Skip header and navigation

Refine Results By

10 records – page 1 of 1.

Seismic Design of Timber Buildings with a Direct Displacement-Based Design Method

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1904
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Seismic
Design and Systems
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Frames
Wood Building Systems
Author
Loss, Cristiano
Piazza, Maurizio
Zonta, Daniele
Editor
Cruz, Paulo J.S.
Publisher
CRC Press
Year of Publication
2013
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Book/Guide
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Frames
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Seismic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Performance-Based Seismic Design
Direct Displacement-Based Design
Displacement
Damping
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Structures and Architecture: Concepts, Applications and Challenges
ISBN
978-1-4822-2461-0
Summary
Modern seismic design procedures are widely represented by the concept of Performance-Based Seismic Design (PBSD). Direct Displacement-Based Design (DDBD) procedure for PBSD of buildings is considered a very promising method which uses displacement as an input design parameter. The DDBD procedure first codified by Priestley requires an a priori estimate of the design displacement and the associated equivalent viscous damping of the structure, at design performance levels. In this paper, design parameters for the ultimate limit state have been developed for a common construction system for timber buildings. Such parameters are defined as a function of mechanical and geometrical connection configurations.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Design of Floor Diaphragms in Multi-Storey Timber Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue294
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Floors
Author
Moroder, Daniel
Smith, Tobias
Pampanin, Stefano
Palermo, Alessandro
Buchanan, Andrew
Year of Publication
2015
Country of Publication
New Zealand
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Floors
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Keywords
Diaphragms
Multi-Storey
Commercial
Lateral Loads
Equivalent Truss Method
Lateral Load Resisting System
Language
English
Conference
New Zealand Society for Earthquake Engineering Conference
Research Status
Complete
Notes
April 10-12, 2015, Rotorua, New Zealand
Summary
This paper discusses the design of timber diaphragms, in response to the growing interest in multi-storey commercial timber structures, and the lack of guidance or regulations regarding the seismic design of timber diaphragms. Proper performance of floor diaphragms is required to transfer all lateral loads to the vertical systems that resist them, but design for earthquake loads can be more complex than design for wind loads. This paper confirms that the seismic design of a diaphragm is intimately linked to the seismic design of the whole building. Diaphragm failure, even if restricted to a limited diaphragm portion, can compromise the behaviour of the whole building. It is therefore necessary to design and detail diaphragms for all possible load paths and to evaluate their influence on the load distribution within the rest of the structure. It is strongly recommended that timber diaphragms be designed as elastic elements, by applying dynamic amplification and overstrength factors derived from the lateral load resisting system. This paper shows that some current design recommendations for plywood sheathing on light timber framing can be applied to massive wood diaphragms, but for more complex floor geometries an equivalent truss method is suggested. Diaphragm flexibility and displacement incompatibilities between the floor diaphragms and the lateral resisting systems also need to be accounted for.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

State-of-the-Art Review of Displacement-Based Seismic Design of Timber Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2123
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Loss, Christiano
Tannert, Thomas
Tesfamariam, Solomon
Publisher
Elsevier
Year of Publication
2018
Country of Publication
United States
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Keywords
Performance Based Design
Direct Displacement-Based Design
Hybrid Structures
N2 Method
Design Procedures
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Construction and Building Materials
Summary
This paper discusses the state-of-the-art of displacement-based seismic design (DBD) methods and their applications to timber buildings. First, an in-depth review of the DBD methods is presented, focusing in particular on the direct, modal and N2 methods. Then, paper presents DBD application on a wide range of construction systems, including both traditional light-frame structures as well as the emerging sector of tall and hybrid timber buildings. Finally, potentials of using these DBD methods for seismic design as well as possible implications of including DBD within the next generation of building codes are discussed.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Floor Diaphragms in Multi-Storey Timber Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue71
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Author
Moroder, Daniel
Organization
University of Canterbury
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
New Zealand
Format
Thesis
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Keywords
Diaphragms
Lateral Loads
Multi-Storey
Equivalent Truss Method
Pres-Lam
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This thesis studies the behaviour of diaphragms in multi-storey timber buildings by providing methods for the estimation of the diaphragm force demand, developing an Equivalent Truss Method for the analysis of timber diaphragms, and experimentally investigating the effects of displacement incompatibilities between the diaphragm and the lateral load resisting system and developing methods for their mitigation. Although shortcomings in the estimation of force demand, and in the analysis and design of concrete floor diaphragms have already been partially addressed by other researchers, the behaviour of diaphragms in modern multi-storey timber buildings in general, and in low damage Pres-Lam buildings (consisting of post-tensioned timber members) in particular is still unknown. The analysis of light timber framing and massive timber diaphragms can be successfully analysed with an Equivalent Truss Method, which is calibrated by accounting for the panel shear and fastener stiffnesses. Finally, displacement incompatibilities in frame and wall structures can be accommodated by the flexibilities of the diaphragm panels and relative connections. A design recommendations chapter summarizes all findings and allows a designer to estimate diaphragm forces, to analyse the force path in timber diaphragms and to detail the connections to allow for displacement incompatibilities in multi-storey timber buildings.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

