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Development of Mass Timber Wall System Based on Nail Laminated Timber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2526
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Author
Zhang, Chao
Lee, George
Lam, Frank
Organization
Timber Engineering and Applied Mechanics (TEAM) Laboratory
Year of Publication
2020
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Shear
Stiffness
Fasteners
Fastener Type
Load
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This project studied the feasibility and performance of a mass timber wall system based on Nail Laminated Timber (NLT) for floor/wall applications, in order to quantify the effects of various design parameters. Thirteen 2.4 m × 2.4 m shear walls were manufactured and tested in this phase. Together with another five specimens tested before, a total eighteen shear wall specimens and ten configurations were investigated. The design variables included fastener type, sheathing thickness, number of sheathings, sheathing material, nailing pattern, wall opening, and lumber orientation. The NLT walls were made of SprucePine-Fir (SPF) No. 2 2×4 (38 mm × 89 mm) lumber and Oriented Strand Lumber (OSB) or plywood sheathing. They were tested under monotonic and reverse-cyclic loading protocols, in accordance with ASTM E564-06 (2018) and ASTM E2126-19, respectively. Compared to traditional wood stud walls, the best performing NLT based shear wall had 2.5 times the peak load and 2 times the stiffness at 0.5-1.5% drift, while retaining high ductility. The advantage of these NLT-based wall was even greater under reverse-cyclic loading due to the internal energy dissipation of NLT. The wall with ring nails had higher stiffness than the one with smooth nails. But the performance of ring nails deteriorated drastically under reverse-cyclic loading, leading to a considerably lower capacity. Changing the sheathing thickness from 11 mm to 15 mm improved the strength by 6% while having the same initial stiffness. Adding one more face of sheathing increased the peak load and stiffness by at least 50%. The wall was also very ductile as the load dropped less than 10% when the lateral displacement exceeded 150 mm. The difference created by sheathing material was not significant if they were of the same thickness. Reducing the nailing spacing by half led to a 40% increasing in the peak load and stiffness. Having an opening of 25% of the area at the center, the lateral capacity and stiffness reached 75% or more of the full wall. A simplified method to estimate the lateral resistance of this mass timber wall system was proposed. The estimate was close to the tested capacity and was on the conservative side. Recommendations for design and manufacturing the system were also presented.
Online Access
Free
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Hybridised Australian Cross Laminated Timber (ACLT) and Orientated Strand Board (OSB) Wall Panels - A Case Study

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue703
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Author
Bylund, David
Year of Publication
2014
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Australia
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 10-14, 2014, Quebec City, Canada
Summary
Following on from the author’s recently completed doctorial research investigating Scandinavian industrially produced engineered construction methodologies and their potential application in Australia, this paper reports on the research and development of a hybridised nail laminated 3 ply CLT and OSB wall panel with a cavity through the design and construction of a prototype commercial building for Western Australia’s largest soft wood timber processor, Wespine. Findings resulting from the author’s doctorial research and research undertaken for New Zealand research consortium, Solid Wood Innovation, demonstrated the potential for rough sawn multi-grade Radiata pine to be used as a structural material with the capacity to be used in developments of five and six storeys when laminated via a simple gun nailing lamination process[1]. This paper introduces new developments on this concept through the hybridisation of a two ply cross laminated panel with OSB bracing to create a rigid modular wall element suitable for a range of building types.
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Free
Resource Link
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Advanced Wood-Based Solutions for Mid-Rise and High-Rise Construction: Exit Fire Separations in Mid-Rise Wood Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1879
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shafts and Chases
Author
Ranger, Lindsay
Dagenais, Christian
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2018
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shafts and Chases
Topic
Fire
Keywords
National Building Code of Canada
Combustible Material
Mid-Rise
Noncombustible Construction
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
FPInnovations initiated this project to demonstrate the ability of wood exit stairs in mid-rise buildings to perform adequately in a fire when NBCC requirements are followed, with the intent of changing perceptions of the fire safety of wood construction. The objective of this research is to investigate further the fire safety afforded by exit stair shafts of combustible construction, with the ultimate objective of better consistency between the provincial and national building codes with respect to fire requirements for exit stair shafts in mid-rise wood-frame construction.
Online Access
Free
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Lumber-Based Mass Timber Products in Construction

