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Directives and Explanatory Guide for Mass Timber Buildings of up to 12 Storeys

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1969
Year of Publication
2015
Topic
Design and Systems
Fire
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
OSL (Oriented Strand Lumber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Veilleux, Lise
Gagnon, Sylvain
Dagenais, Christian
Publisher
Régie du bâtiment du Québec
Year of Publication
2015
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Book/Guide
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
OSL (Oriented Strand Lumber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Fire
Seismic
Keywords
Tall Wood
Multi-Storey
Construction
Fire Resistance Rating
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
ISBN
978-2-550-74728-4 (printed); 978-2-550-74731-4 (PDF)
Summary
This document is a translation of the “Bâtiments de construction massive en bois d’au plus 12 étages” Guide published in August 2015. In the event of discrepancies, the French version prevails.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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The Case for Tall Wood Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue835
Edition
Second
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
General Information
Cost
Environmental Impact
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Organization
Michael Green Architecture
Edition
Second
Year of Publication
2017
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Book/Guide
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
General Information
Cost
Environmental Impact
Design and Systems
Keywords
FFTT
Tall Wood
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The report describes a new structural system in wood that is the first significant challenger to concrete and steel structures since their inception in tall building design more than a century ago. The introduction of these ideas is fundamentally driven by the need to find safe, carbon-neutral and sustainable alternatives to the incumbent structural materials of the urban world. The market for these ideas is quite simply enormous. The proposed solutions have significant capacity to revolutionize the building industry to address the major challenges of climate change, urbanization, sustainable development and world housing needs.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Development of a Wooden Adaptive Architectural System: A Design-Build Approach

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue486
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Potvin, André
Demers, Claude
DuMontier, Cédric
Year of Publication
2014
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Conference Paper
Material
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Computer Numerically Controlled
Manufacturing
Prefabrication
Language
English
Conference
World Conference on Timber Engineering
Research Status
Complete
Notes
August 10-14, 2014, Quebec City, Canada
Summary
The design-build of a Wooden Adaptive Architectural System is part of a larger research-creation project on Adaptive Architecture (AA) [1] exploring the entire design process leading to a fully adaptable three story high 1:3/4 wooden structure. This system allows the easy manoeuvrability by the occupants of walls and floors in x, y and z directions in order to adapt the space to their environmental and functional needs. The omnidirectional mobility criteria challenged conventional building techniques and led to an innovative all-wood rigid node. Extensive prototyping using digital fabrication allowed the team to optimize the node assemblage and precision through parametric experimentation before proper production. The Wooden Adaptive Architectural System, made of 2000 prefabricated sticks measuring as little as 1 ¾” x 1 ¾” x 24” provides fully adaptive space configurations and be easily deconstructed, transported, and reassembled in totally new building shapes.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Wood Design Manual 2017

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2160
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Design and Systems
Connections
Fire
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
NLT (Nail-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
Light Frame (Lumber+Panels)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Application
Beams
Bridges and Spans
Columns
Floors
Ceilings
Arches
Shear Walls
Trusses
Walls

Advanced Wood-Based Solutions for Mid-Rise and High-Rise Construction: Structural Performance of Post-Tensioned CLT Shear Walls with Energy Dissipators

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1472
Year of Publication
2018
Topic
Design and Systems
Mechanical Properties
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
Application
Shear Walls
Author
Chen, Zhiyong
Popovski, Marjan
Symons, Paul
Organization
FPInnovations
Year of Publication
2018
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
Application
Shear Walls
Topic
Design and Systems
Mechanical Properties
Seismic
Keywords
Compression Tests
Compression Strength
Energy Dissipation
Post-Tensioned
Pres-Lam
Monotonic Loading
Reverse Cyclic Loading
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The latest developments in seismic design philosophy have been geared towards developing of so called "resilient" or "low damage" innovative structural systems that can reduce damage to the structure while offering the same or higher levels of safety to occupants. One such innovative structural system is the Pres-Lam system that is a wood-hybrid system that utilizes post-tensioned (PT) mass timber components in both rigid-frame and wall-based buildings along with various types of energy disspators. To help implement the Pres-Lam system in Canada and the US, information about the system performance made with North American engineered wood products is needed. That information can later be used to develop design guidelines for the designers for wider acceptance of the system by the design community.Several components influence the performance of the Pres-Lam systems: the load-deformation properties of the engineered wood products under compression, load-deformation and energy dissipation properties of the dissipators used, placement of the dissipators in the system, and the level of post-tensioning force. The influence of all these components on the performance of Pres-Lam wall systems under gravity and lateral loads was investigated in this research project. The research project consisted of two main parts: material tests and system tests.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Use of Sustainable Wood Building Materials in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Slovenia and Sweden

