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Cyclic Response of Insulated Steel Angle Brackets Used for Cross-Laminated Timber Connections

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2765
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Seismic
Acoustics and Vibration
Connections
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Floors
Author
Kržan, Meta
Azinovic, Boris
Publisher
Springer
Year of Publication
2021
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Floors
Topic
Seismic
Acoustics and Vibration
Connections
Keywords
Angle Bracket
Sound Insulation
Insulation
Monotonic Test
Cyclic Tests
Wall-to-Floor
Stiffness
Load Bearing Capacity
Shear
Tensile
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
European Journal of Wood and Wood Products
Summary
In cross-laminated timber (CLT) buildings, in order to reduce the disturbing transmission of sound over the flanking parts, special insulation layers are used between the CLT walls and slabs, together with insulated angle-bracket connections. However, the influence of such CLT connections and insulation layers on the seismic resistance of CLT structures has not yet been studied. In this paper, experimental investigation on CLT panels installed on insulation bedding and fastened to the CLT floor using an innovative, insulated, steel angle bracket, are presented. The novelty of the investigated angle-bracket connection is, in addition to the sound insulation, its resistance to both shear as well as uplift forces as it is intended to be used instead of traditional angle brackets and hold-down connections to simplify the construction. Therefore, monotonic and cyclic tests on the CLT wall-to-floor connections were performed in shear and tensile/compressive load direction. Specimens with and without insulation under the angle bracket and between the CLT panels were studied and compared. Tests of insulated specimens have proved that the insulation has a marginal influence on the load-bearing capacity; however, it significantly influences the stiffness characteristics. In general, the experiments have shown that the connection could also be used for seismic resistant CLT structures, although some minor improvements should be made.
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Ambient and Forced Vibration Testing and Finite Element Model Updating of a Full-Scale Posttensioned Laminated Veneer Lumber Building

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1103
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Seismic
Wind
Acoustics and Vibration
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Shear Walls
Author
Worth, Margaret
Omenzetter, Piotr
Morris, Hugh
Year of Publication
2012
Country of Publication
New Zealand
Format
Conference Paper
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Shear Walls
Topic
Seismic
Wind
Acoustics and Vibration
Keywords
Post-Tensioned
Full Scale
In Situ
Finite Element Model
Dynamic Performance
Language
English
Conference
New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Conference
Research Status
Complete
Notes
April 13-15, 2012, Christchurch, New Zealand
Summary
The Nelson Marlborough Institute of Technology Arts and Media building was completed in 2011 and consists of three seismically separate complexes. This research focussed on the Arts building as it showcases the use of coupled post-tensioned timber shear walls. These are part of the innovative Expan system. Full-scale, in-situ dynamic testing of the novel building was combined with finite element modelling and updating to obtain an understanding of the structural dynamic performance within the linear range. Ambient testing was performed at three stages during construction and was combined with forced vibration testing for the final stage. This forms part of a larger instrumentation program developed to investigate the wind and seismic response and long term deformations of the building. A finite element model of the building was formulated and updated using experimental modal characteristics. It was shown that the addition of non-structural elements, such as cladding and the staircase, increased the natural frequency of the first mode and the second mode by 19% and 24%, respectively. The addition of the concrete floor topping as a structural diaphragm significantly increased the natural frequency of the first mode but not the second mode, with an increase of 123% and 18%, respectively. The elastic damping of the NMIT building at low-level vibrations was identified as being between 1.6% and 2.4%
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Assessment of Dynamic Characteristics of Multi-Storey Timber Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1786
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Mechanical Properties
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Hummel, Johannes
Seim, Werner
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Mechanical Properties
Seismic
Keywords
Natural Frequency
Multi-Storey
Force-Based Design
Stiffness
Deformation
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 5819-5828
Summary
This paper discusses the impact of the natural frequency of multi-storey timber structures, focusing on force-based seismic design. Simplified approaches to determine the frequency of light-frame and cross-laminated timber structures are investigated. How stiffness parameters for simple two-dimensional analysis models can be derived from the different contributions of deformation...
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Cross-Laminated Timber Rocking Wall with Replaceable Fuses: Validation through Full-Scale Shake Table Testing

