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Cross-Laminated Timber: Status and Research Needs in Europe

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue321
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Espinoza, Omar
Trujillo, Vladimir
Laguarda Mallo, Maria Fernanda
Buehlmann, Urs
Publisher
North Carolina State University
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Europe
Awareness
Research Needs
Adoption
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
BioResources
Summary
In the 20 years since its invention in Europe, cross-laminated timber (CLT) has become a widely used construction material in parts of the old continent and has started to attract global attention. CLT possesses numerous advantages as a construction material, including its superior structural and environmental performance, as well as the speed and efficiency with which CLT buildings can be erected. In this study, European engineers were surveyed to learn about their current level of awareness of CLT, the major barriers to CLT adoption, and about the most pressing research needs to advance the use of CLT as a construction material. The study used a web-based survey with a convenience sample of 93 different kinds of timber and civil engineers and/or researchers, most of which belong to a European CLT research network. Results showed that participants think that, in general, the level of awareness about CLT among developers, construction managers, engineers, architects, and construction managers, is low. The majority of perceived barriers for CLT adoption involved its building code compatibility and the availability of technical information. The most pressing research needs for CLT development, according to respondents, are in the areas of structural performance and connections, moisture performance, and market research.
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The North American Product Standard for Cross-Laminated Timber

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue760
Year of Publication
2012
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Yeh, Borjen
Gagnon, Sylvain
Williamson, Tom
Pirvu, Ciprian
Lum, Conroy
Kretschmann, David
Publisher
Forest Products Society
Year of Publication
2012
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
International Building Code
North America
Standards
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Wood Design Focus
Summary
Cross-laminated timber (CLT) is a prefabricated solid engineered wood product made of at least three orthogonally bonded layers of solid-sawn lumber or structural composite lumber that are laminated by gluing of longitudinal and transverse layers with structural adhesives to form a solid rectangular-shaped, straight, and plane timber intended for roof, floor, or wall applications. While this engineered wood product has been used in Europe for over 15 years, the production of CLT and design of CLT structural systems have just begun in North America. For the acceptance of new construction materials or systems in North America, such as CLT, a consensus-based product standard is essential to the designers and regulatory bodies. This paper describes and documents the background information and some key issues that were considered during the development of the ANSI/APA PRG 320 Standard for Performance-Rated Cross Laminated Timber. This standard was developed based on the consensus standard development process of APA-The Engineered Wood Association as a standards developer accredited by the American National Standards lnstitute (ANSI). The CLT stress classes incorporated in this product standard are also discussed. The ANSI/APA PRG 320 standard has been approved by the Structural Committee of the lnternational Code Council (lCC) for the 20'15 lnternational Building Code (lBC).
Online Access
Free
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Feasibility of Cross-Laminated Timber Production from UK Sitka Spruce

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1573
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Crawford, David
Hairstans, Robert
Smith, Ryan
Year of Publication
2013
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Spruce
United Kingdom
Production
Language
English
Conference
European Conference on Cross Laminated Timber (CLT)
Research Status
Complete
Notes
May 21-22, 2013, Graz, Austria
Summary
Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) is an innovative wood product, which can be used for almost all superstructure elements. It is generally produced from kiln dried, fast growing timber. Currently the majority of CLT used within the UK construction industry is manufactured in central mainland Europe and imported to the UK. The goal of this study is to establish the conditions required for implementing a CLT production and construction capability using available UK timber stock, thus offering a low carbon alternative to multi-story steel and concrete commercial constructions.
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Free
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Using Low-Grade Hardwoods for CLT Production: A Yield Analysis

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue766
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Thomas, R. Edward
Buehlmann, Urs
Year of Publication
2017
Country of Publication
Finland
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Hardwood
Low-Grade
Market
North America
Language
English
Conference
International Scientific Conference on Hardwood Processing
Research Status
Complete
Notes
September 25-28, 2017, Lahti, Finland
Summary
Low-grade hardwood logs are the by-product of logging operations and, more frequently today, urban tree removals. The market prices for these logs is low, as is the value recovered from their logs when producing traditional forest products such as pallet parts, railroad ties, landscaping mulch, or chips for pulp. However, the emergence of cross-laminated timber (CLT) for building construction in North America may provide an additional and possibly a more valuable product market for low-grade, low-value hardwood logs. Using the RaySaw sawing and ROMI rough mill simulators and a digital databank of laser-scanned low-grade yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera) logs, we examine the yield-recovery potential for lumber used in the production of CLT.
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Free
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Cross-Laminated Timber VS. Concrete/Steel: Cost Comparison Using a Case Study

