guideline can also be used by a team performing an alternative design solution for a specific project and seeking acceptance from authority having jurisdiction. In such cases, not all aspects of this guideline (e.g., having different archetypes) will be needed.
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Free
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Ductility Based Force Reduction Factors for Symmetrical Cross-Laminated Timber Structures

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue446
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Walls
Author
Popovski, Marjan
Pei, Shiling
van de Lindt, John
Karacabeyli, Erol
Organization
European Association of Earthquake Engineering
Year of Publication
2014
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Walls
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Seismic
Keywords
Force Modification Factors
Ductility
National Building Code of Canada
Fasteners
Seismic Performance
Language
English
Conference
Second European Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Seismology
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 25-29, 2014, Istanbul, Turkey
Summary
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) as a structural system has not been fully introduced in European or North American building codes. One of the most important issues for designers of CLT structures in earthquake prone regions when equivalent static design procedure is used, are the values for the force modification factors (R-factors) for this structural system. Consequently, the objective of this study was to derive suitable ductility-based force modification factors (Rd-factors) for seismic design of CLT buildings for the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC). For that purpose, the six-storey NEESWood Capstone wood-frame building was redesigned as a CLT structure and was used as a reference symmetrical structure for the analyses. The same floor plan was used to develop models for ten and fifteen storey buildings. Non-linear analytical models of the buildings designed with different Rd-factors were developed using the SAPWood computer program. CLT walls were modelled using the output from mechanics models developed in Matlab that were verified against CLT wall tests conducted at FPInnovations. Two design methodologies for determining the CLT wall design resistance (to include and exclude the influence of the hold-downs), were used. To study the effects of fastener behaviour on the R-factors, three different fasteners (16d nails, 4x70mm and 5x90mm screws) used to connect the CLT walls, were used in the analyses. Each of the 3-D building models was subjected to a series of 22 bi-axial input earthquake motions suggested in the FEMA P-695 procedure. Based on the results, the fragility curves were developed for the analysed buildings. Results showed that an Rd-factor of 2.0 is appropriate conservative estimate for the symmetrical CLT buildings studied, for the chosen level of seismic performance.
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Structural Design Process for Estimating Cross-Laminated Timber Use Factors for Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2170
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Design and Systems
Cost
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems

Seismic Base Shear Modification Factors for Timber-Steel Hybrid Structure: Collapse Risk Assessment Approach

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1241
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Seismic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Author
Bezabeh, Matiyas
Tesfamariam, Solomon
Popovski, Marjan
Goda, Katsuichiro
Stiemer, Siegfried
Publisher
American Society of Civil Engineers
Year of Publication
2017
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Seismic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Canada
Timber-Steel Hybrid
Overstrength
Force Modification Factors
Collapse Risk Assessment Approach
Adjusted Collapse Margin Ratios
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Journal of Structural Engineering
Summary
In this paper, to supplement the Canadian building code for a timber-steel hybrid structure, over-strength, and ductility-related force modification factors are developed and validated using a collapse risk assessment approach. The hybrid structure incorporates cross-laminated timber (CLT) infill walls within steel moment resisting frames. Following the FEMA P695 procedure, archetype buildings of 3-story, 6-story, and 9-story height with middle bay infilled with CLT were developed. Subsequently, a nonlinear static pushover analysis was performed to quantify the actual over-strength factors of the hybrid archetype buildings. To check the FEMA P695 acceptable collapse probabilities and adjusted collapse margin ratios (ACMRs), incremental dynamic analysis was carried out using 60 ground motion records that were selected to regional seismic hazard characteristics in southwestern British Columbia, Canada. Considering the total system uncertainty, comparison of the calculated ACMRs with the FEMA P695 requirement indicates the acceptability of the proposed over-strength and ductility factors
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Free
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Seismic Base Shear Modification Factors for Timber-Steel Hybrid Structure: Steel Moment Resisting Frames with CLT Infill Walls

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1723
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Seismic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Author
Bezabeh, Matiyas
Tesfamariam, Solomon
Popovski, Marjan
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Seismic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Timber-Steel Hybrid
Overstrength
Ductility
Force Modification Factors
Nonlinear Pushover Analysis
Adjusted Collapse Margin Ratios
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 4647-4654
Summary
In this paper, over-strength and ductility-related force modification factors are developed and validated using a collapse risk assessment approach for a timber-steel hybrid structure. The hybrid structure incorporates Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) infill walls within steel moment resisting frames. Following the FEMA P695 procedure...
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Free
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Critical Factors in the Willingness to Adopt Innovative Wood-Based Building Materials in the Construction Industry: The Case of CLT

