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Production and Technology of Cross Laminated Timber (CLT): A State-of-the-Art Report

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue263
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
General Information
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Brandner, Reinhard
Year of Publication
2013
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
General Information
Keywords
Production
Technology
Language
English
Conference
European Conference on Cross Laminated Timber (CLT)
Research Status
Complete
Notes
May 21-22, 2013, Graz, Austria
Summary
Cross laminated timber (CLT) has been developed to a worldwide well-known and versatile useable building material. Currently increasing rates in production volume and distribution can be observed. In fact CLT, thanks to its laminar structure making it well suited for use in construction, provides new horizons in timber engineering, in areas which had until now been the realm of mineral building materials like concrete and masonry. After a short introduction, this paper aims to demonstrate current production processes used for rigid CLT. In section 2 the process steps are described and essential requirements, as well as pros and cons of various production techniques, are discussed. Latest results of R & D and of development and innovation in production technology are presented. In section 3 test and monitoring procedures in the area of the internal quality assurance, known as factory production control (FPC), are presented. Diverse regulations, in the form of technical approvals for CLT as well as in the CLT product standard prEN 16351 [1], are discussed. Additionally, some technological aspects of the product, CLT, together with a comparison of geometrical and production relevant parameters of current technical approvals in Europe are provided in section 4. In the final and main part of the paper, production and technology is presented in a condensed way. The outlook for current and future developments, as well as the ongoing establishment of the solid construction technique with CLT, is given. The product, CLT, comprises an enormous potential for timber engineering as well as for society as a whole. Standardisation and further innovation in production, prefabrication, joining technique, building physics and building construction make it possible for timber engineering to achieve worldwide success.
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Timber-Concrete-Composite Slabs – Research for Optimisation

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1766
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
General Information
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Author
Hein, Carsten
Kaluzni, Lisa
Twohig, Brian
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Topic
General Information
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 5217-5225
Summary
Timber is an outstanding structural material with a very small carbon footprint and its strength/weight ratio is better than other conventional materials making it ideal for pre-fabrication. Considering not only structural performance but also acoustics, building physics, fire, façade engineering and sustainability were the reason engineers at Arup decided to combine wood with other materials which...
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100-Year Performance of Timber-Concrete Composite Bridges in the United States

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2561
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Serviceability
Application
Bridges and Spans
Author
Wacker, James
Dias, Alfredo
Hosteng, Travis
Year of Publication
2020
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Journal Article
Application
Bridges and Spans
Topic
Serviceability
Keywords
Concrete
Composite
Superstructure
Performance
Inspection
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Journal of Bridge Engineering
Summary
The use of timber–concrete composite (TCC) bridges in the United States dates back to approximately 1924 when the first bridge was constructed. Since then a large number of bridges have been built, of which more than 1,400 remain in service. The oldest bridges still in service are now more than 84 years old and predominately consist of two different TCC systems. The first system is a slab-type system that includes a longitudinal nail-laminated deck composite with a concrete deck top layer. The second system is a stringer system that includes either sawn timber or glulam stringers supporting a concrete deck top layer. The records indicate that most of the TCC highway bridges were constructed during the period of 1930–1960. The study presented in this paper discusses the experience and per-formance of these bridge systems in the US. The analysis is based on a review of the relevant literature and databases complemented with field inspections conducted within various research projects. Along with this review, a historical overview of the codes and guidelines available for the design of TCC bridges in the US is also included. The analysis undertaken showed that TCC bridges are an effective and durable design alternative for highway bridges once they have shown a high performance level, in some situations after more than 80 years in service with a low maintenance level.
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Modular Timber Concrete Composite System for Short Span Highway Bridges

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2297
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Design and Systems
Connections
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Bridges and Spans
Author
Liang, Yi
Publisher
University of Toronto
Year of Publication
2019
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Thesis
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Bridges and Spans
Topic
Design and Systems
Connections
Keywords
Modular Construction
Ultra-High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete (UHPFRC)
Self-Tapping Screws
Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
An innovative concept for a modular timber concrete composite system for short span highway bridges has been designed and key components experimentally validated. The proposed system consists of a Ultra-High Performance Fibre Reinforced Concrete(UHPFRC) deck and glue-laminated timer (glulam) girders linked to act compositely together by reinforcing steel bar shear connectors. This composite system has light, stable modules that can be rapidly constructed on site with less special equipment. Simple design checks indicate that the concept satisfies all serviceability limit state(SLS) and ultimate limit state(ULS) requirements of the Canadian Highway Bridge Design Code. Pull-out tests characterized the embedment lengths of 20M steel bar connectors to be 10 bar-diameters in UHPFRC. Push-off tests determined the embedment lengths of the same bars to be 30 bar-diameters glued into the timber girders. The slip modulus of the connectors is determined to be 67 kN/mm. The stiffness of the crosswise self-tapping screw connectors were tested and found to be structurally insignificant in this application. The excellent tensile and cracking properties of the reinforced UHPFRC deck was experimentally verified. A small amount of reinforcement would further improve the ductility of the UPHFRC deck system.
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Evaluating the Use of Drones for Timber Bridge Inspection