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2027
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Seismic
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls

Seismic Design Options for Post-Tensioned Timber Walls

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1853
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Walls
Author
Iqbal, Asif
Pampanin, Stefano
Palermo, Alessandro
Buchanan, Andrew
Fragiacomo, Massimo
Publisher
New Zealand Timber Design Society
Year of Publication
2018
Country of Publication
New Zealand
Format
Journal Article
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Walls
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Keywords
Earthquake
Post-Tensioned
Energy Dissipation
Multi-Storey
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
New Zealand Timber Design Journal
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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CLT Buildings Laterally Braced with Core and Perimeter Walls

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1663
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Connections
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Author
Polastri, Andrea
Loss, Cristiano
Pozza, Luca
Smith, Ian
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Topic
Connections
Seismic
Keywords
Multi-Storey
Numerical Models
X-RAD
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 3706-3715
Summary
In this work the behaviour of hybrid multi-storey buildings braced with Cross-Laminated-Timber (CLT) cores and shear-walls is studied based on numerical analyses. Two procedures for calibrating numerical models are adopted and compared to test data and application of provisions in current design codes. The paper presents calibration of parameters characterising connections used to interconnect adjacent CLT panels and building cores, and attach shear-walls to foundations or floors that act as eleveted diaphragms. Different case studies are analysed comparing the structural responses of buildings assembled with „standard" fastening systems (e.g. hold-downs and angle-brackets), or using a special X-RAD connection system. The aim is to characterize behaviours of connections in ways that reflect how they perform as parts of completed multi-storey superstructure systems, rather than when isolated from such systems or their substructures. Results from various analyses are presented in terms of principal elastic periods, base shear forces, and uplift forces in buildings. Discussion addresses key issues associated with engineering analysis and design of buildings having around five or more storeys.
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Response of CLT Shear Walls Under Cyclic Loads

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1669
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Author
MÁLAGA-CHUQUITAYPE, Christian
Skinner, Jonathan
Dowdall, Alan
Kernohan, Juliet
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Seismic
Keywords
Cyclic Loads
Full Scale
Stiffness
Strength
Energy Dissipation
Ductility
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 3821-3827
Summary
This paper presents an experimental study into the lateral response of cross-laminated-timber (CLT) shear walls under cyclic loads with particular attention to the distribution of forces between the panel-to-floor connections. Six tests on full-scale specimens of different geometric characteristics and connection configurations are presented. The test set-up and wall configurations are described and a detailed account of the experimental results and observations is presented. The paper examines key response features including stiffness, strength, energy dissipation and ductility. Especial attention is given to an accurate measurement of the load sharing between different brackets and its evolution throughout the cyclic action. The results reported offer valuable information on the lateral forcedisplacement response of CLT walls and the applicability of widely employed design assumptions.
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Free
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Performance and Design of LVL Walls Coupled with UFP Dissipaters

