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10 records – page 1 of 1.

Structural Response of Cross-Laminated Timber Compression Elements Exposed to Fire

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1338
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Fire
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Author
Wiesner, Felix
Randmael, Fredrik
Wan, Wing
Bisby, Luke
Hadden, Rory
Publisher
ScienceDirect
Year of Publication
2017
Country of Publication
Netherlands
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Walls
Topic
Fire
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Reduced Cross-Section Method
Axial Load
Compressive Load
Deformation
Temperature
Zero-Strength Layer
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Fire Safety Journal
Summary
A set of novel structural fire tests on axially loaded cross-laminated timber (CLT) compression elements (walls), locally exposed to thermal radiation sufficient to cause sustained flaming combustion, are presented and discussed. Test specimens were subjected to a sustained compressive load, equivalent to 10 % or 20 % of their nominal ambient axial compressive capacity. The walls were then locally exposed to a nominal constant incident heat flux of 50 kW/m2 over their mid height area until failure occurred. The axial and lateral deformations of the walls were measured and compared against predictions calculated using a finite Bernoulli beam element analysis, to shed light on the fundamental mechanics and needs for rational structural design of CLT compression elements in fire. For the walls tested herein, failure at both ambient and elevated temperature was due to global buckling. At high temperature failure results from excessive lateral deflections and second order flexural effects due to reductions the walls’ effective crosssection and flexural rigidity, as well as a shift of the effective neutral axis in bending during fire. Measured average one-dimensional charring rates ranged between 0.82 and 1.0 mm/min in these tests. As expected, the lamellae configuration greatly influenced the walls’ deformation responses and times to failure; with 3- ply walls failing earlier than those with 5-plies. The walls’ deformation response during heating suggests that, if a conventional reduced cross section method (RCSM), zero strength layer analysis were undertaken, the required zero strength layer depths would range between 15.2 mm and 21.8 mm. Deflection paths further suggest that the concept of a zero strength layer is inadequate for properly capturing the mechanical response of fire-exposed CLT compression elements.
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Structural Capacity in Fire of Laminated Timber Elements in Compartments with Exposed Timber Surfaces

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2105
Year of Publication
2019
Topic
Fire
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Rooms

The Fire Performance of Exposed Timber Panels

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue146
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Author
Wong, Bernice
Tee, Kong Fah
Publisher
World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology
Year of Publication
2014
Country of Publication
United Kingdom
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Fire
Keywords
High-Rise
Charring Rate
Temperature
Eurocode
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
International Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering
Summary
Cross-laminated timber is increasingly being used in the construction of high-rise buildings due to its simple manufacturing system. In term of fire resistance, cross-laminated timber panels are promoted as having excellent fire resistance, comparable to that of non-combustible materials and to heavy timber construction, due to the ability of thick wood assemblies to char slowly at a predictable rate while maintaining most of their strength during the fire exposure. This paper presents an overview of fire performance of cross-laminated timber and evaluation of its resistance to elevated temperature in comparison to homogeneous timber panels. Charring rates for cross-laminated timber panels of those obtained experimentally were compared with those provided by Eurocode simplified calculation methods. Keywords—Timber structure, cross-laminated timber, charring rate, timber fire resistance.
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Modelling of Heat Transfer in Timber Exposed to Fire

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1683
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Fire
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Author
Diem Thi, Van
Khelifa, Mourad
El Ganaoui, Mohammed
Rogaume, Yann
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Numerical Model
Heat Transfer
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 4069-4076
Summary
This paper presents a numerical model for heat transfer in timber structures. The thermal behaviour is described by the standard Fourier heat equation. The chosen model integrates the three modes of heat transfer; namely: conduction, radiation and convection during the fire exposure. The theory and the boundary conditions associated with the model are briefly discussed. The identification of the model parameters is carried out with the experimental data available in literature. The simulation results are compared with experiments carried out on laminated veneer lumber (LVL) panels.
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Performance of Timber Connections Exposed to Fire: A Review

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue233
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Connections
Fire
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Author
Maraveas, Chrysanthos
Miamis, K.
E. Matthaiou, Ch.
Publisher
Springer US
Year of Publication
2015
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Journal Article
Material
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Topic
Connections
Fire
Keywords
Temperature
Steel-to-Timber
Wood-to-Wood
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Fire Technology
ISSN
1572-8099
Summary
Fire safety has always been a major concern in the design of timber construction. Even though wood is a highly combustible material, timber members can perform adequately under elevated temperatures. The thermal response of timber connections, however, is in most cases poor and determination of their fire resistance is usually the crucial factor in evaluating the overall load-bearing capacity of wood structures exposed to fire. The analysis of timber joints under fire conditions can be challenging due to their complexity and variety. After presenting the variation of the properties of timber with temperature, this paper reviews the fire performance of various connection types, such as bolted or nailed wood-to-wood and steel-to-timber joints. Results from relevant experimental programs and numerical studies are discussed in detail and future research needs are highlighted. The effect of several factors on the fire resistance of timber connections, such as the fastener diameter, timber thickness and joint geometry, is investigated and useful conclusions are drawn. Based on these, preliminary guidelines for the efficient design of timber connections under fire exposure are presented.
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Performance of Timber-to-Steel Bolted Connections Exposed to Fire