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1436
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Laguarda Mallo, Maria Fernanda
Organization
University of Minnesota
Year of Publication
2017
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
US
North American Market
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT), has increased the possibilities of building with wood. CLT consists of multi-layer panels, manufactured with lumber boards that are glued together, alternating the direction of their fibers for each layer. The successful introduction of CLT into the Canadian market indicates that there is potential for further market penetration in North America, and more specifically the United States. To increase the understanding of the market potential for CLT in the U.S., this dissertation aimed at identifying the critical factors influencing the willingness of U.S. construction professionals to adopt innovative wood-based construction materials, such as CLT. The overall objective was achieved by: (a) investigating the level of awareness, perceptions, and willingness to adopt CLT among structural engineers and construction firms; (b) developing a conceptual model including the most critical factors that influence the adoption of innovate wood-based construction materials among structural engineers and construction firms; and (c) identifying distinct market segments for CLT adoption in the U.S. The outcomes from this research help fill the gap in the knowledge about the market adoption process for innovative wood-based materials in the construction industry. This study also contributes to advance the development of the CLT industry in the U.S. by increasing the demand of wood-based construction materials and supporting the creation of employment in a sector of critical importance to the U.S. economy. Findings from this thesis provide useful information that will help these actors accelerate the adoption of CLT through well-designed educational programs, demonstration projects, marketing strategies, and policy incentives.
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Free
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Tall, Cross-Laminated and Massive Timber Buildings: A United States Perspective

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2729
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
D'Errico, Hannah
Publisher
Mississippi State University
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Tall Timber Buildings
Mass Timber
Barriers
Tall Wood
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This research was conducted to discover how the U.S. building construction and forest products sectors could benefit from the development of tall, cross-laminated (CLT) and mass timber buildings. Barriers that may restrict such development were also investigated. The primary benefits were discovered to be eco-performance and job creation. Code restrictions and material performance misconceptions were found to be the largest obstacles. Case studies of Treet, Tamedia, and the WIDC were conducted to demonstrate the benefits of tall wood buildings and the various paths around potential barriers. Opportunities for tall wood buildings in the U.S. are also discussed. This research discovered that a tall wood movement is gathering momentum in the U.S. To fully realize this potential, accurate information regarding the use of wood and the performance capacities of mass timber systems needs to be disseminated. Co-operation between academia and industry will also be necessary.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Development of Seismic Performance Factors for Cross Laminated Timber: Phase 2

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue803
Topic
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
van de Lindt, John
Rammer, Douglas
Pei, Shiling
Organization
Forest Products Laboratory
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Seismic
Keywords
Seismic Performance Factors
US
Research Status
In Progress
Summary
A collaborative project between the Forest Products Laboratory and Colorado State University to develop seismic performance factors for cross laminated timber is underway. The project requires application of the FEMA P-695 methodology, which is purposely robust and detailed and requires that the project team follow specific procedures. Failure to develop these seismic performance factors would severely limit the acceptance of the CLT building systems in the United States, underscoring the need for application of the FEMA P-695. The FEMA P-695 document, “Quantification of Building Seismic Performance Factors,” was published in 2009 and defines a number of steps, all of which will be taken to develop the seismic performance factors for seismic design of CLT buildings. The objectives of this research are (1) to develop seismic performance factors for CLT subject to a peer review panel process that includes an independent peer review committee report and (2) to have the resulting seismic performance factors recognized in ASCE 7 Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures.
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Reconciling Sustainable and Resilient Design in Cities: Cross Laminated Timber and the Future of Japanese Wooden Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue156
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Design and Systems
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Klouse Fuentes, Amy
Organization
Indiana University
Year of Publication
2015
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Design and Systems
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Sustainability
Japan
Resilient Building Design
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Using the subject of material culture as a lens through which Japanese urban architectural history and political debates are brought into sharper relief, this thesis argues that manufactured engineered wood products like cross laminated timber (CLT) are a part of the larger ongoing discussion on how to solve urban problems and offer the ability to connect sustainable and resilient building design agendas in cities. In addition, if CLT and other wood-based materials are domestically grown and responsibly manufactured on a larger scale than exists presently in Japan, industrial productivity of wood from local forests will recover after long periods of stagnant development, a move heavily invested by the present Prime Minister Shinzo Abe and his administration.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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10 records – page 1 of 1.