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue195
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Seismic
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Shear Walls
Author
Iqbal, Asif
Pampanin, Stefano
Palermo, Alessandro
Buchanan, Andrew
Publisher
Taylor&Francis Online
Year of Publication
2014
Country of Publication
United Kingdom
Format
Journal Article
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Shear Walls
Topic
Seismic
Keywords
Cyclic
Energy Dissipation
Multi-Storey
Post-Tensioned
U-Shaped Flexural Plates
Quasi-Static
Pseudo-dynamic
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Journal of Earthquake Engineering
Notes
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13632469.2014.987406
Summary
This article presents recent research on the seismic resistance of coupled post-tensioned timber walls for use in multi-story buildings. The walls are constructed from laminated veneer lumber (LVL), post-tensioned with unbonded vertical tendons, and coupled together with mild steel U-shaped flexural plates (UFPs) as energy dissipating elements. The timber wall design follows the same principles as used for post-tensioned precast concrete wall systems, using U-shaped plates to obtain a “hybrid” system, where energy is dissipated through yielding of the plates, while the vertical post-tensioning provides the restoring force. In this project, the same principles are applied to timber coupled walls. A series of quasi-static cyclic and pseudo-dynamic tests have been carried out to verify the applicability of the concept and the feasibility of the construction technology in timber buildings. The U-shaped plates showed stable energy dissipation characteristics and, in combination with the post-tensioning, desirable re-centering hysteretic behavior typically referred to as “flag-shape”. Because of the simplicity of these elements and the low cost of implementation, they have good prospects for practical application.
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Force Transfer Around Openings in CLT Shear Walls

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue256
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Seismic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Author
Pai, Sai
Organization
University of British Columbia
Year of Publication
2014
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Topic
Seismic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Openings
Transfer Forces
Strength
Stiffness
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
During an earthquake, shear walls can experience damage around corners of doors and windows due to development of stress concentration. Reinforcements provided to minimize this damage are designed for forces that develop at these corners known as transfer forces. In this thesis, the focus is on understanding the forces that develop around opening corners in cross laminated timber (CLT) shear walls and reinforcement requirements for the same. In the literature, four different analytical models are commonly considered to determine the transfer force for design of wood-frame shear walls. These models have been reviewed in this thesis. The Diekmann model is found to be the most suitable analytical model to determine the transfer force around a window-type opening. Numerical models are developed in ANSYS to analyse the forces around opening corners in CLT shear walls. CLT shear walls with cut-out openings are analysed using a threedimensional brick element model and a frame model. These models highlight the increase in shear and torsion around opening corners due to stress concentration. The coupled-panel construction practice for CLT shear walls with openings is analysed using a continuum model calibrated to experimental data. The analysis shows the increase in strength and stiffness of walls, when tie-rods are used as reinforcement. Analysis results also indicate that the tie-rods should be designed to behave linearly for optimum performance of the wall. Finally, a linear regression model is developed to determine the stiffness of a simply-supported CLT shear wall with a window-type opening. This model provides insight into the effect of various geometrical and material parameters on the stiffness of the wall. The process of model development has been explained, which can be improved further to include the behaviour of anchors.
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Free
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Advancing Tall Mass Timber Buildings through Seismic Resilience Testing

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2584
Topic
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Wood Building Systems
Cores
Organization
University of Nevada
Country of Publication
United States
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Wood Building Systems
Cores
Topic
Seismic
Keywords
Rocking Walls
Shake Table Test
Mass Timber
Non-structural Components and Systems
Research Status
In Progress
Notes
Project contact is Keri Ryan at University of Nevada, Reno
Summary
A landmark shake table test of a 10-story mass timber building will be conducted in late 2020. The test program, funded by other sources, will help accelerate the adoption of economically competitive tall timber buildings by validating the seismic performance of a resilient cross-laminated timber (CLT) rocking wall system. In this project, we leverage and extend the test program by including critical nonstructural components and systems (NCS). Including NCSs, which are most vulnerable to rocking induced deformations of the CLT core, allows investigation of the ramification of this emerging structural type on building resiliency. Quantifying interactions amongst vertically and horizontally spanning NCSs during earthquake shaking will allow designers to develop rational design strategies for future installation of such systems. The expected research outcomes are to expand knowledge of rocking wall system interactions with various NCS, identify NCS vulnerabilities in tall timber buildings, and develop solutions to address these vulnerabilities. Moreover, this effort will greatly increase visibility of the test program. The results of this research will be widely disseminated to timber design and NCS communities through conference presentations, online webinars, and distribution to publicly accessible research repositories. 
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10 records – page 1 of 1.