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1678
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Connections
Fire
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Author
Alam, Marc
Hadjisophocleous, George
Erochko, Jeffrey
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Connections
Fire
Keywords
Bolted Connection
Timber-to-Steel
Fire Resistance
Tension
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 3950-3958
Summary
This paper summarizes the experimental results from a series of tests that investigated the performance of timber-to-steel tensile connections exposed to fire. A series of fire-resistance tests were conducted on bolted wood-steelwood and steel-wood-steel connections loaded in tension. Each specimen had different cross-sectional area, fastener diameter, fastener spacing, edge distance, and tension load. The fire temperature profile produced by the furnace used both the standard time-temperature curve CAN/ULC-S101 and a non-standard time-temperature curve based on previous studies done at Carleton University. Results showed that the wood-steel-wood specimens had a longer time to failure than steel-wood-steel specimens with the same dimensions. The heat transfer and structural modeling portion of this research is currently underway using three-dimensional finite-element models.
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Correct Temperature Measurements in Fire Exposed Wood

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2025
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)

Calculating the Fire Resistance of Exposed Wood Members

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue220
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Organization
American Wood Council
Year of Publication
2015
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Charring
Codes
Standards
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The superior fire performance of timber can be attributed to the charring effect of wood. As wood members are exposed to fire, an insulating char layer is formed that protects the core of the section. Thus, beams and columns can be designed so that a sufficient cross section of wood remains to sustain the design loads for the required duration of fire exposure. A standard fire exposure is used for design purposes. In North America, this exposure is described in the standard fire resistance test ASTM E 119 [2]. Many other countries use a comparable test exposure found in ISO 834 [3]. In spite of the difference between standard dire resistance tests, experimental charring rates measured in various parts of the world appear to be consistent. This justifies the use of such data for design, regardless of origin.
Copyright
Courtesy, American Wood Council, Leesburg, VA
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Effects of Exposed Cross Laminated Timber on Compartment Fire Dynamics

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1340
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Rooms
Author
Hadden, Rory
Bartlett, Alastair
Hidalgo, Juan
Santamaria, Simón
Wiesner, Felix
Bisby, Luke
Deeny, Susan
Lane, Barbara
Publisher
ScienceDirect
Year of Publication
2017
Country of Publication
Netherlands
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Rooms
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Compartment Fires
Heat Release Rate
Temperature
Exposed Timber
Auto-Extinction
Combustible Material
Heat Transfer
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Fire Safety Journal
Summary
A series of compartment fire experiments has been undertaken to evaluate the impact of combustible cross laminated timber linings on the compartment fire behaviour. Compartment heat release rates and temperatures are reported for three configuration of exposed timber surfaces. Auto-extinction of the compartment was observed in one case but this was not observed when the experiment was repeated under identical condition. This highlights the strong interaction between the exposed combustible material and the resulting fire dynamics. For large areas of exposed timber linings heat transfer within the compartment dominates and prevents auto-extinction. A framework is presented based on the relative durations of the thermal penetration time of a timber layer and compartment fire duration to account for the observed differences in fire dynamics. This analysis shows that fall-off of the charred timber layers is a key contributor to whether auto-extinction can be achieved.
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Towards Fire Safe Design of Exposed Timber in Tall Timber Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1680
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Fire
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Barber, David
Crielaard, Roy
Li, Xiao
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Fire
Keywords
Heat Release Rate
Exposed Timber
Fire Safety
Compartment Fires
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 3968-3977
Summary
As timber buildings are constructed taller, architects and building owners are asking for more timber to be exposed. Addressing how exposed timber and in particular cross laminated timber, influences a fully developed fire through to self-extinguishment is a current and complex fire safety issue. There is limited research available on how exposed timber alters heat release rate, temperatures and fire duration. This paper provides a summary of the relevant research to understand similarities in findings and how the results of fire tests can be applied. Research shows that large areas of exposed timber has a significant impact on heat release rate, but limited areas of exposed timber can be accommodated within a fire safe design. The location of exposed timber and avoiding two or more adjacent exposed surfaces, is an important finding. It is evident from the limited testing that a single exposed timber wall of approximately 20% of the total wall area has little impact on a compartment fire. The development of a calculation methodology to account for the change in compartment fire dynamics when two or more surfaces are exposed is the next step in the advancement of exposed timber fire safety engineering.
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10 records – page 1 of 1.