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10 records – page 1 of 1.

Performance of Preservative-Treated Glulam After Six Years in an Accelerated Above-Ground Field Test

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue360
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Serviceability
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Author
Ingram, Janet
Morris, Paul
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2015
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Serviceability
Keywords
Decay
Preservative
Treated Wood
ACQ
CCA
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Glulam manufactured from laminating stock of three species pre-treated with ACQ-D or CA was exposed outdoors in an above-ground field test using a modified post and rail test design. After six years’ exposure, early to moderate decay was found in untreated test units, while those which were preservative-treated were completely sound.
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Field Tests of Treated Thin-Lamina Glulam after Five Years of Exposure

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue370
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Serviceability
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Author
Morris, Paul
Ingram, Janet
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2015
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Topic
Serviceability
Keywords
Cedar
Decay
Preservative
ACQ
Copper Azole
Fasteners
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Field tests of untreated and preservative-treated glulam beams in outdoor exposure, in ground contact and above ground, were inspected for decay after five years. Copper azole and ACQ-D-treated material was in excellent condition, while moderate to severe decay was present in untreated non-durable material. Early stages of decay were also noted in yellow cedar glulam in the above-ground test. Using galvanized rather than stainless steel fasteners appeared to have a protective effect against decay in untreated material, supporting the hypothesis that zinc from the sacrificial coating on galvanized bolts inhibits germination of basidiospores.
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Evaluation of the Block Shear Resistance of Glulam Manufactured from Borate-Treated Lamina Wthout Planing After Treatment

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue367
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Bridges and Spans
Author
Stirling, Rod
Feng, Martin
Morris, Paul
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2015
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Bridges and Spans
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Preservative
Borate
Canada
Shear Resistance
Polyurethane
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Effective preservative treatments for Canadian glulam products are needed to maintain markets for mass timber on building facades, access markets with significant termite hazards, and expand markets for wood bridges. For all three applications, borate-treatment of lamina before gluing would be preferred as it would lead to maximum preservative penetration. However, the need to plane after treatment and prior to gluing removes the best-treated part of the wood, and creates a disposal issue for treated planer shavings. The present research evaluates the block shear resistance of glulam prepared from untreated and borate-treated lamina with a polyurethane adhesive. Borate treatment was associated with a small but statistically significant loss in median shear strength when evaluated dry; however, there was no difference between the performance of untreated and borate-treated samples when exposed to the vacuum-pressure soak/dry or the boil-dry-freeze/dry procedures. Further work is needed to modify the composition or application of the resin to improve shear strength for glulam applications and ensure consistent performance. However, overall, these data indicate that samples prepared from borate-treated lamina perform similarly in terms of block shear resistance to those prepared from untreated lamina.
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Ongoing Field Evaluation of Douglas-fir Cross-Laminated Timber in a Ground Proximity Protected Test in Mississippi

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1958
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Serviceability
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Mankowski, Mark
Shelton, Thomas
Kirker, Grant
Morrell, Jeffrey
Year of Publication
2018
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Serviceability
Keywords
Douglas-Fir
Treated Wood
Termites
Language
English
Conference
American Wood Protection Association
Research Status
Complete
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Field Measurement of Vertical Movement and Roof Moisture Performance of the Wood Innovation and Design Centre: Instrumentation and First Year's Performance

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue102
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Design and Systems
Serviceability
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Wang, Jieying
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2015
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Serviceability
Keywords
Differential Movement
Long-term
Moisture
Plywood
Roofs
Shrinkage
Tall Wood
Vertical Movement
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Two of the major topics of interest to those designing taller and larger wood buildings are the susceptibility to differential movement and the likelihood of mass timber components drying slowly after they are wetted during construction. The Wood Innovation and Design Centre in Prince George, British Columbia provides a unique opportunity for non-destructive testing and monitoring to measure the ‘As Built’ performance of a relatively tall mass timber building. Field measurements also provide performance data to support regulatory and market acceptance of wood-based systems in tall and large buildings. This report first describes instrumentation to measure the vertical movement of selected glulam columns and cross-laminated timber (CLT) walls in this building. Three locations of glulam columns and one CLT wall of the core structure were selected for measuring vertical movement along with the environmental conditions (temperature and humidity) in the immediate vicinity. The report then describes instrumentation to measure the moisture changes in the wood roof structure. Six locations in the roof were selected and instrumented for measuring moisture changes in the wood as well as the local environmental conditions.
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Factors Affecting Distribution of Borate to Protect Building Envelope Components from Biodegradation

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1586
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Moisture
Serviceability
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Saadat, Nazmus
Cooper, Paul
Organization
University of Toronto
Year of Publication
2012
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Moisture
Serviceability
Keywords
Preservatives
Borate
Building Envelope
Moisture Content
Spruce
Douglas-Fir
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Borate can be a potential candidate to protect building envelope components from biodegradation as it has low toxicity and can penetrate wood without pressure treatment, even in the refractory species commonly used in construction industries as structural components. In this research, wood moisture content, grain direction, formulation and species that affect the diffusion of borate in refractory species were investigated. Two highly concentrated formulations were applied and a novel approach (borate bandage) was used to keep the preservative on the surface and enhance the diffusion by reducing surface drying. From ANOVA test for different diffusion periods and depths of penetration, it was found that grain directions and moisture content are significant factors. A mould test was performed, the diffusion co-efficients were calculated and some recommendations were made about the quantity required to protect a specific volume of wood considering the distance moved by diffusion and volume treated in different directions.
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100-Year Performance of Timber-Concrete Composite Bridges in the United States