An Equivalent Truss Method for the Analysis of Timber Diaphragms

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue112
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Design and Systems
Mechanical Properties
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Author
Moroder, Daniel
Smith, Tobias
Pampanin, Stefano
Buchanan, Andrew
Year of Publication
2015
Country of Publication
Australia
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Topic
Design and Systems
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Diaphragms
Equivalent Truss Method
Fasteners
Forces
Deflection
Torsion
Language
English
Conference
Pacific Conference on Earthquake Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
November 6-8, 2015, Sydney, Australia
Summary
Recent years have seen more architects and clients asking for tall timber buildings. In response, an ambitious timber community has been proposing challenging plans and ideas for multi-storey commercial and residential timber buildings. While engineers have been intensively looking at gravity-load-carrying elements as well as walls, frames and cores to resist lateral loads, floor diaphragms have been largely neglected. Complex floor geometries and long span floor diaphragms create stress concentrations, high force demand and potentially large deformations. There is a lack of guidance and regulation regarding the analysis and design of timber diaphragms so structural engineers need a practical alternative to simplistic equivalent deep beam analysis or costly finite element modelling. This paper proposes an equivalent truss method capable of solving complex geometries for both light timber framing and massive timber diaphragms. Floor panels are discretized by equivalent diagonals, having the same stiffness as the panel including its fasteners. With this method the panel unit shear forces (shear flow) and therefore fastener demand, chord forces and reaction forces can be evaluated. Because panel stiffness is accounted for, diaphragm deflection, torsional effects and transfer forces can also be assessed.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Design Example: Wood Diaphragm Using Envelope Method

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2613
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Shear Walls
Author
Neylon, B.
Wang, Jasmine
Ni, Chun
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2013
Format
Report
Material
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Shear Walls
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Shear
Diaphragm
Low-Rise
Commercial
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This building is a typical one-storey commercial building located in Vancouver, BC. The plan dimensions are 30.5 m x 12.2 m (100’ x 40’), with a building height of 5 m. The walls are wood-based shear walls, with a wood diaphragm roof and a steel moment frame at the storefront. The roof plan is shown in Figure 1. The site is Seismic Class ‘C’. Wind, snow and seismic figures specific to the project location are taken from the current version of the British Columbia Building Code (2012). Roof dead load is assumed to be 1.0 kPa and the wall weight is 0.5 kPa. The weight of non-structural items including mechanical equipment and the storefront façade has not been included in this example for simplicity.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Potential for Design Optimisation of a Six-Storey Lightframe Wood Building Using Linear Dynamic Analysis

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1661
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Design and Systems
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Shear Walls
Author
Tremblay-Auclair, Jean-Philippe
Salenikovich, Alexander
Frenette, Caroline
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Shear Walls
Topic
Mechanical Properties
Design and Systems
Keywords
Canada
Braced Frame Model
Linear Dynamic Analysis
Mid-Rise
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 3649-3656
Summary
Recently, Canadian building regulations have allowed construction of light-frame wood buildings up to six storeys. Even though equivalent static force procedure (ESFP) is generally used for the seismic design of such buildings, in cases of irregular structures and in high seismic zones a linear dynamic analysis (LDA) is required by the code. However, commercial software has not yet been adapted to the dynamic analysis of this type of structures. In this paper, a design procedure for light-frame wood shear walls using a braced frame model and LDA is proposed and the potential for design optimisation is presented for a six-storey light-frame wood building located in Quebec City in the Eastern Canada. Comparisons between the proposed LDA procedure and ESFP based on the shear distribution, overturning moments, interstorey drifts and total inelastic deflections are shown. Structural advantages of using the proposed LDA are demonstrated.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Seismic Design of Mixed CLT/Light-Frame Multi-Storey Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1666
Year of Publication
2016
Topic
Seismic
Mechanical Properties
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Shear Walls
Author
Follesa, Maurizio
Fragiacomo, Massimo
Year of Publication
2016
Country of Publication
Austria
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Shear Walls
Topic
Seismic
Mechanical Properties
Keywords
Multi-Storey
Q Factor
Eurocode 8
Nonlinear Time History Analysis
Dynamic Analysis
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 22-25, 2016, Vienna, Austria p. 3750-3759
Summary
This paper presents a study on the seismic design of hybrid multi-storey wood buildings made of CLT and Light-Frame shear walls acting at the same level. Within the framework of the force-based method, the aim of this study is to propose a simple formulation in order to establish the value of the q-factor of the hybrid system which could be also implemented in seismic design codes such as Eurocode 8. This was achieved by analysing the results of nonlinear dynamic (time-history) analyses performed on a four storey case-study building with different combinations of CLT and Light-Frame shear walls.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Guide for Designing Energy-Efficient Building Enclosures for Wood-Frame Multi-Unit Residential Buildings in Marine to Cold Climate Zones in North America