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue836
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Design and Systems
Environmental Impact
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Obucina, Murco
Kuzman, Manja
Sandberg, Dick
Organization
University of Sarajevo
Year of Publication
2017
Country of Publication
Bosnia & Herzegovina
Format
Book/Guide
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
DLT (Dowel Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
PSL (Parallel Strand Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Environmental Impact
Keywords
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Building Materials
Construction
Prefabrication
Slovenia
Sustainable
Sweden
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
Bosnia and Herzegovina is the most forested country in the Balkan area, and Sweden and Slovenia are two of the most densely forested countries in the European Union. Living habits differ considerably between these three countries, but the use of wood is very similar. This book grew out of the collaboration of three wood scientists with totally different backgrounds who met and discussed their common interest – wood. Based on the different experiences in each country, the idea was to try to find ways to increase the common knowledge base for the use of wood, achieving excellence in timber design research and education; the architect with a deep knowledge of culture based needs, the engineer with experience and knowledge of technological needs, and the practitioner who always has to find the final solution.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Lateral Load-Resisting System Using Mass Timber Panel for High-Rise Buildings

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue1221
Year of Publication
2017
Topic
Seismic
Wind
Design and Systems
Material
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
Application
Shear Walls
Hybrid Building Systems
Author
Chen, Zhiyong
Chui, Ying-hei
Publisher
Frontiers Media
Year of Publication
2017
Country of Publication
Switzerland
Format
Journal Article
Material
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
Application
Shear Walls
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Seismic
Wind
Design and Systems
Keywords
Lateral Load Resisting System
High-Rise
Dowel-Type Connections
FE model
Linear Static Analysis
Non-linear Dynamic Analysis
Timber-Steel Hybrid
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Frontiers in Built Environment
Summary
As global interest in using engineered wood products in tall buildings intensifies due to the “green” credential of wood, it is expected that more tall wood buildings will be designed and constructed in the coming years. This, however, brings new challenges to the designers. One of the major challenges is how to design lateral load-resisting systems (LLRSs) with sufficient stiffness, strength, and ductility to resist strong wind and earthquakes. In this study, an LLRS using mass timber panel on a stiff podium was developed for high-rise buildings in accordance with capacity-based design principle. The LLRS comprises eight shear walls with a core in the center of the building, which was constructed with structural composite lumber and connected with dowel-type connections and wood–steel composite system. The main energy dissipating mechanism of the LLRS was detailed to be located at the panel-to-panel interface. This LLRS was implemented in the design of a hypothetical 20-storey building. A finite element (FE) model of the building was developed using general-purpose FE software, ABAQUS. The wind-induced and seismic response of the building model was investigated by performing linear static and non-linear dynamic analyses. The analysis results showed that the proposed LLRS using mass timber was suitable for high-rise buildings. This study provided a valuable insight into the structural performance of LLRS constructed with mass timber panels as a viable option to steel and concrete for high-rise buildings.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Dynamic Analysis of the FFTT System

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue138
Year of Publication
2014
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Author
Fairhurst, Michael
Organization
University of British Columbia
Year of Publication
2014
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Thesis
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
Application
Wood Building Systems
Topic
Design and Systems
Seismic
Keywords
FFTT
Finite Element Model
High-Rise
Lateral Loads
Mid-Rise
Multi-Storey
National Building Code of Canada
Timber-Steel Hybrid
Tall Wood
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
The advantages of using timber as the primary construction material in mid- and high-rise buildings are undisputed. Timber is sustainable, renewable, and has a very good strength-toweight ratio, which makes it an efficient building material. However, perceived shortcomings with respect to its ductility and system level behavior; along with lack of appropriate design guidance currently limits the use of timber in taller structures. Overcoming these obstacles will allow timber, and its wood product derivatives, to further expand into the multi-storey construction sector - most likely in hybrid-type structures. The -Finding the Forest Through the Trees (FFTT) system is an innovative timber-steel hybrid system that may allow high-rise timber construction, even in highly seismic regions. The FFTT system utilizes engineered timber products to resist gravity and lateral loads with interconnecting steel members to provide the necessary ductility and predictability for seismic demands. For a novel hybrid system, such as the FFTT, to gain recognition, experimental data must be gathered and supported by computational modeling and analysis in order to prove its component- and system-level performance. This thesis presents research utilizing nonlinear dynamic analysis of finite element (FE) models of the FFTT system, with properties calibrated to physical component tests, to capture the response under significant wind and seismic loads. From the results presented herein, it appears that the FFTT system can meet the design performance requirements required for seismic loading; however, due to its relatively low weight, may be susceptible to wind induced vibrations. All results are based on Vancouver, BC loading as specified by 2010 the National Building Code of Canada.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Static and Dynamic Performance of Direct Hybrid Connections of Cross-Laminated Timber with Steel, Concrete and Laminated Strand Lumber Composites