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2163
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
General Information
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)

Apparent Sound Insulation in Mass Timber Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2616
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Walls
Author
Mahn, Jeffrey
Quirt, David
Mueller-Trapet, Markus
Hoeller, Christoph
Organization
National Research Council of Canada. Construction
Publisher
National Research Council of Canada. Construction
Year of Publication
2020
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Walls
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Design and Systems
Keywords
Airborne Sound Transmission
Apparent Sound Transmission Class
Sound Transmission
Adhesive
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This Report presents the results from experimental studies of the airborne sound transmission of mass timber assemblies, together with an explanation of the calculation procedures to predict the apparent sound transmission class (ASTC) rating between adjacent spaces in a building constructed of mass timber assemblies. The experimental data which is the foundation for this Report includes the laboratory measured sound transmission loss of wall and floor assemblies constructed of Cross Laminated Timber (CLT), Nail-Laminated Timber (NLT) and Dowel-Laminated Timber (DLT), and the laboratory measured vibration reduction index between assemblies of junctions between CLT assemblies. The presentation of the measured data is combined with the presentation of the appropriate calculation procedures to determine the ASTC rating in buildings comprised of such assemblies along with numerous worked examples. Several types of CLT constructions are commercially available in Canada, but this study focused on CLT assemblies with an adhesive applied between the faces of the timber elements in adjacent layers, but no adhesive bonding between the adjacent timber elements within a given layer. These CLT assemblies could be called “Face-Laminated CLT Assemblies” but are simply referred to as CLT assemblies in this Report. Another form of CLT assemblies does have adhesive applied between the faces of the timber elements in adjacent layers as well as adhesive to bond the adjacent timber elements within a given layer. These assemblies are referred to as “Fully-Bonded CLT Assemblies” in this Report. Because fully-bonded CLT assemblies have different properties than face-laminated CLT assemblies, the sound transmission data and predictions in this Report do not apply to fully-bonded CLT assemblies.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Mass Timber Economics of 7-12 Storey Residential Rental Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2813
Topic
Cost
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Organization
Morrison Hershield
BC Housing
Country of Publication
Canada
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Cost
Design and Systems
Keywords
Cost Effective
Cost-Competitive
ROI
Building Code
Affordable Housing
Mass Timber
Research Status
In Progress
Notes
Project contact is Eric Wood at Morrison Hershfield
Summary
The study assesses the potential of mass timber multi-unit residential construction as it compares to traditional methods including concrete and steel in terms of cost competitiveness, cost effectiveness, financial value and ROI. The analysis will include potential limitations of existing building codes, how the codes support or constrain the use of mass timber, including impacts to affordability, and whether further industry and government support of tall wood construction is needed to integrate it into Canada’s housing supply. To inform the analysis, the study produces base case archetypes for concrete and steel structures, and then create a series of comparative archetypes mass timber structures and hybrid structures in the range of 7-12 storeys.
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Design Options for Three- and Four-Storey Wood School Buildings in British Columbia

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2373
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Other Materials
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Bevilacqua, Nick
Dickof, Carla
Wolfe, Ray
Gan, Wei-Jie
Embury-Williams, Lynn
Organization
Fast + Epp
Wood Works! BC
Thinkspace
Year of Publication
2019
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Other Materials
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Construction
Education
School Buildings
Mass Timber
Multi-Storey
Building Code
Fire Protection
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This study illustrates the range of possible wood construction approaches for school buildings that are up to four storeys in height. As land values continue to rise, particularly in higher-density urban environments, schools with smaller footprints will become increasingly more necessary to satisfy enrollment demands. There are currently a number of planned new school projects throughout British Columbia that anticipate requiring either three-or four-storey buildings, and it is forecasted that the demand for school buildings of this size will continue to rise. This study is closely related to the report Risk Analysis and Alternative Solution for Three- and Four-Storey Schools of Mass Timber and/or Wood-Frame Construction prepared by GHL Consultants, which explores the building code related considerations of wood construction for school buildings that are up to four storeys in height. Though wood construction offers a viable structural material option for these buildings, the British Columbia Building Code (BCBC 2018) currently limits schools comprised of wood construction to a maximum of two storeys, while also imposing limits on the overall floor area. As such, the reader is referred to the GHL report for further information regarding building code compliance (with a particular emphasis on fire protection) for wood school buildings.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Study of Massive Timber Walls based on NLT and Post Laminated LVL