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1835
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
General Information

State-of-the-Art Review of Displacement-Based Seismic Design of Timber Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2123
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Loss, Christiano
Tannert, Thomas
Tesfamariam, Solomon
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2018
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Keywords
Performance Based Design
Direct Displacement-Based Design
Hybrid Structures
N2 Method
Design Procedures
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Construction and Building Materials
Summary
This paper discusses the state-of-the-art of displacement-based seismic design (DBD) methods and their applications to timber buildings. First, an in-depth review of the DBD methods is presented, focusing in particular on the direct, modal and N2 methods. Then, paper presents DBD application on a wide range of construction systems, including both traditional light-frame structures as well as the emerging sector of tall and hybrid timber buildings. Finally, potentials of using these DBD methods for seismic design as well as possible implications of including DBD within the next generation of building codes are discussed.
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Cross Laminated Timber – Properties and Use for Building Purposes: A Review from the Experience of Swiss Researchers

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue23
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Mechanical Properties
General Information
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Niemz, Peter
Sonderegger, Walter
Publisher
Transilvania University Press Brasov
Year of Publication
2013
Country of Publication
Romania
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
General Information
Keywords
Physical Properties
MOE
Bending Strength
Building Applications
Language
English
Romanian
Research Status
Complete
Series
Pro Ligno
ISSN
2069-7430
Summary
An overview on the mechanical and physical properties of cross laminated timber (solid wood panels) in the building industry and its use in timber construction is presented. Structure-property relations for solid wood based materials are discussed. Important properties, such as strength, sorption, diffusion, thermal conductivity in relation to the board structure are presented. By varying the structure, the properties can be optimized over a wide range. The focus of this publication lies on experimental works performed by Swiss researchers at the ETH Zürich.
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Efficient Shear Transfer in Timber-Concrete Composite Bridges by Means of Grouting with Polymer Mortar

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1694
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Connections
Mechanical Properties
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Bridges and Spans
Author
Kaestner, Martin
Rautenstrauch, Karl
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Timber-Concrete Composite
Application
Bridges and Spans
Topic
Connections
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Polymer Mortar
Shear Tests
Bending Tests
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 4281-4290
Summary
The performance of timber-concrete composite bridge constructions crucially depends on the design of the joint between concrete deck and timber main girders. In research studies at the Bauhaus-University Weimar, innovative joining techniques based on grouting with highly-filled, tolerance-compensating polymer glue mortars have been developed to improve the shear capacity of this joint significantly. By applying a thin layer of polymer mortar on the top of the wooden main girder a continuous, slip-free connection to the timber can be realized. This layer can be utilized for the embedding of steel plates with welded-on shear studs (stud connectors), so that the joint to the concrete side is ensured by a standardised connection. The steel plates are rigidly anchored in the polymer mortar by adhesive bond and form closure. As an alternative, a slip-free grout-glued connection between concrete and timber can be realized by the glue mortar itself, so that also a continuous connection to the concrete is accessible, whereby manufacturing tolerances can easily be compensated due to the high degree of mineral filling of the polymer mortar. The paper focuses on experimental results of shear and bending tests for the new composite joint configurations.
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Development of a Slab-on-Girder Wood-Concrete Composite Highway Bridge

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1421
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Bridges and Spans
Author
Lehan, Andrew
Organization
University of Toronto
Year of Publication
2012
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Thesis
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Bridges and Spans
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Ultra-High-Performance Fibre-Reinforced Concrete
Girder
Post-Tensioning
Prefabrication
Durability
Span-to-Depth Ratio
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This thesis examines the development of a superstructure for a slab-on-girder wood-concrete composite highway bridge. Wood-concrete composite bridges have existed since the 1930's. Historically, they have been limited to spans of less than 10 m. Renewed research interest over the past two decades has shown great potential for longer span capabilities. Through composite action and suitable detailing, improvements in strength, stiffness, and durability can be achieved versus conventional wood bridges. The bridge makes use of a slender ultra-high performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) deck made partially-composite in longitudinal bending with glued-laminated wood girders. Longitudinal external unbonded post-tensioning is utilized to increase span capabilities. Prefabrication using double-T modules minimizes the need for cast-in-place concrete on-site. Durability is realized through the highly impermeable deck slab that protects the girders from moisture. Results show that the system can span up to 30 m while achieving span-to-depth ratios equivalent or better than competing slab-on-girder bridges.
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Review of State of the Art of Dowel Laminated Timber Members and Densified Wood Materials as Sustainable Engineered Wood Products for Construction and Building Applications

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2385
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Design and Systems
Mechanical Properties
Material
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems

10 records – page 1 of 1.