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2620
Year of Publication
2013
Topic
Energy Performance
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Walls
Author
Finch, Graham
Wang, J.
Ricketts, D.
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2013
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Book/Guide
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Walls
Topic
Energy Performance
Design and Systems
Keywords
Thermal Performance
Multi-Family
Residential Buildings
Energy Efficiency
Building Code
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The Guide for Designing Energy-Efficient Building Enclosures for Wood-Frame Multi-Unit Residential Buildings in Marine to Cold Climate Zones in North America was developed by FPInnovations in collaboration with RDH Building Engineering Ltd., the Homeowner Protection Office, Branch of BC Housing, and the Canadian Wood Council. The project is part of efforts within the Advanced Building Systems Program of FPInnovations to assemble and add to the knowledge base regarding Canadian wood products and building systems. The team of the Advanced Building Systems Program works with members and partners of FPInnovations to address critical technical issues that threaten existing markets for wood products or which limit expansion or access to such new markets. This guide was developed in response to the rapidly changing energy-efficiency requirements for buildings across Canada and the United States. This guide serves two major objectives: To assist architects, engineers, designers and builders in improving the thermal performance of building enclosures of wood multi-unit residential buildings (MURBs), in response to the increasingly stringent requirements for the energy efficiency of buildings in the marine to cold climate zones in North America (U.S. DOE/ASHRAE and NECB Climate Zones 5 through 7 and parts of Zone 4); To advance MURB design practices, construction practices, and material use based on best knowledge, in order to ensure the durable performance of wood-frame building enclosures that are insulated to higher levels than traditional wood-frame construction. The major requirements for thermal performance of building enclosures are summarized (up to February 2013), including those for the following codes and standards: 2011 National Energy Code of Canada for Buildings (2011 NECB); 2013 interim update of the 2010 National Building Code of Canada (2010 NBC, Section 9.36–Energy Efficiency); 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (2012 IECC); American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1– Energy Standard for Buildings Except Low-Rise Residential Buildings (2004, 2007, and 2010 versions). In addition to meeting the requirements of the various building codes and standards, a building may need to incorporate construction practices that reflect local preferences in material use, design and construction. Regional climate differences will also affect design solutions. This guide primarily addresses above-grade walls, below-grade walls and roofs of platform wood-frame construction. It also includes information regarding thermal performance of cross-laminated timber (CLT) assemblies as well as the use of non-bearing wood-frame exterior walls (infill walls) in wood post-and-beam and concrete structures. Examples of thermal resistance calculations, building assemblies, critical interface detailing, and appropriate material selection are provided to help guide designers and builders meet the requirements of the various energy-efficiency codes and standards, achieve above-code performance, and ensure long-term durability. This guide builds on the fundamentals of building science and on information contained within the Building Enclosure Design Guide: Wood-Frame Multi-Unit Residential Buildings, published by the Homeowner Protection Office, Branch of BC Housing. This guide is based on the best current knowledge and future updates are anticipated. The guide is not intended to be a substitute for professional advice that considers specific building parameters.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

Observed Performance of Soft-Story Woodframe Building Retrofitted with CLT Rocking Walls

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1002
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
van de Lindt, John
Bahmani, Pouria
Mochizuki, Gary
Gershfeld, Mikhail
Iqbal, Asif
Year of Publication
2014
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Conference Paper
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Seismic
Keywords
Soft-Story
Retrofit
Shake Table Tests
Seismic Resistance
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 10-14, 2014, Quebec City, Canada
Summary
Many of the woodframe buildings in United States, particularly along the pacific coast, have more than one story with the first floor used either for parking or commercial space which require large openings and few partition walls at that level. This open space condition results in the earthquake resistance of the first story being significantly lower than the upper stories thus creating first stories that are both “weak” (low strength) and “soft” (low stiffness) in nature. This feature has the potential to allow formation of the soft first story mechanism during earthquakes. The United States National Science Foundation (NSF) – funded NEES-Soft project has been undertaken to develop and validate economical retrofit concepts for these types of buildings. Shake table tests on a four-story full scale model building were performed with different retrofit schemes as part of the experimental investigation. One of the retrofit measures investigated was addition of cross laminated timber rocking walls at the first floor level for increased seismic resistance. This paper focuses on the experimental performance of soft-story buildings retrofitted with cross laminated timber rocking walls. Moderate damage was observed at the first story level of the building while theupper three stories exhibited very little signs of distress. The focus of this paper is to establish correlation between the observed damage and drift. The Cross laminated timber (CLT) rocking walls were designed as per FEMA P-807 guidelines to satisfy the San Francisco mandatory softstory retrofit ordinance requirements. The tests confirmed the efficiency of CLT retrofit with expected levels of drifts throughout the structure.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
Less detail

10 records – page 1 of 1.