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1585
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Connections
Mechanical Properties
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Author
Zhang, Chao
Lee, George
Lam, Frank
Organization
University of British Columbia
Year of Publication
2018
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shear Walls
Topic
Connections
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Shear Tests
Glue Lines
Lateral Loading
Sheathing
Load Carrying Capacity
Stiffness
Energy Dissipation
Shear Strength
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Currently the massive timber shear walls are mainly made from Cross Laminated Timber (CLT), which possesses a high in-plane shear strength and rigidity. But only part of its elements (mainly the vertically aligned laminae) are engaged in carrying the vertical load and that could be a limitation when designing taller timber structures or wherever higher vertical load is present. This project studied alternative solutions to massive timber shear wall system, based on Nailed Laminated Timber (NLT) and post laminated LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber). The test was conducted on three levels: shear test on glue/nail line, bending-shear test on a small element, and full size wall test under lateral loading. The former two tests investigated the properties of basic elements in NLT and post laminated LVL. The results were used to design and predict the performance of full size shear walls. The NLT walls were tested under two conditions: without sheathing and with plywood sheathing. The wall without sheathing had the lowest load-carrying capacity and lowest stiffness. Adding plywood sheathing significantly increased its strength and stiffness. The failure in the wall with sheathing was at the sheathing connections, in the forms of nail withdrawal, nail head pull through, and nail breakage. The NLT wall with sheathing had a peak load up to 60% higher than the comparable light wood frame wall, also with a higher stiffness and better ductility. NLT shear walls have an internal energy dissipating capacity which CLT and post laminated LVL walls lack. The post laminated LVL walls behaved as a rigid plate under lateral loading, with little internal deformation. The failure occurred at the holdowns not within the wall. The size effect of its shear strength was studied and an equation was developed to calculate the shear strength of a large size wall plate. Both products have efficient vertical load bearing mechanism by arranging all elements in the vertical direction. They may serve as alternative to light wood frame walls or CLT walls. Some guidelines for the application and design of NLT shear walls and post laminated LVL shear walls were proposed.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Wetting and Drying Performance of Wood-Based Assemblies Related to On-Site Moisture Management

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1782
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Site Construction Management
Moisture
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Roofs
Author
Wang, Jieying
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Roofs
Topic
Site Construction Management
Moisture
Keywords
Moisture Content
Wetting
Drying
Construction
Climate
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 5554-5563
Summary
This document aims to emphasize the importance of an appropriate level of on-site moisture management for wood construction, depending on weather conditions, construction methods, and assemblies used. It covers three different but related research projects. It first describes baseline moisture contents (MCs) measured from...
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Sound Insulation Performance of Elevator Shaft Walls built with Nail-Laminated Timber Panels - Exploratory Tests and Preliminary Results

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue364
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Material
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shafts and Chases
Author
Pirvu, Ciprian
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Application
Shafts and Chases
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Keywords
Building Codes
Canada
Sound Insulation
Apparent Sound Insulation Class
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
As 6-storey wood-frame, massive-timber and hybrid wood buildings are increasingly accepted by more jurisdictions across Canada, there is a need to develop reliable elevator shaft designs that meet the minimum structural, fire, and sound requirements in building codes. Elevator shaft walls constructed with wood-based materials have the advantages of material compatibility, use of sustainable materials, and ease of construction. In this exploratory study, selected elevator shaft wall designs built with nail-laminated-timber (NLT) structural elements were tested to investigate their sound insulation performance because little is known about the sound insulation performance of such wall assemblies. The tests were carried out in an acoustic mock-up facility in accordance to standard requirements, and provide preliminary data on the sound insulation performance of elevator shaft walls built with NLT panels. Four different elevator shaft walls built with NLT panels were tested and their measured apparent sound insulation class (ASTC) ratings ranged from 18 to 39 depending on their construction details. Some of the reasons that may have contributed to the ASTC ratings obtained for the elevator shaft walls described in this report as well as recommendations for future designs were provided. It is recommended to continue improving the sound insulation of elevator shaft walls built with NLT panels to meet or exceed the minimum requirements in building codes.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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10 records – page 1 of 1.