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1641
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Market and Adoption
Cost
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Laguarda Mallo, Maria Fernanda
Espinoza, Omar
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Market and Adoption
Cost
Keywords
US
Architecture
Construction
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 3223-3228
Summary
Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) is an innovative structural system based on the use of large-format, multilayered panels made from solid wood boards glued together, and layers at 90 degrees. This cross-laminated configuration translates into panels that are monolithic, stable, and experience minor shrinkage, which allows them to be used for the most diverse building applications, such as walls, floors and roofs. Developed in the early 1990 in Switzerland, as a way to reduce waste in sawmills, the system has been successful in Europe for the past 20 years, and more recently has made inroads into the Australian and North America markets. In the United States, the adoption of the system is still in its early stages. Recent research has shown that CLT could be cost-competitive as an alternative to concrete structures and for buildings over 6 stories high. The main goal of this study was to understand the market impediments to widespread adoption in the U.S. from an architecture firm’s point of view and compare the economic performance of CLT with that of traditional constructions systems, namely concrete and steel. A performing arts facility on the west coast of the US was evaluated as a case study. In order to accomplish this goal, a series of interviews with building professionals, as well as meetings with construction and estimating firms were conducted. Then an in depth analysis was performed to evaluate and compare the economic performance of the different construction systems in terms of cost of materials, labor, and speed of construction. This research addresses some of the key questions that must be answered if we are to understand the viability of a CLT market in the U.S.
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Free
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Advanced Wood Product Manufacturing Study for Cross-Laminated Timber Acceleration in Oregon & SW Washington, 2017

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue715
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Organization
Oregon BEST
Year of Publication
2017
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Market
US
Economic Impact
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Oregon and southwest Washington are poised as a manufacturing hub for the emerging Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) market in the United States. The region is bountiful with luscious forestland, a large percentage of which is designated as working forests. Thirty million acres of forest span across Oregon alone. As a value add product that has environmental and social co-benefits, CLT is economically competitive as a structural framing product for multi-story, even high-rise building construction: a market previously dominated by concrete and steel. The research and outreach activities performed as part of this 2015-2017 study have played a vital role in continuing the advancement of the CLT market in Oregon & SW Washington. Eager regional stakeholders see CLT and other mass timber panel products as forest products capable of providing economic benefit to communities within our region that had grown around forest product industries.
Online Access
Free
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Cross-Laminated Timber (CLT) in China: A State-of-the-Art

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2108
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Li, Hao
Wang, Brad
Wei, Peixing
Wang, Libin
Publisher
Nanjing Forestry University
University of New Brunswick
Cellulose and Renewable Materials Division of Chinese Chemical Society
Year of Publication
2019
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
China
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Journal of Bioresources and Bioproducts
ISSN
2369-9698
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Strength and Stiffness of Cross Laminated Timber (CLT) Panels Produced with Pinus and Eucalyptus: Experimental and Analytical Comparisons

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2453
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Pereira, Marcos Cesar de Moraes
Calil Junior, Carlito
Publisher
SciELO
Year of Publication
2019
Country of Publication
Brazil
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Strength
Stiffness
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Matéria (Rio J.)
ISSN
1517-7076
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Constructing Our Environments: A Material Comparison

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue161
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Market and Adoption
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Murdock, Henry
Organization
University of Waterloo
Year of Publication
2014
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Market and Adoption
Keywords
Environmental Performance
Concrete
Steel
Energy Efficiency
Assembly
Design Flexibility
Ease of Manufacture
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Our built environment is constantly adapting to changing factors: technology, the state of the economy, material resource availability, and, in turn, environmental conditions. The latter has gained notable importance in popular discourse, and especially in the architecture and construction professions. However, as much as we see terms such as “sustainability” and “green” in our everyday lives, government and industry are slow to take action investing in our future environment. Material resources in the building industry are worth investigating. Timber, used as a structural material to compete with concrete and steel, brings more energy efficient and natural renewable resources to our growing cities. In order to provide a broader perspective of how we as a society use concrete, steel, and timber, I will compare the three building materials in a four part guideline: Environmental Performance, Ease of Manufacture, Organized Assembly, and Design Flexibility.
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Free
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Vibrations in Cross-Laminated Timber Floors: Examining Standards

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2726
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Author
Svensson, Lisette
Berghem, Emma
Year of Publication
2020
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Topic
Acoustics and Vibration
Keywords
Vibration
FEM
Finite Element Method (FEM)
Eurocode 5
Calculatis
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The report aims to investigate norms, standards, guidelines and experience within the industry for how to design CLT (cross-laminated timber) regarding vibrations induced from humans. The following is being researched, ISO137, KL-trähandboken, Eurocode 5 and a new unpublished working draft of Eurocode 5 final working draft, Canadian CLT handbook and Cross-laminated timber structural design according to Eurocode from Austria.The conclusion is that the literature for CLT is non-existent in the current Eurocode 5 which only addresses timber floors with joists, however the new Eurocode draft suggests an update to include CLT which is similar to the norm CLT from Austria.The report contains a calculation part in which an analysis is conducted for a real project with calculations based on Eurocode 5 and the Eurocode 5 final working draft, the design tool Calculatis and FEM program RFEM. The calculations are compiled and evaluated.The calculation results show differences between the different standards. The natural frequencies are typically the same. The biggest difference is between the accelerations which is in direct relation to the modal mass, and the modal mass differs a lot between the calculations. It is understandable how Eurocode 5 final draft and RFEM calculate the modal mass, but not so for Calculatis as it doesn’t show any calculations in the technical documentation.There is a difference of the modal mass between Eurocode 5 final draft and RFEM, likely because EK5 calculate the modal mass for a rectangular floor simply supported at two or four sides. Whereas the RFEM model is not strictly rectangular nor is it simply supported everywhere, instead there are beams in some places. This suggests that caution should be regarded in calculations where floor structures have been simplified.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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10 records – page 1 of 1.