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2561
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Serviceability
Application
Bridges and Spans
Author
Wacker, James
Dias, Alfredo
Hosteng, Travis
Year of Publication
2020
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Journal Article
Application
Bridges and Spans
Topic
Serviceability
Keywords
Concrete
Composite
Superstructure
Performance
Inspection
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Journal of Bridge Engineering
Summary
The use of timber–concrete composite (TCC) bridges in the United States dates back to approximately 1924 when the first bridge was constructed. Since then a large number of bridges have been built, of which more than 1,400 remain in service. The oldest bridges still in service are now more than 84 years old and predominately consist of two different TCC systems. The first system is a slab-type system that includes a longitudinal nail-laminated deck composite with a concrete deck top layer. The second system is a stringer system that includes either sawn timber or glulam stringers supporting a concrete deck top layer. The records indicate that most of the TCC highway bridges were constructed during the period of 1930–1960. The study presented in this paper discusses the experience and per-formance of these bridge systems in the US. The analysis is based on a review of the relevant literature and databases complemented with field inspections conducted within various research projects. Along with this review, a historical overview of the codes and guidelines available for the design of TCC bridges in the US is also included. The analysis undertaken showed that TCC bridges are an effective and durable design alternative for highway bridges once they have shown a high performance level, in some situations after more than 80 years in service with a low maintenance level.
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Free
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Nondestructive Evaluation of a 75-Year Old Glulam Arch

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue246
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Serviceability
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Author
Teder, Marko
Wang, Xiping
Year of Publication
2013
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Serviceability
Keywords
Decay
Delamination
Modulus of Elasticity
Non-Destructive Evaluation
Stress Wave Timing
Wave Propagation
Strength
Resistance Micro-Drilling
Language
English
Conference
International Nondestructive Testing and Evaluation of Wood Symposium
Research Status
Complete
Notes
September 24-27, 2013, Madison, Wisconsin, USA
Summary
The purpose of this study was to explore the possibilities of using existing nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods to assess delamination and decay of glulam structures. A glulam arch removed from a research building after more than 75-year service was used as a test specimen. The glulam arch section was tested using stress wave timing, ultrasonic wave propagation, and resistance microdrilling methods at a series of locations. The arch was subsequently cut open for visual inspection and small compression and shear samples were obtained for strength testing. It was found that wave propagation times or wave velocities measured across the laminations were good indicators of internal decay. Stress wave timing and ultrasonic propagation methods were able to detect moderate to large delamination, but not micro-delamination. Resistance micro-drilling was found not effective in detecting delamination. Further research is planned to evaluate the possibility of using pulse-echo method to detect internal delamination of glulam members. Key words: glued laminated timber (glulam), stress wave, ultrasonic wave, resistance micro-drilling, strength, modulus of elasticity.
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Field Performance of Timber Bridges: A National Study

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2127
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Design and Systems
Serviceability
Application
Bridges and Spans
Author
Brashaw, Brian
Wacker, James
Jalinoos, Frank
Year of Publication
2013
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Conference Paper
Application
Bridges and Spans
Topic
Design and Systems
Serviceability
Keywords
Timber Construction
Inspection
Non-Destructive Evaluation
Service Life
Language
English
Conference
International Conference on Timber Bridges
Research Status
Complete
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Field Measurement of Vertical Movement and Roof Moisture Performance of the Wood Innovation and Design Centre

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1182
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Serviceability
Moisture
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Roofs
Author
Wang, Jieying
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2018
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Roofs
Topic
Serviceability
Moisture
Keywords
Vertical Movement
Moisture Content
Temperature
Relative Humidity
Monitoring
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Two of the major topics of interest to those designing taller and larger wood buildings are the susceptibility to differential movement and the likelihood of mass timber components drying too slowly after they become wet during construction. The Wood Innovation and Design Centre in Prince George, British Columbia provides a unique opportunity for non-destructive testing and monitoring to measure the ‘As Built’ performance of a relatively tall mass timber building. Field measurements also provide performance data to support regulatory and market acceptance of wood-based systems in tall and large buildings. This report covers vertical movement and roof moisture performance measured from this building for about three and a half years, with sensors installed during the construction. The report first describes instrumentation. The locations selected for installing displacement sensors for measuring vertical movement comprised of the following: glued-laminated timber (glulam) columns together with cross-laminated timber (CLT) floors on three lower floors; a glulam column together with a parallel strand lumber (PSL) transfer beam on the first floor; and a CLT shear wall of the core structure on each floor from the second up to the top floor. Sensors were also installed to measure environmental conditions (temperature and relative humidity) in the immediate vicinity of the components being monitored. In addition, six locations in the timber roof were selected and instrumented for measuring moisture changes in the wood as well as the local environmental conditions. Most sensors went into operation in the middle of March 2014, after the roof sheathing was installed.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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10 records – page 1 of 1.