The goal of the present study was to develop life-cycle impact assessment (LCIA) data associated with gate-to-gate laminated veneer lumber (LVL) production in the southeast (SE) region of the U.S. with the ultimate aim of constructing an updated cradle-to-gate mill output life-cycle assessment (LCA). The authors collected primary (survey) mill data from LVL production facilities per Consortium on Research for Renewable Industrial Materials (CORRIM) Research Guidelines. Comparative assertions were not a goal of the present study.
The goal of this study was to update life-cycle assessment (LCA) data associated with laminated veneer lumber (LVL) production in the Pacific Northwest (PNW) region of the United States from cradle-to-gate mill output. The authors collected primary mill data from LVL production facilities per Consortium on Research for Renewable Industrial Materials (CORRIM) Research Guidelines. Comparative assertions were not a goal of this study.
Lend Lease is constructing a new residential building using cross laminated timber (CLT). This
material is a relatively new building material in Australia, which has found increased use in multi-story residential and commercial buildings, particularly in Europe. The Centre for Design (CfD), School of Architecture and Design, RMIT University was commissioned by Lend Lease through Forest and Wood Products Australia (FWPA), to investigate the environmental performance associated with the production of the materials, along with HVAC and lighting systems, and associated operation and end-of-life of this novel building, using a life cycle approach.
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been used as the core method for determining the potential
environmental impacts of the products considered. LCA has been applied in accordance with ISO
14040:2006. Data on the building materials quantities and construction details were supplied by Lend Lease, background life cycle inventory data was gathered from Australian (AUPLCI) and European (Ecoinvent) databases. Data on cross laminated timber was provided by the manufacturer in an Environmental Product Declaration (EPD). Annual operational energy use for the Forté and the reference buildings were calculated using the dynamic building energy simulation software tool ApacheSim. The simulation results for residential spaces were validated against results from an Accurate assessment.
Katerra is a start-up construction company that has developed a vertically integrated cross-laminated timber (CLT) manufacturing supply chain and facility. Katerra commissioned the Carbon Leadership Forum (CLF) and the Center for International Trade in Forest Products (CINTRAFOR) at the University of Washington to perform a life cycle assessment (LCA) study to understand the environmental impacts and opportunities for impact reduction in Katerra’s CLT supply chain and manufacturing process. CINTRAFOR performed an LCA of the CLT supply chain and production process while the CLF performed a whole building LCA of a new building that used CLT produced at Katerra’s CLT facility.
Katerra has developed its own cross-laminated timber (CLT) manufacturing facility in Spokane Valley, Washington. This 25,100 m2 (270,000 ft2 ) factory is the largest CLT manufacturing facility in the world, and is capable of producing approximately 187,000 m3 of CLT per year. Katerra has also established a vertically integrated supply chain to provide the wood for the CLT factory. Production started in summer of 2019.
Katerra commissioned the Carbon Leadership Forum (CLF) and Center for International Trade in Forest Products (CINTRAFOR) at the University of Washington to analyze the environmental impacts of its CLT as well as the Catalyst Building in Spokane, Washington. The Catalyst is a 15,690 m2 (168,800 ft2), five-story office building that makes extensive use of CLT as a structural and design element. Jointly developed by Avista and McKinstry, Katerra largely designed and constructed the building, and used CLT produced by Katerra’s new factory. Performing a life cycle assessment (LCA) on Katerra’s CLT will allow Katerra to explore opportunities for environmental impact reduction along their supply chain and improve their CLT production efficiency. Performing an LCA on the Catalyst Building will enable Katerra to better understand life cycle environmental impacts of mass timber buildings and identify opportunities to optimize environmental performance of mid-rise CLT structures.
The goal, scope, methodology, and results of this analysis are detailed in this report.