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2697
Year of Publication
2020
Topic
Connections
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Author
Carrero, Tulio
Montaño, Jairo
Santa-María, Hernán
Guindos, Pablo
Publisher
SciELO
Year of Publication
2020
Format
Journal Article
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
Application
Hybrid Building Systems
Topic
Connections
Keywords
Hybrid Connection
Structural Connection
Composite Connection
Steel
Concrete
Monotonic
Cyclic
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Series
Latin American Journal of Solids and Structures
Summary
Hybrid multistory buildings are every day more common in the construction industry. However, there is little understanding of the performance of the hybrid connections. In this research, the static and dynamic response of cross-laminated timber (CLT) composites combined with reinforced concrete (RC), hollow steel profiles and laminated strand lumber (LSL) has been investigated. In addition, the effects of posttensioning stresses as well as distinct types of connectors such as nails, self-tapping screws and self-tapping dowels has been accounted for. After experimental work, numerical modelling for simulating the static and dynamic behavior for these hybrid connections was also investigated. Results indicate that such massive timber composite connections behave reasonably similar to conventional timber connections, except in that inelastic deformations may increase up to 200%. In addition, it has been found that existing hysteretic models like the modified Stewart hysteretic model (MSTEW) fit for modelling purposes except that very asymmetric hysteretic behavior can be found for timber-concrete hybrid connections.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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Developing a Large Span Timber-based Composite Floor System for Highrise Office Buildings Phase I

https://research.thinkwood.com/en/permalink/catalogue2803
Year of Publication
2021
Topic
Design and Systems
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Author
Zhang, Chao
Lee, George
Lam, Frank
Organization
University of British Columbia
Year of Publication
2021
Country of Publication
Canada
Format
Report
Material
CLT (Cross-Laminated Timber)
LVL (Laminated Veneer Lumber)
LSL (Laminated Strand Lumber)
Glulam (Glue-Laminated Timber)
Application
Floors
Topic
Design and Systems
Keywords
Box Girder
Timber Composite Floor
Span
High-Rise
Tall Wood Buildings
Stiffness
Composite Action
Language
English
Research Status
Complete
Summary
This project proposes a timber-based composite floor that can span 12 m and be used in the construction of 40+ story office buildings. This floor system integrates timber panels and timber beams to form a continuous box girder structure. The timber panels function as the flanges and the timber beams as the web. The beams are spaced and connected to the flange panels so that sufficient bending stiffness of a 12 m span can be achieved via the development of composite action. The current phase of this project studied the performance of the connections between timber elements in the proposed composite member. Six types of connections using different flange material and connection techniques were tested: Cross Laminated Timber (CLT), Laminated Strand Lumber (LSL), Laminated Veneer Lumber (LVL), and Post Laminated Veneer Lumber (PLVL). Glulam was used as the web. The majority of the connections used self-tapping wood screws except one had notches. The load-carrying capacity, stiffness, and ductility of the connections were measured. The stiffness of CLT, LSL, and PLVL connections was in the same range, 19-20 kN/mm per screw. Amongst the three, LSL had the highest peak load and PLVL had the highest proportional limit. The stiffness of the two LVL screw connections was around 13 kN/mm. The notched LVL connection had significantly higher stiffness than the rest, and its peak load was in the same range as LSL, but the failure was brittle. LVL was used to manufacture the full scale timber composite floor element. With a spacing of 400 mm, the overall stiffness reached 33689 N
mm2×109, which was 2.5 times the combined stiffness of two Glulam beams. The predicted overall stiffness based on Gamma method was within 5% of the tested value, and the estimated degree of composite action was 68%. From both the test results and analytical modeling, the number of screws may be further reduced to 50% or less of the current amount, while maintaining a high level of stiffness. Future work includes testing the composite floor under different screw spacings, investigating the effect of concrete topping, and the connections between floor members and other structural elements.
Online Access
Free
Resource Link
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10 records – page 1 of 1.